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Africa :: Cabo Verde
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Cabo Verde
  • Introduction :: CABO VERDE

  • The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; Cabo Verde subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cabo Verde continues to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result, Cabo Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one. Most Cabo Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.
  • Geography :: CABO VERDE

  • Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
    16 00 N, 24 00 W
    Africa
    total: 4,033 sq km
    land: 4,033 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 176
    slightly larger than Rhode Island
    0 km
    965 km
    measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and erratic
    steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)
    salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum
    agricultural land: 18.6%
    arable land 11.7%; permanent crops 0.7%; permanent pasture 6.2%
    forest: 21%
    other: 60.4% (2011 est.)
    34.76 sq km (2004)
    0.3 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.02 cu km/yr (6%/1%/93%)
    per capita: 48.57 cu m/yr (2004)
    prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active
    volcanism: Fogo (elev. 2,829 m), which last erupted in 1995, is Cabo Verde's only active volcano
    soil erosion; deforestation due to demand for firewood; water shortages; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
  • People and Society :: CABO VERDE

  • noun: Cabo Verdean(s)
    adjective: Cabo Verdean
    Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
    Portuguese (official), Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
    Roman Catholic 77.3%, Protestant 3.7% (includes Church of the Nazarene 1.7%, Adventist 1.5%, Universal Kingdom of God 0.4%, and God and Love 0.1%), other Christian 4.3% (includes Christian Rationalism 1.9%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, Assembly of God 0.9%, and New Apostolic 0.5%), Muslim 1.8%, other 1.3%, none 10.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2010 est.)
    545,993 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    0-14 years: 30.1% (male 82,623/female 81,731)
    15-24 years: 20.99% (male 57,307/female 57,303)
    25-54 years: 38.53% (male 102,186/female 108,177)
    55-64 years: 5.29% (male 12,194/female 16,709)
    65 years and over: 5.08% (male 10,466/female 17,297) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 51.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 43.8%
    elderly dependency ratio: 8%
    potential support ratio: 12.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 24 years
    male: 23.2 years
    female: 24.8 years (2014 est.)
    1.36% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    20.33 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    6.11 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    -0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    urban population: 65.5% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    PRAIA (capital) 145,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.73 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 23.45 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 26.89 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 19.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    total population: 71.85 years
    male: 69.58 years
    female: 74.19 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    2.29 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    61.3% (2005)
    4.4% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    0.31 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 91.2% of population
    rural: 86% of population
    total: 89.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 8.8% of population
    rural: 14% of population
    total: 10.7% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 75.2% of population
    rural: 47.2% of population
    total: 64.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 24.8% of population
    rural: 52.8% of population
    total: 35.1% of population (2012 est.)
    0.47% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    1,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    NA
    11.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    5% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 87.6%
    male: 92.1%
    female: 83.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 14 years (2013)
    total number: 1,948
    percentage: 3%
    note: data represent children ages 10-14 (2001 est.)
  • Government :: CABO VERDE

  • conventional long form: Republic of Cabo Verde
    conventional short form: Cabo Verde
    local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
    local short form: Cabo Verde
    republic
    name: Praia
    geographic coordinates: 14 55 N, 23 31 W
    time difference: UTC-1 (4 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    22 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Porto Novo, Praia, Ribeira Brava, Ribeira Grande, Ribeira Grande de Santiago, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina do Fogo, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao Lourenco dos Orgaos, Sao Miguel, Sao Salvador do Mundo, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal, Tarrafal de Sao Nicolau
    5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
    Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
    previous 1981; latest effective 25 September 1992; revised 1995, 1999, 2010 (2010)
    civil law system of Portugal
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Jorge Carlos FONSECA (since 9 September 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 August 2011 with a second round on 21 August 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president
    election results: percent of vote (second round) - Jorge Carlos FONSECA 53.4%, Manuel Inocencio SOUSA 46.6%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 6 February 2011 (next to be held by 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAICV 38, MPD 32, UCID 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice and at least 5 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointments - 1 by the president of the republic, 1 elected by the National Assembly, and the remainder by the Supreme Council of Magistrates, a 9-member independent body presided over by the chief justice and includes the high judicial inspector, 2 presidential appointees, 3 elected by the National Assembly, and 2 by their court peers; chief justice appointed by the president of the republic from among peers of the Supreme Court and in consultation with the Supreme Council of Magistrates; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: first instance (municipal) courts; audit, military, and fiscal and customs courts
    African Party for Independence of Cabo Verde or PAICV [Janira Hopffer ALMADA]
    Democratic and Independent Cabo Verdean Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]
    Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]
    Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]
    Movement for Democracy or MPD [Ulisses CORREIA e Silva]
    Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]
    Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]
    other: environmentalists; political pressure groups
    ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CD, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Luis Fialho ROCHA (since 14 July 2014)
    chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
    FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
    consulate(s) general: Boston
    chief of mission: Ambassador Donald L. HEFLIN (since 29 January 2015)
    embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 6, Praia
    mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
    telephone: [238] 2-60-89-00
    FAX: [238] 2-61-13-55
    five unequal horizontal bands; the top-most band of blue - equal to one half the width of the flag - is followed by three bands of white, red, and white, each equal to 1/12 of the width, and a bottom stripe of blue equal to one quarter of the flag width; a circle of 10, yellow, five-pointed stars is centered on the red stripe and positioned 3/8 of the length of the flag from the hoist side; blue stands for the sea and the sky, the circle of stars represents the 10 major islands united into a nation, the stripes symbolize the road to formation of the country through peace (white) and effort (red)
    ten, five-pointed, yellow stars; national colors: blue, white, red, yellow
    name: "Cantico da Liberdade" (Song of Freedom)
    lyrics/music: Amilcar Spencer LOPES/Adalberto Higino Tavares SILVA
    note: adopted 1996
  • Economy :: CABO VERDE

