Africa :: Zambia

Introduction ::Zambia

    The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his abrupt death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who subsequently won a special presidential byelection in October 2008. Michael SATA was elected president in September 2011.

Geography ::Zambia

    Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    15 00 S, 30 00 E
    total: 752,618 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 39
    land: 743,398 sq km
    water: 9,220 sq km
    slightly larger than Texas
    total: 5,664 km
    border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
    mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
    lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
    highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
    copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
    arable land: 4.52%
    permanent crops: 0.05%
    other: 95.44% (2011)
    1,559 sq km (2003)
    105.2 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.57 cu km/yr (18%/8%/73%)
    per capita: 147 cu m/yr (2002)
    periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
    air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)

People and Society ::Zambia

    noun: Zambian(s)
    adjective: Zambian
    African 99.5% (includes Bemba, Tonga, Chewa, Lozi, Nsenga, Tumbuka, Ngoni, Lala, Kaonde, Lunda, and other African groups), other 0.5% (includes Europeans, Asians, and Americans) (2000 Census)
    11 Bantu languages (Bemba (official) 30.1%, Nyanja (official) 10.7%, Tonga (official) 10.6%, Lozi (official) 5.7%, Chewa 4.9%, Nsenga 3.4%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (official) 2.2%, Kaonde (official) 2%, Lala 2%, Luvale (official) 1.7%), English (official) 1.7%, other 22.5% (2000 Census)
    Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
    14,222,233 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 46.2% (male 3,300,339/female 3,271,389)
    15-24 years: 20% (male 1,423,026/female 1,425,654)
    25-54 years: 28.5% (male 2,042,023/female 2,009,511)
    55-64 years: 2.9% (male 193,758/female 213,927)
    65 years and over: 2.4% (male 147,705/female 194,901) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 97 %
    youth dependency ratio: 91.8 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
    potential support ratio: 19.4 (2013)
    total: 16.7 years
    male: 16.5 years
    female: 16.8 years (2013 est.)
    2.89% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    42.79 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    13.17 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    -0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    urban population: 39.2% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 4.15% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    LUSAKA (capital) 1.413 million (2009)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    19.2 (2007 est.)
    440 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    total: 68.58 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 19
    male: 74.16 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 62.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 51.51 years
    country comparison to the world: 216
    male: 49.93 years
    female: 53.14 years (2013 est.)
    5.81 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    40.8% (2007)
    5.9% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
    2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    urban: 87% of population
    rural: 46% of population
    total: 61% of population
    urban: 13% of population
    rural: 54% of population
    total: 39% of population (2010 est.)
    urban: 57% of population
    rural: 43% of population
    total: 48% of population
    urban: 43% of population
    rural: 57% of population
    total: 52% of population (2010 est.)
    13.5% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    980,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    45,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    3.6% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    14.9% (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    1.4% of GDP (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
    total population: 61.4%
    male: 71.9%
    female: 51.8% (2007 est.)
    total: 7 years
    male: 8 years
    female: 7 years (2000)
    total number: 1,000,850
    percentage: 41 %
    note: data represents children ages 7-14 (2005 est.)
    total: 23.4% (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 41

Government ::Zambia

    conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
    conventional short form: Zambia
    former: Northern Rhodesia
    name: Lusaka
    geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
    24 October 1964 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
    24 August 1991; amended in 1996 to establish presidential term limits
    mixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Michael Chilufya SATA (since 23 September 2011); Vice President Guy SCOTT (since 30 September 2011); the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Michael Chilufya SATA (since 23 September 2011); Vice President Guy SCOTT (since 30 September 2011)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 September 2011 (next to be held in 2016); vice president appointed by the president
    election results: Michael Chilufya SATA elected president; percent of vote - Michael SATA 43.3%, Rupiah BANDA 36.2%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 18.5%, other 2.0%
    unicameral National Assembly (158 seats; 150 members are elected by popular vote, 8 members appointed by the president, to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 20 September 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 60, MMD 55, UPND 28, ADD 1, FDD 1, independents 3; seats not determined 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and ratified by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate's courts and local courts
    Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
    Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
    Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]
    Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
    National Restoration Party or NAREP [Elias CHIPIMO]
    Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]
    Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]
    United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]
    United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Palan MULONDA
    chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mark C. STORELLA
    embassy: Ibex Hill, Lusaka
    mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
    telephone: [260] (0) (211) 357-000
    FAX: [260] (0) (211) 357-224
    green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
    African fish eagle
    name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
    lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
    note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

Economy ::Zambia

Energy ::Zambia

Communications ::Zambia

    85,700 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    8.165 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
    domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
    international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)
    state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 1 TV station and is the principal local-content provider; several private TV stations; multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 3 radio networks; about 2 dozen private radio stations; relays of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2007)
    16,571 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    816,200 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 105

Transportation ::Zambia

    88 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    total: 8
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 80
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 53
    under 914 m:
    21 (2013)
    oil 771 km (2013)
    total: 2,157 km
    country comparison to the world: 69
    narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge
    note: includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2008)
    total: 91,440 km
    country comparison to the world: 52
    paved: 20,117 km
    unpaved: 71,323 km (2001)
    2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 39

Military ::Zambia

Transnational Issues ::Zambia

    in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
    refugees (country of origin): 14,871 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 5,963 (Rwanda) (2012)
    transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis