Europe :: San Marino

Introduction ::San Marino

    Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the European Union, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.

Geography ::San Marino

People and Society ::San Marino

Government ::San Marino

    conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
    conventional short form: San Marino
    local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
    local short form: San Marino
    name: San Marino
    geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
    3 September 301
    Founding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)
    8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
    civil law system with Italian civil law influences
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Antonella MULARONI and Captain Regent Denis AMICI (for the period 1 April-31 October 2013)
    head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Pasquale VALENTINI (since 5 December 2012)
    cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
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    elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Grand and General Council for a six-month term; election last held on 17 Septermber 2012 (next to be held in March 2013); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Grand and General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
    election results: Antonella MULARONI and Denis AMICI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Pasquale VALENTINI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
    note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the captains regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has nine other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are nine secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
    unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
    election results: percent of vote by party - San Marino Common Good coalition (San Marino Bene Comune) 50.7% (PDCS 29.5%, PSD 14.3%, AP 6.7%), Entente for the Country coalition (Intesa per Il Paese) 22.3% (PS 12.1%, UPR 8.4%, USDM 1.7%), Active Citizenry coalition (Cittadinanza Attiva) 16.1% (SU 9.1%, Civic 10 6.7%), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 6.3%, For San Marino 2.8%, San Marino 3.0 1.8%; seats by party - San Marino Common Good coalition 35 (PDCS 21, PSD 10, AP 4), Entente for the Country coalition 12 (PS 7, UPR 5), Active Citizenry 9 (SU 5, Civic 10 4), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 4
    highest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members)
    note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court
    judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms
    subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges
    San Marino Common Good:
    Christian Democrats or PDCS [Marco GATTI]
    Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Gerardo GIOVAGNOLI]
    Popular Alliance or AP [Stefano PALMIERI]
    Entente for the Country:
    Socialist Party or PS [Augusto CASALI]
    Union for the Republic or UPR [Giovanni LONFERNINI]
    Sammarinese Union of Moderates or USDM [Romeo MORRI and Glauco SANSOVINI]
    Active Citizenship:
    United Left or SU [Alessandro ROSSI]
    Civic 10 [Mateo CIACCI]
    Civic Movement R.E.T.E. (Network) [Grazia ZAFFERANI]
    For San Marino [Emilio DELLA BALDA]
    San Marino 3.0 [Simone DELLA VALLE]
    CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
    chancery: 1711 N Street NW, 2nd floor, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: 202-223-2418
    FAX: 202-223-2748
    the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively
    three peaks each displaying a tower
    name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)
    lyrics/music: none/Federico CONSOLO
    note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece

Economy ::San Marino

    San Marino's economy relies heavily on tourism, the banking industry and the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino's GDP. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy. The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino does not issue public debt securities; when necessary, it finances deficits by drawing down central bank deposits. San Marino''s economy has encountered five years of GDP contraction, largely due to weakened demand from Italy - which accounts for 90% of its export market - and financial sector consolidation. Difficulties in the banking sector, the recent global economic downturn, and the sizeable decline in tax revenues have contributed to negative real GDP growth. The government has adopted measures to counter the economic downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses. For the first time since 2009, there were signs of improvements in the financial sector in the third quarter of 2012. San Marino continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully adopt global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. San Marino's Government continues to work with Italy to ratify a financial information exchange agreement, seen by businesses and investors as crucial to strengthening the economic relationship between the two countries.
    $1.371 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    $1.429 billion (2011 est.)
    $1.465 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $1.855 billion (2012 est.)
    -4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    -2.5% (2011 est.)
    -7.5% (2010 est.)
    $36,200 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    $41,900 (2007)
    agriculture: 0.1%
    industry: 39.2%
    services: 60.7% (2009)
    wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
    tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
    2.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    21,830 (December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    agriculture: 0.1%
    industry: 34.4%
    services: 65.5% (2010 est.)
    7% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    5.5% (2011)
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $667.7 million
    expenditures: $694.7 million (2011)
    36% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    -1.5% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    calendar year
    2.5% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    3.1% (December 2011)
    5.92% (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    5.38% (31 December 2010 est.)
    $1.326 billion (31 December 2007)
    $4.584 billion (31 December 2007)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $8.822 billion (30 September 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    $8.008 billion (31 December 2009)
    $3.827 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $2.576 billion (2010 est.)
    building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
    $2.551 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    $2.132 billion (2010 est.)
    wide variety of consumer manufactures, food, energy
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7778 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
    0.7198 (2009 est.)
    0.6827 (2008 est.)

Communications ::San Marino

Transportation ::San Marino

    total: 292 km
    country comparison to the world: 205
    paved: 292 km (2006)

Military ::San Marino