Africa :: Togo

Introduction ::Togo

    French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community. In January 2012, Togo assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.

Geography ::Togo

People and Society ::Togo

    noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Togolese
    African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
    French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
    Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
    7,154,237 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 40.8% (male 1,461,606/female 1,453,846)
    15-24 years: 20% (male 712,388/female 715,702)
    25-54 years: 31.9% (male 1,132,912/female 1,148,103)
    55-64 years: 4.2% (male 140,800/female 157,769)
    65 years and over: 3.2% (male 100,247/female 130,864) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 80.5 %
    youth dependency ratio: 75.5 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 5 %
    potential support ratio: 20.1 (2013)
    total: 19.5 years
    male: 19.2 years
    female: 19.7 years (2013 est.)
    2.73% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    34.9 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    urban population: 38% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    LOME (capital) 1.593 million (2009)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    20 (1998 est.)
    300 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    total: 48.28 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 43
    male: 55.03 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 41.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 63.62 years
    country comparison to the world: 178
    male: 61.07 years
    female: 66.24 years (2013 est.)
    4.58 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    15.2% (2010)
    7.7% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 89% of population
    rural: 40% of population
    total: 61% of population
    urban: 11% of population
    rural: 60% of population
    total: 39% of population (2010 est.)
    urban: 26% of population
    rural: 3% of population
    total: 13% of population
    urban: 74% of population
    rural: 97% of population
    total: 87% of population (2010 est.)
    3.2% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    120,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    7,700 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    4.3% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    20.5% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    4.6% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 60.4%
    male: 74.1%
    female: 48% (2011 est.)
    total: 12.9 years (2011)
    total number: 774,801
    percentage: 47 % (2010 est.)

Government ::Togo

    conventional long form: Togolese Republic
    conventional short form: Togo
    local long form: Republique Togolaise
    local short form: none
    former: French Togoland
    republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
    name: Lome
    geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
    27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
    Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
    adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
    customary law system
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005);
    head of government: Prime Minister Kwesi Seleagodji AHOOMEY-ZUNU (since 23 July 2012)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 March 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.9%, Jean-Pierre FABRE 33.9%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 3%, other 2.2%
    unicameral National Assembly (91 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independents 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into the Criminal Chamber and the Administrative Chamber, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); appeals courts; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal
    Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]
    Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA
    Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP
    National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
    Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
    Rainbow Alliance (a colalition including: CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte Adjamagbo JOHNSON]
    Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]
    Save Togo Collective or CST (a coalition including: ANC and PSR) [Ata Messan Zeus AJAVON
    Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR
    Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]
    Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]
    Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
    ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Limbiye Edawa Kadangha BARIKI
    chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert E. WHITEHEAD
    embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
    mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300
    telephone: [228] 2261-5470
    FAX: [228] 2261-5501
    five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
    name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)

    lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH
    note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992

Economy ::Togo

Energy ::Togo

Communications ::Togo

    240,000 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    3.105 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
    domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 50 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating
    international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2010)
    2 state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)
    1,168 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    356,300 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 123

Transportation ::Togo

    8 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    total: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m:
    2 (2013)
    total: 568 km
    country comparison to the world: 110
    narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    total: 7,520 km
    country comparison to the world: 145
    paved: 2,376 km
    unpaved: 5,144 km (2000)
    50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    total: 61
    country comparison to the world: 66
    by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 38, carrier 3, chemical tanker 5, container 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1
    foreign-owned: 21 (China 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 6, Turkey 4, UAE 1, US 1, Yemen 1) (2010)
    Kpeme, Lome

Military ::Togo

Transnational Issues ::Togo

    in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006, 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
    refugees (country of origin): 17,371 (Ghana); 5,593 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2012)
    IDPs: undetermined (2012)
    transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem