Africa :: Senegal

Introduction ::Senegal

    The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and to weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff election with Macky SALL.

Geography ::Senegal

People and Society ::Senegal

Government ::Senegal

    conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
    conventional short form: Senegal
    local long form: Republique du Senegal
    local short form: Senegal
    former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
    name: Dakar
    geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
    4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
    Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
    adopted 7 January 2001; amended many times
    civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Aminata TOURE (since 3 September 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a second round runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Macky SALL elected president; percent of votes in a runoff - Macky SALL 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE 34.2%
    unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote and 60 elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
    election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Giss Giss coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRDS 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5
    highest court(s): Highest Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of 13 judges including the court president); Constitutional Council (consists of 5 members including the court president, vice-president, and 3 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Highest Appeals Court judges' tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president of the republic to serve 6-year terms with renewal of 3 members every two years
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; regional and first instance courts
    African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]
    Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
    Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
    And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]
    Benno Bokk Yakaar coaltion [Macky SALL]
    Benno Siggil Senegal (a coalition of opposition parties)
    Bokk Giss Giss coalition [Pape DIOP]
    Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk
    Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]
    Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
    Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
    Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]
    Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]
    National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]
    Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Ahmadou Kara MBACKE]
    People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]
    Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
    Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRDS
    Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
    Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
    Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
    SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS)
    Synergy for Ethics and Transparency [Aminata TALL]
    Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
    other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
    chief of mission: Ambassador Cheikh NIANG
    chancery: 2031 Florida Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Lewis LUKENS
    embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
    mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
    telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
    FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
    name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)

    lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
    note: adopted 1960; the lyrics were written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem is sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title

Economy ::Senegal

Energy ::Senegal

Communications ::Senegal

    346,400 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    9.353 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
    domestic: above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly
    international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
    state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) operates 2 TV stations; a few private TV subscription channels rebroadcast foreign channels without providing any local news or programs; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; many community and private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2007)
    237 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    1.818 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 76

Transportation ::Senegal

Military ::Senegal

Transnational Issues ::Senegal

    The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from Senegal's Casamance region, and in 2006, respectively accepted 6,000 and 10,000 Casamance residents fleeing the conflict; 2,500 Guinea-Bissau residents fled into Senegal in 2006 to escape armed confrontations along the border
    refugees (country of origin): 13,702 (Mauritania) (2012)
    IDPs: 10,000-40,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2012)
    transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis