Africa :: EGYPT
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  • Introduction :: EGYPT

  • The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have reaffirmed the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
    Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster in 2011. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed MORSI won the presidential election. Following often violent protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces intervened and removed MORSI from power in July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. In January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and in May 2014 elected former defense minister Abdelfattah ELSISI president. Egypt elected a new legislature in December 2015, the first parliament since 2012. ELSISI was reelected to a second four-year term in March 2018.
  • Geography :: EGYPT

  • Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
    27 00 N, 30 00 E
    total: 1,001,450 sq km
    land: 995,450 sq km
    water: 6,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 31
    more than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
    Area comparison map:
    total: 2,612 km
    border countries (4): Gaza Strip 13 km, Israel 208 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,276 km
    2,450 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or the equidistant median line with Cyprus
    continental shelf: 200 nm
    desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
    vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
    mean elevation: 321 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
    highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
    agricultural land: 3.6%
    arable land 2.8%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 0%
    forest: 0.1%
    other: 96.3% (2011 est.)
    36,500 sq km (2012)
    approximately 95% of the population lives within 20 km of the Nile River and its delta; vast areas of the country remain sparsely populated or uninhabited
    periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
    agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    controls Sinai Peninsula, the only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories
  • People and Society :: EGYPT

  • 97,041,072 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    noun: Egyptian(s)
    adjective: Egyptian
    Egyptian 99.7%, other 0.3%
    note: data represent respondents by nationality (2006 est.)
    Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
    Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2015 est.)
    religious affiliation:
    Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the third most populous country in Africa, behind Nigeria and Ethiopia. Most of the country is desert, so about 95% of the population is concentrated in a narrow strip of fertile land along the Nile River, which represents only about 5% of Egypt’s land area. Egypt’s rapid population growth – 46% between 1994 and 2014 – stresses limited natural resources, jobs, housing, sanitation, education, and health care.
    Although the country’s total fertility rate (TFR) fell from roughly 5.5 children per woman in 1980 to just over 3 in the late 1990s, largely as a result of state-sponsored family planning programs, the population growth rate dropped more modestly because of decreased mortality rates and longer life expectancies. During the last decade, Egypt’s TFR decline stalled for several years and then reversed, reaching 3.6 in 2011, and has plateaued the last few years. Contraceptive use has held steady at about 60%, while preferences for larger families and early marriage may have strengthened in the wake of the recent 2011 revolution. The large cohort of women of or nearing childbearing age will sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future (an effect called population momentum).
    Nevertheless, post-MUBARAK governments have not made curbing population growth a priority. To increase contraceptive use and to prevent further overpopulation will require greater government commitment and substantial social change, including encouraging smaller families and better educating and empowering women. Currently, literacy, educational attainment, and labor force participation rates are much lower for women than men. In addition, the prevalence of violence against women, the lack of female political representation, and the perpetuation of the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continue to keep women from playing a more significant role in Egypt’s public sphere.
    Population pressure, poverty, high unemployment, and the fragmentation of inherited land holdings have historically motivated Egyptians, primarily young men, to migrate internally from rural and smaller urban areas in the Nile Delta region and the poorer rural south to Cairo, Alexandria, and other urban centers in the north, while a much smaller number migrated to the Red Sea and Sinai areas. Waves of forced internal migration also resulted from the 1967 Arab-Israeli War and the floods caused by the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970. Limited numbers of students and professionals emigrated temporarily prior to the early 1970s, when economic problems and high unemployment pushed the Egyptian Government to lift restrictions on labor migration. At the same time, high oil revenues enabled Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and other Gulf states, as well as Libya and Jordan, to fund development projects, creating a demand for unskilled labor (mainly in construction), which attracted tens of thousands of young Egyptian men.
    Between 1970 and 1974 alone, Egyptian migrants in the Gulf countries increased from approximately 70,000 to 370,000. Egyptian officials encouraged legal labor migration both to alleviate unemployment and to generate remittance income (remittances continue to be one of Egypt’s largest sources of foreign currency and GDP). During the mid-1980s, however, depressed oil prices resulting from the Iran-Iraq War, decreased demand for low-skilled labor, competition from less costly South Asian workers, and efforts to replace foreign workers with locals significantly reduced Egyptian migration to the Gulf States. The number of Egyptian migrants dropped from a peak of almost 3.3 million in 1983 to about 2.2 million at the start of the 1990s, but numbers gradually recovered.
    In the 2000s, Egypt began facilitating more labor migration through bilateral agreements, notably with Arab countries and Italy, but illegal migration to Europe through overstayed visas or maritime human smuggling via Libya also rose. The Egyptian Government estimated there were 6.5 million Egyptian migrants in 2009, with roughly 75% being temporary migrants in other Arab countries (Libya, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates) and 25% being predominantly permanent migrants in the West (US, UK, Italy, France, and Canada).
    During the 2000s, Egypt became an increasingly important transit and destination country for economic migrants and asylum seekers, including Palestinians, East Africans, and South Asians and, more recently, Iraqis and Syrians. Egypt draws many refugees because of its resettlement programs with the West; Cairo has one of the largest urban refugee populations in the world. Many East African migrants are interned or live in temporary encampments along the Egypt-Israel border, and some have been shot and killed by Egyptian border guards.
    0-14 years: 33.29% (male 16,720,307/female 15,583,019)
    15-24 years: 18.94% (male 9,464,262/female 8,919,614)
    25-54 years: 37.6% (male 18,545,422/female 17,944,582)
    55-64 years: 5.95% (male 2,861,136/female 2,911,586)
    65 years and over: 4.22% (male 1,993,248/female 2,097,896) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 61.8
    youth dependency ratio: 53.6
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.2
    potential support ratio: 12.2 (2015 est.)
    total: 23.9 years
    male: 23.6 years
    female: 24.2 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    2.45% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    29.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    4.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    approximately 95% of the population lives within 20 km of the Nile River and its delta; vast areas of the country remain sparsely populated or uninhabited
    urban population: 42.7% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    CAIRO (capital) 20.076 million; Alexandria 5.086 million (2018)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    22.7 years
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
    33 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    total: 19 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 20.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 17.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    total population: 73 years
    male: 71.6 years
    female: 74.4 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    3.47 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    58.5% (2014)
    5.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    1.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 99% of population
    total: 99.4% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 1% of population
    total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 96.8% of population
    rural: 93.1% of population
    total: 94.7% of population
    urban: 3.2% of population
    rural: 6.9% of population
    total: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)
    <.1% (2017 est.)
    16,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    <500 (2017 est.)
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
    32% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    3.8% of GDP (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 73.8%
    male: 82.2%
    female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2014)
    total: 30.8%
    male: 27.2%
    female: 38.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
  • Government :: EGYPT

  • conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
    conventional short form: Egypt
    local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
    local short form: Misr
    former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
    etymology: the English name "Egypt" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country "Aigyptos"; the Arabic name "Misr" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian "misru" meaning border or frontier
    presidential republic
    name: Cairo
    geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj
    28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
    Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
    history: several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-fifth of the House of Representatives members; a decision to accept the proposal requires majority vote by House members; passage of amendment requires a two-thirds majority vote by House members and passage by majority vote in a referendum; articles of reelection of the president and principles of freedom not amendable unless the amendment "brings more guarantees" (2017)
    mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt
    dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Chief of state: President Abdelfattah ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018); note - Prime Minister Sherif ISMAIL (since 12 September 2015) resigned 6 June 2018
    cabinet: Cabinet ministers nominated by the executive authorities and approved by the House of Representtives
    elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26-28 March 2018 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives
    election results: Abdelfattah Said ELSISI relected president in first round; percent of valid votes case - Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (independent) 97.8%, Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA (El Ghad Party) 2.3%; note - over 7% of ballots cast were deemed invalid
    description: unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab); 596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members appointed by the president; member term 5 years; note - inaugural session held on 10 January 2016
    elections: multi-phase election completed on 16 December 2015 (next to be held in 2020
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -– Free Egyptians Party 65, Future of the Nation 53, New Wafd Party 36, Homeland’s Protector Party 18, Republican People’s Party 13, Congress Party 12, Al-Nour Party 11, Conservative Party 6, Democratic Peace Party 5, Egyptian National Movement 4, Egyptian Social Democratic Party 4, Modern Egypt Party 4, Freedom Party 3, My Homeland Egypt Party 3, Reform and Development Party 3, National Progressive Unionist Party 2, Arab Democratic Nasserist Party 1, El Serh El Masry el Hor 1, Revolutionary Guards Party 1, independent 351
    highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitration on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as “ordinary justices"; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) - consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council
    judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; judges appointed for life
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)
    Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]
    Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [Sayed Abdel GHANY]
    Congress Party [Omar Al-Mokhtar SEMIDA]
    Conservative Party [Akmal KOURTAM]
    Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY]
    Egyptian National Movement Party [Gen. Raouf EL SAYED]
    Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Farid ZAHRAN]
    El Ghad Party [Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA]
    El Serh El Masry el Hor [Tarek Ahmed Abbas NADIM]
    Freedom Party [Salah HASSABALAH]
    Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]
    Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI]
    Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS]
    Nation's Future Party (Mostaqbal Watan) [Mohamed Ashraf RASHAD]
    My Homeland Egypt Party [Qadry ABU HUSSEIN]
    National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
    Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]
    Republican People’s Party [Hazim AMR]
    Wafd Party [Bahaa ABU SHOKA];; Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Yasser REDA (since 19 September 2015)
    chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Thomas H. GOLDBERGER (since 30 June 2017)
    embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo
    mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
    telephone: [20-2] 2797-3300
    FAX: [20-2] 2797-3200
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
    note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
    golden eagle, white lotus; national colors: red, white, black
    name: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)
    lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH
    note: adopted 1979; the current anthem, less militaristic than the previous one, was created after the signing of the 1979 peace treaty with Israel; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
  • Economy :: EGYPT

  • Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Agriculture, hydrocarbons, manufacturing, tourism, and other service sectors drove the country’s relatively diverse economic activity.
    Despite Egypt’s mixed record for attracting foreign investment over the past two decades, poor living conditions and limited job opportunities have contributed to public discontent. These socioeconomic pressures were a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 has restricted economic growth and failed to alleviate persistent unemployment, especially among the young.
    In late 2016, persistent dollar shortages and waning aid from its Gulf allies led Cairo to turn to the IMF for a 3-year, $12 billion loan program. To secure the deal, Cairo floated its currency, introduced new taxes, and cut energy subsidies - all of which pushed inflation above 30% for most of 2017, a high that had not been seen in a generation. Since the currency float, foreign investment in Egypt’s high interest treasury bills has risen exponentially, boosting both dollar availability and central bank reserves. Cairo will be challenged to obtain foreign and local investment in manufacturing and other sectors without a sustained effort to implement a range of business reforms.
    $1.201 trillion (2017 est.)
    $1.152 trillion (2016 est.)
    $1.103 trillion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 22
    $237.1 billion (2017 est.)
    4.2% (2017 est.)
    4.3% (2016 est.)
    4.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    $12,700 (2017 est.)
    $12,800 (2016 est.)
    $12,400 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 123
    8.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    9.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    10.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    household consumption: 79.2%
    government consumption: 12.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 17.3%
    investment in inventories: 1.3%
    exports of goods and services: 13.5%
    imports of goods and services: -23.5% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 11.9%
    industry: 33.1%
    services: 55.7% (2017 est.)
    cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
    textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
    3.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    29.95 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    agriculture: 25.8%
    industry: 25.1%
    services: 49.1% (2015 est.)
    11.9% (2017 est.)
    12.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    27.8% (2016 est.)
    lowest 10%: 4%
    highest 10%: 26.6% (2008)
    31.8 (2015)
    29.8 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    revenues: $37.63 billion
    expenditures: $58.55 billion (2017 est.)
    19.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    -10.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    103.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    96.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 15
    1 July - 30 June
    23.5% (2017 est.)
    10.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    19.25% (9 July 2017)
    15.25% (3 November 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    19.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
    13.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    $43.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $34.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $196.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $146.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    $194.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $178.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $27.35 billion (30 December 2016 est.)
    $25.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $26.33 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    -$15.38 billion (2017 est.)
    -$19.83 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    $23.53 billion (2017 est.)
    $20.02 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
    UAE 10.9%, Italy 10%, US 7.4%, UK 5.7%, Turkey 4.4%, Germany 4.3%, India 4.3% (2017)
    $53.02 billion (2017 est.)
    $56.71 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
    China 7.9%, UAE 5.2%, Germany 4.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.6%, US 4.4%, Russia 4.3% (2017)
    $37.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $23.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $76.31 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $62.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $103.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $97.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $7.547 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.257 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
    18.05 (2017 est.)
    8.8 (2016 est.)
    10.07 (2015 est.)
    7.71 (2014 est.)
    7.08 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: EGYPT

  • population without electricity: 300,000
    electrification - total population: 99.6%
    electrification - urban areas: 100%
    electrification - rural areas: 99.3% (2013)
    171.9 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    150.4 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    1.158 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    43 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    38.88 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    90.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    7.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    2.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    494,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    197,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    60,940 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    471,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    802,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    39,220 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    206,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    3.61 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    47.94 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    720 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    2.832 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    2.186 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    207 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
  • Communications :: EGYPT

  • total subscriptions: 6,604,849
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    total subscriptions: 102,958,194
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    general assessment: Telecom Egypt remains largely state owned; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
    domestic: largest fixed-line system in Africa and the Arab region; multiple mobile-cellular networks with a 100-percent penetration of the market
    international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2016)
    mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks, as well as a few satellite channels; dozens of private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available for free; some limited satellite services are also available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 30 stations belonging to 8 networks (2018)
    total: 37,122,537
    percent of population: 39.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    total: 5,223,311
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    one of the largest and most famous libraries in the ancient world was the Great Library of Alexandria in Egypt (founded about 295 B.C., it may have survived in some form into the 5th century A.D.); seeking to resurrect the great center of learning and communication, the Egyptian Government in 2002 inaugurated the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, an Egyptian National Library on the site of the original Great Library, which commemorates the original archive and also serves as a center of cultural and scientific excellence
  • Transportation :: EGYPT

  • number of registered air carriers: 14
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 101
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 10,159,464
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 397,531,535 mt-km (2015)
    SU (2016)
    83 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    total: 72
    over 3,047 m: 15
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
    under 914 m: 6 (2017)
    total: 11
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    7 (2013)
    condensate 486 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 7,986 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,225 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km; water 65 km (2013)
    total: 5,085 km
    standard gauge: 5,085 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    total: 137,430 km
    paved: 126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 10,688 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    3,500 km (includes the Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    total: 399
    by type: bulk carrier 14, container ship 8, general cargo 33, oil tanker 36, other 308 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez
    oil terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal
    container port(s) (TEUs): Alexandria (1,662,000), Port Said (East) (3,036,000) (2015)
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Damietta, Idku (Abu Qir Bay)
  • Military and Security :: EGYPT

  • 2-3% of GDP according to Presisdent ELSISI (March 2017)
    1.67% of GDP (2016)
    1.72% of GDP (2015)
    1.69% of GDP (2014)
    1.61% of GDP (2013)
    1.65% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces (2018)
    18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 15 (2017)
  • Terrorism :: EGYPT

  • Harakat Sawa’d Misr (HASM):
    aim(s): overthrow the Egyptian Government
    area(s) of operation: Cairo, Nile Delta, Western Desert
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)-Sinai:
    aim(s): spread the ISIS caliphate by eliminating the Egyptian Government, destroying Israel, and establishing an Islamic emirate in the Sinai
    area(s) of operation: operational throughout Egypt, primarily in North Sinai
    note(s): formerly known as Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis; core ISIS refers to Egypt as its Wilayat Sinai
    Liwa al-Thawra:
    aim(s): overthrow the Egyptian Government
    area(s) of operation Nile Delta (April 2018)
    al-Qa'ida (AQ):
    aim(s): overthrow the Egyptian Government and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
    area(s) of operation: maintains a longtime operational presence and established networks
    Army of Islam (AOI):
    aim(s): disrupt the Egyptian Government's efforts to provide security and, ultimately, establish an Islamic caliphate
    area(s) of operation: operational mainly in Cairo and the Sinai Peninsula
    note(s): associated with ISIS Sinai Province (formerly known as Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis); targets Israeli Government interests, sometimes in collaboration with the Mujahidin Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: EGYPT

  • Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
    refugees (country of origin): 70,027 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (2016); 6,611 (Iraq) (refugees and asylum seekers); 6,561 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017); 131,504 (Syria) (refugees and asylum seekers); 20,001 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 11,769 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 11,041 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 6,978 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
    IDPs: 82,000 (2017)
    stateless persons: 19 (2016)
    current situation: Egypt is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; Egyptian children, including the large population of street children are vulnerable to forced labor in domestic service, begging and agriculture or may be victims of sex trafficking or child sex tourism, which occurs in Cairo, Alexandria, and Luxor; some Egyptian women and girls are sold into “temporary” or “summer” marriages with Gulf men, through the complicity of their parents or marriage brokers, and are exploited for prostitution or forced labor; Egyptian men are subject to forced labor in neighboring countries, while adults from South and Southeast Asia and East Africa – and increasingly Syrian refugees – are forced to work in domestic service, construction, cleaning, and begging in Egypt; women and girls, including migrants and refugees, from Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle East are sex trafficked in Egypt; the Egyptian military cracked down on criminal group’s smuggling, abducting, trafficking, and extorting African migrants in the Sinai Peninsula, but the practice has reemerged along Egypt’s western border with Libya
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Egypt does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government gathered data nationwide on trafficking cases to better allocate and prioritize anti-trafficking efforts, but overall it did not demonstrate increased progress; prosecutions increased in 2014, but no offenders were convicted for the second consecutive year; fewer trafficking victims were identified in 2014, which represents a significant and ongoing decrease from the previous two reporting periods; the government relied on NGOs and international organizations to identify and refer victims to protective services, and focused on Egyptian victims and refused to provide some services to foreign victims, at times including shelter (2015)
    transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations