East & Southeast Asia :: Singapore

Introduction ::Singapore

    Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but separated two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.

Geography ::Singapore

People and Society ::Singapore

Government ::Singapore

    conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
    conventional short form: Singapore
    local long form: Republic of Singapore
    local short form: Singapore
    parliamentary republic
    name: Singapore
    geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
    National Day, 9 August (1965)
    3 June 1959; amended 1965 (based on pre-independence State of Singapore constitution)
    English common law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    21 years of age; universal and compulsory
    chief of state: President Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 September 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Minister TEO Chee Hean (since 1 April 2009) and Deputy Prime Minister Tharman SHANMUGARATNAM (since 21 May 2011)
    cabinet: appointed by president, responsible to parliament
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    elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term; election last held on 27 August 2011 (next to be held by August 2017); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by president
    election results: Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president from a field of four candidates with 35.2% of the votes cast
    unicameral Parliament (87 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there are up to nine nominated members (NMP) and up to nine Non-Constituency Members of Parliament (NCMP); traditionally, members of parties that came closest to winning seats may be appointed as NCMPs; NMPs are appointed by the president to ensure that a wide range of community views are present in Parliament; NMPs are independent and non-partisan members
    elections: last held on 7 May 2011 (next to be held in May 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 60.1%, WP 12.8%, NSP 12.1%, others 15%; seats by party - PAP 81, WP 6; (seats as of February 2013 PAP 80, WP 7)
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president or chief justice and 16 justices and organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court)
    judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; justices appointed for life
    subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals
    National Solidarity Party or NSP [Hazel POA]
    People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]
    Reform Party [Kenneth JEYARETNAM]
    Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [Desmond LIM]
    Singapore Democratic Party [CHEE Soon Juan]
    Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong]
    Workers' Party or WP [LOW Thia Khiang]
    note: SDA includes Singapore Justice Party or SJP and Singapore National Malay Organization or PKMS
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ashok Kumar MIRPURI
    chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
    FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
    consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador David I. ADELMAN
    embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
    mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
    telephone: [65] 6476-9100
    FAX: [65] 6476-9340
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle; red denotes brotherhood and equality; white signifies purity and virtue; the waxing crescent moon symbolizes a young nation on the ascendancy; the five stars represent the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality
    lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature)
    name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)

    lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said
    note: adopted 1965; the anthem, which was first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, is sung only in Malay

Economy ::Singapore

    Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in consumer electronics, information technology products, pharmaceuticals, and on a growing financial services sector. Real GDP growth averaged 8.6% between 2004 and 2007. The economy contracted 0.8% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but rebounded 14.8% in 2010, on the strength of renewed exports, before slowing to 5.2% in 2011 and 1.3% in 2012, largely a result of soft demand for exports during the second European recession. Over the longer term, the government hopes to establish a new growth path that focuses on raising productivity, which has sunk to an average of about 1.0% in the last decade. Singapore has attracted major investments in pharmaceuticals and medical technology production and will continue efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub.
    $331.9 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    $327.6 billion (2011 est.)
    $311.5 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $276.5 billion (2012 est.)
    1.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    5.2% (2011 est.)
    14.8% (2010 est.)
    $61,400 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    $61,700 (2011 est.)
    $60,100 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    45.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    46.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
    48.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 39.2%
    government consumption: 9.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.1%
    investment in inventories: 2.9%
    exports of goods and services: 200.7%
    imports of goods and services: -178.5%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 0%
    industry: 26.8%
    services: 73.2% (2012 est.)
    orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish
    electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
    1.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    3.618 million
    country comparison to the world: 97
    note: excludes non-residents (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 0.1%
    industry: 19.6%
    services: 80.3%
    note: excludes non-residents (2011)
    1.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    2% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 4.4%
    highest 10%: 23.2% (2008)
    47.8 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    48.1 (2008)
    revenues: $43.44 billion
    expenditures: $37.83 billion
    note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures (2012 est.)
    15.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    111.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    106% of GDP (2011 est.)
    note: for Singapore, public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tradable; the government has not borrowed to finance deficit expenditures since the 1980s
    1 April - 31 March
    4.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    5.2% (2011 est.)
    5.38% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    5.38% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $115 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    $99.28 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $400.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $340.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $281.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    $235.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $709.4 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $569.4 billion (31 December 2011)
    $620.5 billion (31 December 2010)
    $51.44 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    $65.32 billion (2011 est.)
    $435.8 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    $434.1 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products
    Malaysia 12.2%, Hong Kong 10.9%, China 10.7%, Indonesia 10.5%, US 5.5%, Japan 4.6%, Australia 4.2%, South Korea 4% (2012)
    $374.9 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    $361.5 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods
    Malaysia 10.6%, China 10.3%, US 10.2%, South Korea 6.8%, Japan 6.2%, Indonesia 5.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%, UAE 4.1% (2012)
    $259.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    $237.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.174 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $1.088 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $454.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $517.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $300.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    $331 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar -
    1.2497 (2012 est.)
    1.258 (2011 est.)
    1.3635 (2010 est.)
    1.4545 (2009)
    1.415 (2008)

Energy ::Singapore

Communications ::Singapore

    2.017 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    7.794 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    general assessment: excellent service
    domestic: excellent domestic facilities; launched 3G wireless service in February 2005; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity more than 180 telephones per 100 persons; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity and the government is close to completing an island-wide roll out of a high-speed fiber-optic broadband network
    international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 4; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2011)
    state controls broadcast media; 8 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV service available; a total of 18 domestic radio stations broadcasting with MediaCorp operating more than a dozen and another 4 stations are closely linked to the ruling party or controlled by the Singapore Armed Forces Reservists Association; many Malaysian and Indonesian radio stations are available
    1.96 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    3.235 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 65

Transportation ::Singapore

    9 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    total: 9
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    gas 122 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
    total: 3,356 km
    country comparison to the world: 163
    paved: 3,356 km (includes 161 km of expressways) (2009)
    total: 1,599
    country comparison to the world: 6
    by type: bulk carrier 247, cargo 109, carrier 6, chemical tanker 256, container 339, liquefied gas 131, petroleum tanker 436, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 57
    foreign-owned: 966 (Australia 12, Bangladesh 1, Belgium 1, Bermuda 25, Brazil 9, Chile 6, China 29, Cyprus 6, Denmark 149, France 3, Germany 32, Greece 22, Hong Kong 46, India 21, Indonesia 60, Italy 5, Japan 164, Malaysia 27, Netherlands 1, Norway 153, Russia 2, South Africa 13, South Korea 3, Sweden 11, Switzerland 3, Taiwan 77, Thailand 33, UAE 10, UK 6, US 36)
    registered in other countries: 344 (Australia 2, Bahamas 7, Bangladesh 7, Belize 4, Cambodia 3, Cyprus 1, France 3, Honduras 11, Hong Kong 13, Indonesia 46, Italy 1, Kiribati 9, Liberia 22, Malaysia 13, Maldives 4, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 30, Mongolia 3, North Korea 1, Panama 92, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 10, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Sierra Leone 9, Thailand 1, Tuvalu 19, US 16, Vanuatu 2, unknown 5) (2010)
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift

Military ::Singapore

Transnational Issues ::Singapore

    disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
    drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering