Africa :: Burkina Faso

Introduction ::Burkina Faso

    Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Current President Blaise COMPAORE came to power in a 1987 military coup and has won every election since then. Burkina Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens.

Geography ::Burkina Faso

People and Society ::Burkina Faso

    noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
    adjective: Burkinabe
    Mossi over 40%, other approximately 60% (includes Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, and Fulani)
    French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
    Muslim 60.5%, Catholic 19%, animist 15.3%, Protestant 4.2%, other 0.6%, none 0.4%
    17,812,961 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 45.5% (male 4,062,522/female 4,044,548)
    15-24 years: 20% (male 1,794,740/female 1,775,072)
    25-54 years: 28.9% (male 2,608,676/female 2,532,406)
    55-64 years: 3.1% (male 229,202/female 324,921)
    65 years and over: 2.5% (male 168,099/female 272,775) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 92.3 %
    youth dependency ratio: 87.6 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.7 %
    potential support ratio: 21.3 (2013)
    total: 17 years
    male: 16.8 years
    female: 17.1 years (2013 est.)
    3.06% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    42.81 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    12.21 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    urban population: 26.5% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 6.02% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    OUAGADOUGOU (capital) 2.053 million (2011)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.69 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
    300 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    total: 78.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 9
    male: 85.67 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 70.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 54.43 years
    country comparison to the world: 206
    male: 52.43 years
    female: 56.48 years (2013 est.)
    6 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    16.2% (2010/11)
    6.7% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    urban: 95% of population
    rural: 73% of population
    total: 79% of population
    urban: 5% of population
    rural: 27% of population
    total: 21% of population (2010 est.)
    urban: 50% of population
    rural: 6% of population
    total: 17% of population
    urban: 50% of population
    rural: 94% of population
    total: 83% of population (2010 est.)
    1.2% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    110,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    7,100 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    2.3% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    26% (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    4% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 28.7%
    male: 36.7%
    female: 21.6% (2007 est.)
    total: 7 years
    male: 7 years
    female: 6 years (2011)
    total number: 1,521,006
    percentage: 38 % (2006 est.)
    total: 3.8%
    country comparison to the world: 136
    male: 4.6%
    female: 2.9% (2006)

Government ::Burkina Faso

    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Burkina Faso
    local long form: none
    local short form: Burkina Faso
    former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
    parliamentary republic
    name: Ouagadougou
    geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    13 regions; Boucle du Mouhoun, Cascades, Centre, Centre-Est, Centre-Nord, Centre-Ouest, Centre-Sud, Est, Hauts-Bassins, Nord, Plateau-Central, Sahel, Sud-Ouest
    5 August 1960 (from France)
    Republic Day, 11 December (1958); note - commemorates the day that Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community
    approved by referendum 2 June 1991; formally adopted 11 June 1991; last amended January 2002
    civil law based on the French model and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
    head of government: Prime Minister Luc-Adolphe TIAO (since 18 April 2011)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 November 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature
    election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president; percent of popular vote - Blaise COMPAORE 80.2%, Hama Arba DIALLO 8.2%, Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 6.3%, other 5.3%
    unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (127 seats; members are elected by proportional representation in one national constituency of 16 seats, and 45 multi-member constituencies having between 2 and 9 seats with members serving five-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly election last held on 2 December 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CDP 70, ADF-RDA 19, Union for Progress and Reform 19, UPR 4, UNIR-MS 4, CFD-B 3, PDS/Metba 2, other 6
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (consists of the council president and 3 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge appointments mostly controlled by the president of Burkina Faso; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council judges appointed by the president of Burkina Faso upon the proposal of the minister of justice; judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of judges renewed every 3 years
    subordinate courts: Appeals Court; High Court; first instance tribunals; district courts; specialized courts relating to issues of labor, children, and juveniles; village (customary) courts
    African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF-RDA [Gilbert OUEDRAOGO]
    Citizen's Popular Rally or RPC [Antoine QUARE]
    Coalition of Democratic Forces of Burkina or CFD-B [Zio Eric FRANCOIS]
    Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Assimi KOUANDA]
    Democratic and Popular Rally or RDP [Nana THIBAUT]
    Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]
    Party for African Independence or PAI [Soumane TOURE]
    Party for Democracy and Progress-Socialist Party or PDP-PS [Francois O. KABORE]
    Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba or PDS/Metba [Hama Arba DIALLO]
    Party for National Rebirth or PAREN [Barry TAHIROU]
    Rally for the Development of Burkina or RDB [Celestin Saidou COMPAORE]
    Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Ram OUEDRAGO]
    Republican Party for Integration and Solidarity or PARIS
    Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Fidele HIEN]
    Union for Progress and Reform or UPC [Zephiron DIABRE]
    Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA]
    Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]
    Union of Sankarist Parties or UPS [Ernest Nongma OUEDRAOGO]
    Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Tole SAGNON]
    Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]
    Group of 14 February [Benewende STANISLAS]
    National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO]
    National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL [Paul KABORE]
    other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
    chief of mission: Ambassador Seydou BOUDA
    chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
    chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas DOUGHERTY
    embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4
    mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440
    telephone: [226] 50-49-53-00
    FAX: [226] 50-49-56-28
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; red recalls the country's struggle for independence, green is for hope and abundance, and yellow represents the country's mineral wealth
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
    white stallion
    name: "Le Ditanye" (Anthem of Victory)

    lyrics/music: Thomas SANKARA
    note: adopted 1974; also known as "Une Seule Nuit" (One Single Night), Burkina Faso's anthem was written by the country's president, an avid guitar player

Economy ::Burkina Faso

    Burkina Faso is a poor, landlocked country that relies heavily on cotton and gold exports for revenue. The country has few natural resources and a weak industrial base. About 90% of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture, which is vulnerable to periodic drought. Cotton is the main cash crop. Since 1998, Burkina Faso has embarked upon a gradual privatization of state-owned enterprises and in 2004 revised its investment code to attract foreign investment. As a result of this new code and other legislation favoring the mining sector, the country has seen an upswing in gold exploration and production. By 2010, gold had become the main source of export revenue. Gold mining production doubled between 2009 and 2010. Two new mining projects were launched in the third quarter of 2011. Local community conflict persists in the mining and cotton sectors, but the Prime Minister has made efforts to defuse some of the economic cause of public discontent, including announcing income tax reductions, reparations for looting victims, and subsidies for basic food items and fertilizer. An IMF mission to Burkina Faso in October 2011 expressed general satisfaction with the measures. The risk of a mass exodus of the 3 to 4 million Burinabe who live and work in Cote d'Ivoire has dissipated, and trade, power, and transport links are being restored. Burkina Faso experienced a severe drought in 2011, which decimated grazing land and decreased harvests, creating food insecurity and damaging the country's agricultural base.
    $24.69 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $22.86 billion (2011 est.)
    $21.95 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $10.46 billion (2012 est.)
    8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    4.2% (2011 est.)
    7.9% (2010 est.)
    $1,400 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    $1,300 (2011 est.)
    $1,300 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    8.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    16.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
    17.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 62.8%
    government consumption: 13.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 20.9%
    investment in inventories: -0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 29.7%
    imports of goods and services: -27.2%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 33%
    industry: 22.2%
    services: 44.9% (2012 est.)
    cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
    cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
    6.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    6.668 million
    country comparison to the world: 65
    note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2007)
    agriculture: 90%
    industry and services: 10% (2000 est.)
    77% (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    46.7% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.9%
    highest 10%: 32.2% (2009 est.)
    39.5 (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    48.2 (1994)
    revenues: $2.26 billion
    expenditures: $2.311 billion (2012 est.)
    21.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    -0.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    calendar year
    3.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    2.8% (2011 est.)
    4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
    $1.845 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    $1.56 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $3.91 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    $2.805 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.123 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    $1.705 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    -$481.1 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    -$125.8 million (2011 est.)
    $2.177 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    $2.207 billion (2011 est.)
    gold, cotton, livestock
    China 26%, Turkey 24.9%, Belgium 5.2% (2012)
    $2.694 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    $2.242 billion (2011 est.)
    capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum
    Cote dIvoire 17.8%, France 14.8%, Ghana 5.1%, Togo 4.8% (2012)
    $1.025 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    $957 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.586 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $2.42 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
    495.28 (2010 est.)
    472.19 (2009)
    447.81 (2008)

Energy ::Burkina Faso

Communications ::Burkina Faso

    141,500 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    7.682 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    general assessment: system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations; in 2006 the government sold a 51 percent stake in the national telephone company and ultimately plans to retain only a 23 percent stake in the company
    domestic: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, fostered by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly from a low base
    international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; state-owned radio runs a national and regional network; substantial number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters available in Ouagadougou (2007)
    1,795 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    178,100 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 144

Transportation ::Burkina Faso

Military ::Burkina Faso

Transnational Issues ::Burkina Faso

    adding to illicit cross-border activities, Burkina Faso has issues concerning unresolved boundary alignments with its neighbors; demarcation is currently underway with Mali, the dispute with Niger was referred to the ICJ in 2010, and a dispute over several villages with Benin persists; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou
    refugees (country of origin): 49,975 (Mali) (2013)