  • Cabo Verde’s economy is vulnerable to external shocks and depends on development aid, foreign investment, remittances, and tourism. The economy is service-oriented with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for about three-fourths of GDP. Tourism is the mainstay of the economy and depends on conditions in the euro zone countries. Although about 40% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of food production in GDP is low. The island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages, exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought, and poor soil for growing food on several of the islands, requiring it to import most of what it consumes. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cabo Verde annually runs a high trade deficit financed by foreign aid and remittances from its large pool of emigrants; remittances as a share of GDP are one of the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy and mitigate high unemployment. The government’s elevated debt levels have limited its capacity to finance any shortfalls.
    $3.286 billion (2014 est.)
    $3.253 billion (2013 est.)
    $3.236 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 181
    $1.975 billion (2014 est.)
    1% (2014 est.)
    0.5% (2013 est.)
    1.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    $6,300 (2014 est.)
    $6,400 (2013 est.)
    $6,400 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 157
    33.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    35% of GDP (2013 est.)
    28.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    household consumption: 57%
    government consumption: 17.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 33.6%
    investment in inventories: 0.8%
    exports of goods and services: 36.9%
    imports of goods and services: -46%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 10%
    industry: 18.6%
    services: 71.4% (2014 est.)
    bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
    food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
    2.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    196,100 (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    21% (2000 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    30% (2000)
    lowest 10%: 1.9%
    highest 10%: 40.6% (2000)
    revenues: $478.3 million
    expenditures: $617.6 million (2014 est.)
    24.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    -7.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    86.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    78.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    calendar year
    0.4% (2014 est.)
    1.6% (2013 est.)
    7.5% (31 December 2010)
    7.5% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    10.6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    10.54% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $579.4 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $596.1 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    $1.606 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    $1.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.616 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    -$162 million (2014 est.)
    -$51.5 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    $189.8 million (2014 est.)
    $184.2 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    fuel (re-exports), shoes, garments, fish, hides
    Spain 56%, Portugal 19.4%, India 5.3%, Italy 4.8% (2013)
    $888.2 million (2014 est.)
    $804.4 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
    Portugal 33.5%, Netherlands 25.2%, China 7.7%, Spain 6.4%, Belgium 5.6% (2013)
    $491.1 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $475 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $1.559 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.421 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Cabo Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar -
    82.58 (2014 est.)
    83.051 (2013 est.)
    85.82 (2012 est.)
    79.32 (2011 est.)
    83.259 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: CABO VERDE

  • 307 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    285.5 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    121,300 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    68.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    31.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    2,780 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    2,646 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    385,700 Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
  • Communications :: CABO VERDE

  • 70,200 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    425,300 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    general assessment: effective system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995
    domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom; fiber-optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998; broadband services launched in 2004
    international: country code - 238; landing point for the Atlantis-2 fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America, Senegal, and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    state-run TV and radio broadcast network plus a growing number of private broadcasters; Portuguese public TV and radio services for Africa are available; transmissions of a few international broadcasters are available (2007)
    AM 0, FM 22 (plus 12 repeaters), shortwave 0 (2001)
    1 (plus 7 repeaters) (2001)
    .cv
    38 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    150,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 144
  • Transportation :: CABO VERDE

  • 9 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    total: 9
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 1,350 km
    paved: 932 km
    unpaved: 418 km (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    total: 13
    by type: cargo 3, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 3 (Greece 1, Spain 1, UK 1)
    registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    major seaport(s): Porto Grande
  • Military :: CABO VERDE

  • Armed Forces: Army (also called the National Guard, GN), Cabo Verde Coast Guard (Guardia Costeira de Cabo Verde, GCCV; includes naval infantry) (2013)
    18-35 years of age for male and female selective compulsory military service; 2-yearsconscript service obligation; 17 years of age for voluntary service (with parental consent) (2013)
    males age 16-49: 132,087
    females age 16-49: 136,956 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 106,864
    females age 16-49: 117,518 (2010 est.)
    male: 6,029
    female: 6,026 (2010 est.)
    NA% (2012)
    0.51% of GDP (2011)
    NA% (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: CABO VERDE

  • none
    stateless persons: 115 (2014)
    used as a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine destined for Western Europe, particularly because of Lusophone links to Brazil, Portugal, and Guinea-Bissau; has taken steps to deter drug money laundering, including a 2002 anti-money laundering reform that criminalizes laundering the proceeds of narcotics trafficking and other crimes and the establishment in 2008 of a Financial Intelligence Unit (2008)
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