Central Asia :: Russia

Introduction ::Russia

    Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state in which the leadership seeks to legitimize its rule through managed national elections, populist appeals by President PUTIN, and continued economic growth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Geography ::Russia

    North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean
    60 00 N, 100 00 E
    total: 17,098,242 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 1
    land: 16,377,742 sq km
    water: 720,500 sq km
    approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
    total: 20,241.5 km
    border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 17.5 km, Latvia 292 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 196 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine 1,576 km
    37,653 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
    broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
    lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
    highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m (highest point in Europe)
    wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber
    note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
    arable land: 7.11%
    permanent crops: 0.1%
    other: 92.79% (2011)
    43,460 sq km (2008)
    4,508 cu km (2011)
    total: 66.2 cu km/yr (20%/60%/20%)
    per capita: 454.9 cu m/yr (2001)
    permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia
    volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, have been deemed "Decade Volcanoes" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky
    air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
    largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh water

People and Society ::Russia

    noun: Russian(s)
    adjective: Russian
    Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census)
    Russian (official), many minority languages
    Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)
    note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule
    142,500,482 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    0-14 years: 16% (male 11,740,877/female 11,119,318)
    15-24 years: 11.5% (male 8,401,971/female 8,045,363)
    25-54 years: 45.9% (male 31,945,797/female 33,417,073)
    55-64 years: 13.5% (male 8,177,300/female 11,009,712)
    65 years and over: 13.1% (male 5,687,515/female 12,955,556) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 40.5 %
    youth dependency ratio: 22.2 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 18.3 %
    potential support ratio: 5.5 (2013)
    total: 38.8 years
    male: 35.8 years
    female: 41.8 years (2013 est.)
    -0.02% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    12.11 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    13.97 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    urban population: 73.8% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 0.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MOSCOW (capital) 10.523 million; Saint Petersburg 4.575 million; Novosibirsk 1.397 million; Yekaterinburg 1.344 million; Nizhniy Novgorod 1.267 million (2009)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.74 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    34 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    total: 7.19 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 161
    male: 8.04 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 6.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 69.85 years
    country comparison to the world: 152
    male: 64.04 years
    female: 76.02 years (2013 est.)
    1.61 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    79.5%
    note: percent of women under age 50 (2007)
    5.1% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    4.31 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
    9.66 beds/1,000 population (2006)
    improved:
    urban: 99% of population
    rural: 92% of population
    total: 97% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1% of population
    rural: 8% of population
    total: 3% of population (2010 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 74% of population
    rural: 59% of population
    total: 70% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 26% of population
    rural: 41% of population
    total: 30% of population (2010 est.)
    1% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    980,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    NA
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
    vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    26.5% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    4.1% of GDP (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.7%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 99.6% (2010 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 15 years (2009)
    total: 15.5%
    country comparison to the world: 83
    male: 15.3%
    female: 15.7% (2011)

Government ::Russia

    conventional long form: Russian Federation
    conventional short form: Russia
    local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
    local short form: Rossiya
    former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
    federation
    name: Moscow
    geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 36 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr; note - Russia has announced that it will remain on daylight saving time permanently, which began on 27 March 2011
    note: Russia is divided into 9 time zones
    46 provinces (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')
    oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'
    republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)
    autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)
    krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk (Chita)
    federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg]
    autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
    24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)
    Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
    adopted 12 December 1993
    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
    head of government: Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013)
    cabinet: the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers; all are appointed by the president, and the premier is also confirmed by the Duma
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018); note - the term length was extended from four to six years in late 2008 and went into effect after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
    election results: Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV approved as premier by Duma 299 to 144
    bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of an upper house, the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (166 seats; members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 83 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; members to serve four-year terms) and a lower house, the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of 2007, all members elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
    elections: State Duma - last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2015)
    election results: State Duma - United Russia 49.6%, CPRF 19.2%, Just Russia 13.2%, LDPR 11.7%, other 6.3%; total seats by party - United Russia 238, CPRF 92, Just Russia 64, LDPR 56
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of 23 members); Constitutional Court (consists of 19 members); Superior Court of Arbitration (consists of a chairman and 4 deputy chairmen
    judge selection and term of office: all members of Russia's three highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all three courts appointed for life
    subordinate courts: Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts; note - the 14 Russian Republics have court systems specified by their own constitutions
    A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]
    Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]
    Right Cause [Andrey DUNAYEV]
    Rodina [Aleksey ZHURAVLEV]
    United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]
    Yabloko Party [Sergey MITROKHIN]
    Association of Citizens with Initiative of Russia (TIGR)
    Confederation of Labor of Russia (KTR)
    Federation of Independent Labor Unions of Russia
    Freedom of Choice Interregional Organization of Automobilists
    Glasnost Defense Foundation
    Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights
    Greenpeace Russia
    Human Rights Watch (Russian chapter)
    Institute for Collective Action
    Memorial (human rights group)
    Movement Against Illegal Migration
    Pamjat (preservation of historical monuments and recording of history)
    PARNAS
    Russian Orthodox Church
    Russian Federation of Car Owners
    Russian-Chechen Friendship Society
    Solidarnost
    SOVA Analytical-Information Center
    Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers
    World Wildlife Fund (Russian chapter)
    APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-8, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich KISLYAK
    chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
    FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
    chief of mission: Ambassador Michael A. MCFAUL
    embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
    mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721
    telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000
    FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090
    consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
    note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors
    bear; double-headed eagle
    name: "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)

    lyrics/music: Sergei Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Alexandr Vasilievich ALEXANDROV
    note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943

Economy ::Russia

    Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy to a more market-based and globally-integrated economy. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference. In 2011, Russia became the world's leading oil producer, surpassing Saudi Arabia; Russia is the second-largest producer of natural gas; Russia holds the world's largest natural gas reserves, the second-largest coal reserves, and the eighth-largest crude oil reserves. Russia is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia's reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The government since 2007 has embarked on an ambitious program to reduce this dependency and build up the country's high technology sectors, but with few visible results so far. The economy had averaged 7% growth in the decade following the 1998 Russian financial crisis, resulting in a doubling of real disposable incomes and the emergence of a middle class. The Russian economy, however, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up. According to the World Bank the government's anti-crisis package in 2008-09 amounted to roughly 6.7% of GDP. The economic decline bottomed out in mid-2009 and the economy began to grow again in the third quarter of 2009. High oil prices buoyed Russian growth in 2011-12 and helped Russia reduce the budget deficit inherited from 2008-09. Russia has reduced unemployment to a record low and has lowered inflation below double digit rates. Russia joined the World Trade Organization in 2012, which will reduce trade barriers in Russia for foreign goods and services and help open foreign markets to Russian goods and services. At the same time, Russia has sought to cement economic ties with countries in the former Soviet space through a Customs Union with Belarus and Kazakhstan, and, in the next several years, through the creation of a new Russia-led economic bloc called the Eurasian Economic Union. Russia has had difficulty attracting foreign direct investment and has experienced large capital outflows in the past several years, leading to official programs to improve Russia's international rankings for its investment climate. Russia's adoption of a new oil-price-based fiscal rule in 2012 and a more flexible exchange rate policy have improved its ability to deal with external shocks, including volatile oil prices. Russia's long-term challenges also include a shrinking workforce, rampant corruption, and underinvestment in infrastructure.
    $2.555 trillion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    $2.471 trillion (2011 est.)
    $2.369 trillion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $2.022 trillion (2012 est.)
    3.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    4.3% (2011 est.)
    4.5% (2010 est.)
    $18,000 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $17,300 (2011 est.)
    $16,600 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    30% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    30.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
    27.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 49.2%
    government consumption: 18.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 22%
    investment in inventories: 2.6%
    exports of goods and services: 29.7%
    imports of goods and services: -22.1%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 3.9%
    industry: 36%
    services: 60.1% (2012 est.)
    grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
    complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, and advanced electronic components, shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
    3.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    75.24 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    agriculture: 7.9%
    industry: 27.4%
    services: 64.7% (2011)
    5.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    6.6% (2011 est.)
    12.7% (2011)
    lowest 10%: 5.7%
    highest 10%: 42.4% (2011 est.)
    41.7 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    39.9 (2001)
    revenues: $416.8 billion
    expenditures: $418 billion (2012 est.)
    20.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    -0.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    7.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    8.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    calendar year
    5.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    8.4% (2011 est.)
    8.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    8% (31 December 2011)
    note: this is the so-called refinancing rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference rate used primarily for fiscal purposes
    9.1% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    8.45% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $452.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    $399.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.061 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    $893.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $922.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    $702.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $845.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    $796.4 billion (31 December 2011)
    $1.005 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $81.3 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    $98.8 billion (2011 est.)
    $529.6 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    $519.9 billion (2011 est.)
    petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
    Netherlands 14.4%, China 6.4%, Italy 5.3%, Germany 4.5% (2012)
    $334.7 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $321.9 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel
    China 15.5%, Germany 9.5%, Ukraine 5.5% (2012)
    $537.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    $498.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $631.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    $543 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $502.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    $457.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $413.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $362.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -
    30.84 (2012 est.)
    29.382 (2011 est.)
    30.368 (2010 est.)
    31.74 (2009)
    24.853 (2008)

Energy ::Russia

Communications ::Russia

    44.152 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    236.7 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to more than 235 million in 2011; fixed line service has improved but a large demand remains
    domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density
    international: country code - 7; Russia is connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2011)
    6 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in a third national channel; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while the sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations (2007)
    .ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out
    14.865 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    40.853 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 10

Transportation ::Russia

    1,218 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    total: 594
    over 3,047 m: 54
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 197
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
    914 to 1,523 m: 95
    under 914 m: 125 (2013)
    total: 624
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 69
    914 to 1,523 m: 81
    under 914 m:
    457 (2013)
    49 (2013)
    condensate 122 km; gas 163,872 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,378 km; oil 80,820 km; oil/gas/water 40 km; refined products 13,658 km; water 23 km (2013)
    total: 87,157 km
    country comparison to the world: 2
    broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)
    note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2006)
    total: 982,000 km
    country comparison to the world: 8
    paved: 776,000 km (includes 30,000 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 206,000 km
    note: includes public, local, and departmental roads (2009)
    102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000 km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    total: 1,143
    country comparison to the world: 11
    by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 642, carrier 3, chemical tanker 57, combination ore/oil 42, container 13, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 84, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 3
    foreign-owned: 155 (Belgium 4, Cyprus 13, Estonia 1, Ireland 1, Italy 14, Latvia 2, Netherlands 2, Romania 1, South Korea 1, Switzerland 3, Turkey 101, Ukraine 12)
    registered in other countries: 439 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belgium 1, Belize 30, Bulgaria 2, Cambodia 50, Comoros 12, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 46, Dominica 3, Georgia 6, Hong Kong 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 109, Malaysia 2, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 5, Moldova 5, Mongolia 2, Panama 49, Romania 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 2, Spain 6, Vanuatu 7, unknown 19) (2010)
    Kaliningrad, Kavkaz, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Saint Petersburg, Vostochnyy

Military ::Russia

    Ground Forces (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushniye Sily, VVS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye Voyska, VDV), Strategic Rocket Forces (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN), and Aerospace Defense Troops (Voyska Vozdushno-Kosmicheskoy Oborony or Voyska VKO) are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches; Russian Ground Forces include the following combat arms: motorized-rifle troops, tank troops, missile and artillery troops, air defense of the ground troops (2012)
    18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; service obligation is 1 year (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months of training); reserve obligation to age 50; enrollment in military schools from the age of 16, cadets classified as members of the armed forces
    note: the chief of the General Staff Mobilization Directorate announced in March 2009 that for health reasons, only 65% of draftees in 2008 were fit for military service, and over half of these had health-induced restrictions on deployment; the deputy chief of the Russian Army General Staff confirmed in May 2011 that over 30% of potential conscripts were turned down on health grounds; 61% of draft-age Russian males receive some type of deferment each draft cycle (2012)
    males age 16-49: 34,132,156
    females age 16-49: 34,985,115 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 20,431,035
    females age 16-49: 26,381,518 (2010 est.)
    male: 693,843
    female: 660,359 (2010 est.)
    3.9% of GDP (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 25

Transnational Issues ::Russia

    Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission
    IDPs: 8,500-28,450 (displacement from Chechnya and North Ossetia-Alania) (2011)
    stateless persons: 178,000 (2012); note - Russia's stateless population consists of Roma, Meskhetian Turks, and ex-Soviet citizens from the former republics; between 2003 and 2010 more than 600,000 stateless people were naturalized; most Meskhetian Turks, followers of Islam with origins in Georgia, fled or were evacuated from Uzbekistan after a 1989 pogrom and have lived in Russia for more than the required five-year residency period; they continue to be denied registration for citizenship and basic rights by local Krasnodar Krai authorities on the grounds that they are temporary illegal migrants
    current situation: Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking, although labor trafficking is the predominant problem; people from Russia and other countries in Europe, Central Asia, and Asia, including Vietnam and North Korea, are subjected to conditions of forced labor in Russia's construction, manufacturing, agriculture, repair shop, and domestic services industries, as well as forced begging and narcotics cultivation; North Koreans contracted under bilateral government arrangements to work in the timber industry in the Russian Far East reportedly are subjected to forced labor; Russian women and children were reported to be victims of sex trafficking in Russia, Northeast Asia, Europe, Central Asia, and the Middle East, while women from European, African, and Central Asian countries were reportedly forced into prostitution in Russia
    tier rating: Tier 3 - Russia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and because it is not deemed to be making significant efforts to do so was downgraded to Tier 3 after the maximum of two consecutive annual waivers; the number of prosecutions remains low compared to estimates of Russia's trafficking problem; the government did not develop or deploy a formal system for the identification of trafficking victims or their referral to protective services, although some victims were reportedly cared for through ad hoc efforts; the government has reported minimal efforts to identify or care for the large number of migrant workers vulnerable to labor exploitation and has not investigated allegations of slave-like conditions in North Korean-operated timber camps (2013)
    limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates