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Dominica
  • Introduction :: DOMINICA

  • Dominica was the last of the Caribbean islands to be colonized by Europeans due chiefly to the fierce resistance of the native Caribs. France ceded possession to Great Britain in 1763, which made the island a colony in 1805. In 1980, two years after independence, Dominica's fortunes improved when a corrupt and tyrannical administration was replaced by that of Mary Eugenia CHARLES, the first female prime minister in the Caribbean, who remained in office for 15 years. Some 3,000 Carib Indians still living on Dominica are the only pre-Columbian population remaining in the eastern Caribbean.
  • Geography :: DOMINICA

  • Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about half way between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
    15 25 N, 61 20 W
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 751 sq km
    land: 751 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 189
    slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
    0 km
    148 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
    rugged mountains of volcanic origin
    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Morne Diablotins 1,447 m
    timber, hydropower, arable land
    arable land: 8%
    permanent crops: 24%
    other: 68% (2012 est.)
    NA
    NA
    total: 0.02 cu km/yr
    per capita: 244.1 cu m/yr (2004)
    flash floods are a constant threat; destructive hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months
    NA
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    known as "The Nature Island of the Caribbean" due to its spectacular, lush, and varied flora and fauna, which are protected by an extensive natural park system; the most mountainous of the Lesser Antilles, its volcanic peaks are cones of lava craters and include Boiling Lake, the second-largest, thermally active lake in the world
  • People and Society :: DOMINICA

  • noun: Dominican(s)
    adjective: Dominican
    black 86.8%, mixed 8.9%, Carib Amerindian 2.9%, white 0.8%, other 0.7% (2001 census)
    English (official), French patois
    Roman Catholic 61.4%, Protestant 20.6% (Seventh Day Adventist 6%, Pentecostal 5.6%, Baptist 4.1%, Methodist 3.7%, Church of God 1.2%), Jehovah's Witnesses 1.2%, other Christian 7.7%, Rastafarian 1.3%, other or unspecified 1.6%, none 6.1% (2001 census)
    73,449 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    0-14 years: 22.1% (male 8,300/female 7,939)
    15-24 years: 16.7% (male 6,311/female 5,946)
    25-54 years: 41.5% (male 15,470/female 15,004)
    55-64 years: 9.2% (male 3,604/female 3,147)
    65 years and over: 10.5% (male 3,386/female 4,342) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total: 32.1 years
    male: 31.7 years
    female: 32.6 years (2014 est.)
    0.22% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    15.53 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    7.94 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    -5.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    urban population: 69.3% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.84% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ROSEAU (capital) 15,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    total: 11.61 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 15.46 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 7.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    total population: 76.59 years
    male: 73.63 years
    female: 79.7 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    2.05 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 95.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 4.3% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 79.6% of population
    rural: 84.3% of population
    total: 81.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 20.4% of population
    rural: 15.7% of population
    total: 18.9% of population (2007 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    25.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 61
  • Government :: DOMINICA

  • conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica
    conventional short form: Dominica
    note: island named by Christopher COLUMBUS after the day of the week on which he spotted it, Sunday ("domingo" in Latin), 3 November 1493
    parliamentary democracy
    name: Roseau
    geographic coordinates: 15 18 N, 61 24 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter
    3 November 1978 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 3 November (1978)
    previous 1967 (preindependence); latest presented 25 July 1978, entered into force 3 November 1978; amended several times, last in 1984 (2011)
    common law based on the English model
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Charles A. SAVARIN (since 2 October 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Roosevelt SKERRIT (since 8 January 2004)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
    elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year term; election last held on 30 September 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Charles A. SAVARIN elected president by a vote of 19-0 on 30 September 2013
    description: unicameral House of Assembly (32 seats; 21 representatives directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 9 senators appointed by the Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the House Speaker and the Clerk of the House; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 8 December 2014 (next to be held in 2019); note - tradition dictates that the election is held within five years of the last election, but technically it is five years from the first seating of parliament plus a 90-day grace period
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DLP 15, UWP 6
    highest court(s): The Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Dominica; the ECSC - based on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; 2 High Court judges reside in Dominica; note - Dominica is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
    judge selection and term of office: ECSC chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
    subordinate courts: Court of Summary Jurisdiction; magistrates' courts
    Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Judith PESTAINA]
    Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Roosevelt SKERRIT]
    Dominica United Workers Party or UWP [Hector JOHN]
    Dominica Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, Commonwealth of Nations, ECCU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hubert J. CHARLES (since 16 July 2010)
    chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
    telephone: [1] (202) 364-6781
    FAX: [1] (202) 364-6791
    consulate(s) general: New York
    the US does not have an embassy in Dominica; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Dominica
    green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white and the horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a Sisserou parrot, unique to Dominica, encircled by 10 green, five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes); green symbolizes the island's lush vegetation; the triple-colored cross represents the Christian Trinity; the yellow color denotes sunshine, the main agricultural products (citrus and bananas), and the native Carib Indians; black is for the rich soil and the African heritage of most citizens; white signifies rivers, waterfalls, and the purity of aspirations; the red disc stands for social justice
    Sisserou parrot, Carib Wood flower; national colors: green, yellow, black, white, red
    name: "Isle of Beauty"
    lyrics/music: Wilfred Oscar Morgan POND/Lemuel McPherson CHRISTIAN
    note: adopted 1967
  • Economy :: DOMINICA

  • The Dominican economy has been dependent on agriculture - primarily bananas - in years past, but increasingly has been driven by tourism as the government seeks to promote Dominica as an "ecotourism" destination. Moreover, Dominica has an offshore medical education sector. In order to diversify the island's economy, the government is also attempting to foster an offshore financial industry and plans to sign agreements with the private sector to develop geothermal energy resources. In 2003, the government began a comprehensive restructuring of the economy - including the elimination of price controls, privatization of the state banana company, and tax increases - to address an economic and financial crisis and to meet IMF requirements. In 2009 and 2013, the economy contracted as a result of the global recession; growth remains anemic. Although public debt levels continue to exceed pre-recession levels, the debt burden declined from 78% of GDP in 2011 to approximately 70% in 2012.
    $757 million (2014 est.)
    $746.3 million (2013 est.)
    $740.5 million (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 206
    $514 million (2014 est.)
    1.4% (2014 est.)
    0.8% (2013 est.)
    -1.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    $10,700 (2014 est.)
    $10,500 (2013 est.)
    $10,400 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 129
    -0.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -0.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    1.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    household consumption: 57.4%
    government consumption: 20.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 28.5%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 59.3%
    imports of goods and services: -65.6%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 14.8%
    industry: 14.1%
    services: 71.1% (2014 est.)
    bananas, citrus, mangos, root crops, coconuts, cocoa
    note: forest and fishery potential not exploited
    soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
    -1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    25,000 (2000 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    agriculture: 40%
    industry: 32%
    services: 28% (2002 est.)
    23% (2000 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    29% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $148.1 million
    expenditures: $185.2 million (2013 est.)
    28.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    -7.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    70% of GDP (2012 est.)
    78% of GDP (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    1 July - 30 June
    2% (2014 est.)
    -0.2% (2013 est.)
    6.5% (31 December 2010)
    6.5% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    9.1% (31 December 2014 est.)
    9.1% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    $88 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $78.84 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    $463.3 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $429.1 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    $370.4 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $319.6 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    -$77.4 million (2014 est.)
    -$72.1 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    $38.6 million (2014 est.)
    $41 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
    Japan 41.6%, Jamaica 9.4%, Antigua and Barbuda 8.7%, Guyana 7.3%, Trinidad and Tobago 4.7% (2013)
    $186.9 million (2014 est.)
    $178.6 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals
    Japan 36.3%, US 16.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 15.4%, China 4.9% (2013)
    $90 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $87.05 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    $299 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $286.2 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
    2.7 (2014 est.)
    2.7 (2013 est.)
    2.7 (2012 est.)
    2.7 (2011 est.)
    2.7 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: DOMINICA

  • 105.5 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    98.12 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    98,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    20.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    6.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    73.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    960 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    916 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    132,100 Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: DOMINICA

  • 14,600 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    109,300 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    general assessment: fully automatic network
    domestic: fixed-line connections continued to decline slowly with the two active operators providing about 20 fixed-line connections per 100 persons; subscribership among the three mobile-cellular providers continued to increase with teledensity reaching 150 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 1-767; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cables providing connectivity to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia (2010)
    no terrestrial TV service available; subscription cable TV provider offers some locally produced programming plus channels from the US, Latin America, and the Caribbean; state-operated radio broadcasts on 6 stations; privately owned radio broadcasts on about 15 stations (2007)
    AM 4, FM 18, shortwave 0 (2009)
    1 (2004)
    .dm
    723 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    28,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 179
  • Transportation :: DOMINICA

  • 2 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    total: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 1,512 km
    paved: 762 km
    unpaved: 750 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    total: 43
    by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 22, chemical tanker 2, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 1
    foreign-owned: 32 (Australia 1, Estonia 6, Germany 5, Greece 4, India 2, Latvia 2, Norway 1, Russia 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Syria 4, Turkey 1, Ukraine 1)
    registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    major seaport(s): Portsmouth, Roseau
  • Military :: DOMINICA

  • no regular military forces; Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2012)
    males age 16-49: 19,075 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 16,035
    females age 16-49: 15,499 (2010 est.)
    male: 675
    female: 636 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: DOMINICA

  • Dominica is the only Caribbean state to challenge Venezuela's sovereignty claim over Aves Island and joins the other island nations in challenging whether the feature sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Venezuela to extend its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and continental shelf claims over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
    transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; minor cannabis producer (2008)
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