Central Asia :: Tajikistan

Introduction ::Tajikistan

    The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. Tajikistan endured several domestic security incidents in 2010-12, including a mass prison-break from a Dushanbe detention facility, the country's first suicide car bombing in Khujand, and armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan joined NATO's Partnership for Peace in 2002, and became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013.

Geography ::Tajikistan

People and Society ::Tajikistan

Government ::Tajikistan

    conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
    conventional short form: Tajikistan
    local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
    local short form: Tojikiston
    former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
    name: Dushanbe
    geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
    note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
    9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
    6 November 1994
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
    head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 December 1999); First Deputy Prime Minister Matlubkhon DAVLATOV (since 5 January 2012)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
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    elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (technically eligible for two terms); election last held on 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
    bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; members serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members elected through constituencies, 22 members elected through party selection; members serve five-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015)
    election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 71%, IRPT 8.2%, CPT 7%, APT 5.1%, PER 5.1%, other 3.6%; seats by party - PDPT 55, IRPT 2, CPT 2, APT 2, PER 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice-president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists 16 judicial positions)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all three courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65
    subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
    Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]
    Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
    Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI]
    Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV]
    People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
    Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]
    influential religious leader Akbar TURAJONZODA
    unregistered Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON]
    unregistered opposition group Guruhi-24 (Group-24) [Umarali QUVVATOV]
    Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Nuriddin SHAMSOV
    chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
    FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
    chief of mission: Ambassador Susan M. ELLIOTT
    embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
    mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
    telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
    FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
    three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
    crown surmounted by seven, five-pointed stars
    name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)

    lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Suleiman YUDAKOV
    note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics

Economy ::Tajikistan

    Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad, almost all of them in Russia, supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. Less than 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, and its production is closely monitored, and in many cases controlled, by the government. In the wake of the National Bank of Tajikistan's admission in December 2007 that it had improperly lent money to investors in the cotton sector, the IMF canceled its program in Tajikistan. A reform agenda is underway, according to which over half a billion dollars in farmer debt has been forgiven, and IMF assistance has been reinstated. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. Electricity output expanded with the completion of the Sangtuda-1 hydropower dam - finished in 2009 with Russian investment. The smaller Sangtuda-2, built with Iranian investment, began operating in 2012. The government of Tajikistan is pinning major hopes on the massive Roghun dam which, if finished according to Tajik plans, will be the tallest dam in the world and significantly expand electricity output. The World Bank is funding two feasibility studies for the dam (technical-economic, and social-environmental), scheduled to be completed in mid-2013. In January 2010, the government began selling shares in the Roghun enterprise to its population, ultimately raising over $180 million but Tajikistan will still need significant investment to complete the dam. According to numerous reports, many Tajik individuals and businesses were forced to buy shares. The coerced share sales finally ended in mid-2010 under intense criticism from donors, particularly the IMF. Food and fuel prices in 2011 increased to the highest levels seen since 2002 due in part to an increase in rail transport tariffs through Uzbekistan. Tajikistan imports approximately 60% of its food and 90% of that comes by rail. Uzbekistan closed one of the rail lines into Tajikistan in late 2011, hampering the transit of goods to and from the southern part of the country.
    $18.04 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    $16.78 billion (2011 est.)
    $15.63 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $7.592 billion (2012 est.)
    7.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    7.4% (2011 est.)
    6.5% (2010 est.)
    $2,300 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    $2,200 (2011 est.)
    $2,100 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    13.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    17.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
    16% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 81.5%
    government consumption: 26.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 16.6%
    investment in inventories: 14.2%
    exports of goods and services: 10.6%
    imports of goods and services: -49.1%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 20%
    industry: 20.2%
    services: 59.8% (2012 est.)
    cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
    aluminum, cement, vegetable oil
    8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    2.1 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    agriculture: 47.9%
    industry: 10.9%
    services: 41.2% (2012 est.)
    2.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    2.2% (2009 est.)
    note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
    39.6% (December 2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.5%
    highest 10%: 24.3% (2009 est.)
    32.6 (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    34.7 (1998)
    revenues: $2.153 billion
    expenditures: $2.026 billion (2012 est.)
    28.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    1.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    calendar year
    5.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    12.4% (2011 est.)
    6.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    5% (31 December 2010 est.)
    17.1% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    26.34% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.27 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $989.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    $1.979 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.28 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    $1.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    -$401 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    -$303.9 million (2011 est.)
    $1.803 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    $1.739 billion (2011 est.)
    aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
    Turkey 30.5%, China 9.6%, Iran 7.7%, Afghanistan 6.5%, Kazakhstan 4.9%, Russia 4.3% (2012)
    $4.029 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    $3.54 billion (2011 est.)
    petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
    China 42.3%, Russia 16.2%, Kazakhstan 10.1%, Turkey 5.7%, Iran 4.2% (2012)
    $628.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    $532.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $3.418 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $3.323 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.8 billion (February 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    $18.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    $16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
    Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
    4.738 (2012 est.)
    4.6102 (2011 est.)
    4.379 (2010 est.)
    4.1428 (2009)
    3.4563 (2008)

Energy ::Tajikistan

Communications ::Tajikistan

    380,000 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    6.324 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012
    domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998 while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
    international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2011)
    state-run TV broadcaster transmits nationally on 4 stations and regionally on 4 stations; 11 independent TV stations broadcast locally and regionally; some households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite; state-run radio broadcaster operates Radio Tajikistan, Voice of Dushanbe, and several regional stations; a small number of independent radio stations (2010)
    6,258 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    700,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 110

Transportation ::Tajikistan

Military ::Tajikistan

Transnational Issues ::Tajikistan

    in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
    stateless persons: 2,300 (2012)
    major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates