Europe :: Slovenia

Introduction ::Slovenia

    The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the eurozone in 2007.

Geography ::Slovenia

    south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia
    46 07 N, 14 49 E
    total: 20,273 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 155
    land: 20,151 sq km
    water: 122 sq km
    slightly smaller than New Jersey
    total: 1,086 km
    border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 455 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 199 km
    46.6 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
    a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
    lignite coal, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
    arable land: 8.31%
    permanent crops: 1.33%
    other: 90.36% (2011)
    76.04 sq km (2010)
    31.87 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.94 cu km/yr (18%/82%/0%)
    per capita: 462.9 cu m/yr (2009)
    flooding; earthquakes
    Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes

People and Society ::Slovenia

Government ::Slovenia

    conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
    conventional short form: Slovenia
    local long form: Republika Slovenija
    local short form: Slovenija
    former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
    parliamentary republic
    name: Ljubljana
    geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    200 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina)
    municipalities: Ajdovscina, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sevnica, Sezana, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Salovci, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pr
    urban municipalities: Celje, Koper-Capodistria, Kranj, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje
    25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
    Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
    adopted 23 December 1991; amended 14 July 1997 and 25 July 2000
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
    chief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Alenka BRATUSEK (since 20 March 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 November and a runoff on 2 December 2012 (next presidential election to be held in 2017); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly
    election results: Borut PAHOR elected president; percent of vote - Borut PAHOR 67.4%, Danilo TURK 32.6%; on February 27, 2013 a no-confidence vote in Parliament resulted in Alenka BRATUSEK becoming prime minister designate; BRATUSEK became prime minister (Slovenia's first female prime minister) on 20 March 2013 after her cabinet was approved
    bicameral Parliament consists of a National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve five-year terms; note - this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decision, and call national referenda) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members are elected on a proportional basis and 2 are elected by the Italian and Hungarian minorities through a majoritarian, preferential system; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in 2015)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PS 28.6%, SDS 26.2%, SD 10.5%, LGV 8.4%, DeSUS 7%, SLS 6.9%, NSi 4.8%, other 7.6%; seats by party - PS 28, SDS 26, SD 10, LGV 8, DeSUS 6, SLS 6, NSi 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into 7 departments - civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, registry, and international cooperation); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judge term NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among their own for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court
    Civic List or DL [Gregor VIRANT] (formerly LGV)
    Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]
    New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK]
    Positive Slovenia or PS [Alenka BRATUSEK (interim)]
    Slovene People's Party or SLS [Radovan ZERJAV]
    Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]
    Social Democrats or SD [Igor LUKSIC] (formerly ZLSD)
    Slovenian Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC]; various trade and public sector employee unions
    other: Catholic Church
    Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Roman KIRN
    chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
    FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
    consulate(s) general: Cleveland, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. MUSSOMELI
    embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
    mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
    telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
    FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands
    Mount Triglav
    name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast)

    lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL
    note: adopted 1989; the anthem was originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism

Economy ::Slovenia

    Slovenia became the first 2004 European Union entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced one of the most stable political and economic transitions in Central and Southeastern Europe. With the highest per capita GDP in Central Europe, Slovenia has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe. Privatization has lagged since 2002, and the economy has one of the highest levels of state control in the EU. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for somewhat greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the process for joining the OECD; it became a member in 2012. Despite its economic success, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia has lagged behind the region average, and taxes remain relatively high. Furthermore, the labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere. In 2009, the global recession caused the economy to contract - through falling exports and industrial production - by 8%, and unemployment to rise. Although growth resumed in 2010, it dipped into negative territory in 2012 and the unemployment rate continued to rise, approaching 12% in 2012.
    $58.91 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    $60.32 billion (2011 est.)
    $59.96 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $45.62 billion (2012 est.)
    -2.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    0.6% (2011 est.)
    1.2% (2010 est.)
    $28,700 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    $29,400 (2011 est.)
    $29,300 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    18.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    19.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
    20.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 58.3%
    government consumption: 20.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 17.4%
    investment in inventories: -0.3%
    exports of goods and services: 75%
    imports of goods and services: -71%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 2.7%
    industry: 27.7%
    services: 69.6% (2012 est.)
    potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
    ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
    0.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    920,200 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    agriculture: 2.2%
    industry: 35%
    services: 62.8% (2009)
    12% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    11.8% (2011 est.)
    13.6% (2011)
    lowest 10%: 3.9%
    highest 10%: 19.8% (2011)
    23.8 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    23.8 (2004)
    revenues: $20.06 billion
    expenditures: $21.86 billion (2012 est.)
    44% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    -3.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    53.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    41.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
    calendar year
    2.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    1.8% (2011 est.)
    1.5% (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    1.75% (31 December 2011)
    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
    5.73% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    5.82% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $16.03 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    $16.12 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    $26.52 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    $25.62 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $49.34 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    $48.54 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $6.326 billion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    $9.428 billion (31 December 2010)
    $11.77 billion (31 December 2009)
    $297.6 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    $2.505 million (2011 est.)
    $27.58 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $29.59 billion (2011 est.)
    manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
    Germany 20%, Italy 12%, Austria 7.9%, Croatia 6.2%, France 4.8%, Russia 4.6% (2012)
    $28.01 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $31.05 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
    Italy 16.3%, Germany 16.2%, Austria 10.4%, Croatia 4.8%, Hungary 4% (2012)
    $951.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    $991.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $53.88 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    $52.07 billion (31 December 2011)
    $17.36 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $16.71 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $9.755 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    $9.405 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7778 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
    0.7198 (2009 est.)
    0.6827 (2008 est.)

Energy ::Slovenia

Communications ::Slovenia

    872,800 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    2.168 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 150 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 386 (2011)
    public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations (2007)
    415,581 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    1.298 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 92

Transportation ::Slovenia

    16 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    total: 7
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 9
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m:
    5 (2013)
    gas 844 km; oil 5 km (2013)
    total: 1,228 km
    country comparison to the world: 84
    standard gauge: 1,228 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2007)
    total: 38,925 km
    country comparison to the world: 93
    paved: 38,925 km (includes 658 km of expressways) (2008)
    (there is some transport on the Drava River) (2012)
    registered in other countries: 24 (Cyprus 5, Liberia 7, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 90

Military ::Slovenia

Transnational Issues ::Slovenia

    since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia
    minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals