Africa :: Uganda

Introduction ::Uganda

    The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics.

Geography ::Uganda

People and Society ::Uganda

    noun: Ugandan(s)
    adjective: Ugandan
    Baganda 16.9%, Banyankole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)
    English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
    Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)
    34,758,809 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 48.9% (male 8,467,172/female 8,519,723)
    15-24 years: 21.2% (male 3,658,564/female 3,707,462)
    25-54 years: 25.5% (male 4,431,852/female 4,432,393)
    55-64 years: 2.3% (male 383,364/female 427,512)
    65 years and over: 2.1% (male 323,508/female 407,259) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 103.3 %
    youth dependency ratio: 98.4 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 %
    potential support ratio: 20.3 (2013)
    total: 15.5 years
    male: 15.4 years
    female: 15.5 years (2013 est.)
    3.32% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    44.5 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    11.26 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    -0.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    urban population: 15.6% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 5.74% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    KAMPALA (capital) 1.535 million (2009)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
    310 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    total: 62.47 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 22
    male: 72 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 52.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 53.98 years
    country comparison to the world: 208
    male: 52.65 years
    female: 55.35 years (2013 est.)
    6.06 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    30% (2011)
    9% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    0.12 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
    0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    urban: 95% of population
    rural: 68% of population
    total: 72% of population
    urban: 5% of population
    rural: 32% of population
    total: 28% of population (2010 est.)
    urban: 34% of population
    rural: 34% of population
    total: 34% of population
    urban: 66% of population
    rural: 66% of population
    total: 66% of population (2010 est.)
    6.5% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    1.2 million (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    64,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    4.3% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    16.4% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    3.3% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 73.2%
    male: 82.6%
    female: 64.6% (2010 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 11 years (2009)
    total number: 117,266
    percentage: 25 %
    note: data represents children ages 5-17 working in the (2010 est.)
    total: 5.4% (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 131

Government ::Uganda

    conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
    conventional short form: Uganda
    name: Kampala
    geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    111 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Bulisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitoma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubirizi, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo
    9 October 1962 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
    8 October 1995; amended 2005
    note: the amendments in 2005 removed presidential term limits and legalized a multiparty political system
    mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Amama MBABAZI (since 24 May 2011); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 68.4%, Kizza BESIGYE 26.0%, other 5.6%
    unicameral National Assembly (375 seats; 238 members elected by popular vote, 112 women directly elected, 25 nominated by legally established special interest groups [army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], additional ex-officio members may be nominated by the president; members serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 263, FDC 34, DP 12, UPC 10, UPDF 10, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independents 43, vacant 1; note - UPDF is the Uganda People's Defense Force
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and 5 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (a 9-member independent advisory body) and with approval of the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 10 High Court Circuits and 7 High Court Divisions); Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts
    Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]
    Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
    Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Muntu MUGISHA]
    Inter-Party Co-operation or IPC (a coalition of opposition groups)
    Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
    National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
    Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]
    Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Olara OTUNNU]
    note: a national referendum in July 2005 opened the way for Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system
    Lord's Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY]
    Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO
    National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]
    The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
    chief of mission: Ambassador Oliver WONEKHA
    chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
    telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
    FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
    chief of mission: Ambassador Scott H. DELISI
    embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
    mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
    telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
    FAX: [256] (414) 259-794
    six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
    grey crowned crane
    name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"
    lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
    note: adopted 1962

Economy ::Uganda

    Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Uganda has never conducted a national minerals survey. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Uganda has received about $2 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief. In 2007 Uganda received $10 million for a Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program. The global economic downturn hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years. Rising food and fuel prices in 2011 led to protests. Instability in South Sudan is a risk for the Ugandan economy because Uganda''s main export partner is Sudan, and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees. Unreliable power, high energy costs, inadequate transportation infrastructure, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence.
    $51.27 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    $49.98 billion (2011 est.)
    $46.86 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $21 billion (2012 est.)
    2.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    6.7% (2011 est.)
    5.6% (2010 est.)
    $1,400 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    $1,400 (2011 est.)
    $1,400 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    14.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    13% of GDP (2011 est.)
    12.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 86.3%
    government consumption: 8.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
    investment in inventories: 0.2%
    exports of goods and services: 21.2%
    imports of goods and services: -41%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 24.2%
    industry: 26.5%
    services: 49.3% (2012 est.)
    coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry
    sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
    3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    16.49 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    agriculture: 82%
    industry: 5%
    services: 13% (1999 est.)
    24.5% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.4%
    highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
    44.3 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    45.7 (2002)
    revenues: $3.102 billion
    expenditures: $3.705 billion (2012 est.)
    14.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    -2.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    27.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    27.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
    1 July - 30 June
    14% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    18.7% (2011 est.)
    14% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    9.65% (31 December 2009 est.)
    26.16% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    21.83% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.015 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $1.831 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $4.162 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $4.058 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $3.042 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $2.927 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $7.727 billion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    $1.788 billion (31 December 2010)
    $3.745 billion (31 December 2010)
    -$2.28 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    -$1.631 billion (2011 est.)
    $2.804 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $2.519 billion (2011 est.)
    coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
    Kenya 12.8%, Rwanda 10.7%, UAE 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.7%, Netherlands 5.7%, Germany 5.2%, Italy 4.1% (2012)
    $5.187 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    $4.997 billion (2011 est.)
    capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
    Kenya 16.6%, UAE 14.5%, China 12.3%, India 11.3%, South Africa 4.2% (2012)
    $3.169 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $2.617 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    note: excludes gold
    $4.514 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $3.858 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
    2,505.6 (2012 est.)
    2,522.8 (2011 est.)
    2,177.6 (2010 est.)
    2,030 (2009)
    1,658.1 (2008)

Energy ::Uganda

Communications ::Uganda

    464,800 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    16.697 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    general assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applications
    domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 50 per 100 persons in 2010
    international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania (2011)
    public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; Uganda first began licensing privately owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007 there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)
    32,683 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    3.2 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 66

Transportation ::Uganda

    47 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    total: 5
    over 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 42
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
    914 to 1,523 m: 26
    under 914 m:
    7 (2013)
    total: 1,244 km
    country comparison to the world: 83
    narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    total: 70,746 km
    country comparison to the world: 68
    paved: 16,272 km
    unpaved: 54,474 km (2003)
    (there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
    Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell

Military ::Uganda

Transnational Issues ::Uganda

    Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
    refugees (country of origin): 127,021 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 14,684 (Rwanda); 11,135 (South Sudan); 10,728 (Burundi); 7,910 (Sudan) (2012); 18,253 (Somalia) (2013)
    IDPs: 30,000 (displacement in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions) (2011)