Library

 
Africa :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Page last updated on September 20, 2016
NO PHOTOS AVAILABLE.
  • Introduction :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • Equatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule; it is one of the smallest countries in Africa consisting of a mainland territory and five inhabited islands. The capital of Malabo is located on the island of Bioko, approximately 25 km from the Cameroonian coastline in the Gulf of Guinea. Between 1968 and 1979, autocratic President Francisco MACIAS NGUEMA virtually destroyed all of the country's political, economic, and social institutions before being deposed by his nephew Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO in a coup. President OBIANG has ruled since October 1979 and was reelected in 2016. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, presidential and legislative elections since 1996 have generally been labeled as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has placed legal and bureaucratic barriers that prevent political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade has become Sub-Saharan Africa's third largest oil exporter. Despite the country's economic windfall from oil production, resulting in a massive increase in government revenue in recent years, the drop in global oil prices has placed significant strain on the state budget. Equatorial Guinea continues to seek to diversify its economy and to increase foreign investment despite limited improvements in the population's living standards. Equatorial Guinea is the host of major regional and international conferences and continues to seek a greater role in regional affairs.
  • Geography :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon
    2 00 N, 10 00 E
    Africa
    total: 28,051 sq km
    land: 28,051 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 146
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    total: 528 km
    border countries (2): Cameroon 183 km, Gabon 345 km
    296 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical; always hot, humid
    coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
    mean elevation: 577 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m
    petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay
    agricultural land: 10.1%
    arable land 4.3%; permanent crops 2.1%; permanent pasture 3.7%
    forest: 57.5%
    other: 32.4% (2011 est.)
    NA
    26 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.02 cu km/yr (80%/15%/5%)
    per capita: 31.41 cu m/yr (2005)
    violent windstorms; flash floods
    volcanism: Santa Isabel (elev. 3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, form Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea
    tap water is non-potable; deforestation
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    insular and continental regions widely separated
  • People and Society :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • 759,451 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
    adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
    Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)
    Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) 32.4% (1994 census)
    nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices
    0-14 years: 40.15% (male 154,896/female 150,010)
    15-24 years: 19.63% (male 75,914/female 73,194)
    25-54 years: 31.94% (male 120,999/female 121,587)
    55-64 years: 4.3% (male 14,052/female 18,583)
    65 years and over: 3.98% (male 12,627/female 17,589) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 72.9%
    youth dependency ratio: 67.9%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5%
    potential support ratio: 20% (2015 est.)
    total: 19.6 years
    male: 19.1 years
    female: 20.1 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    2.48% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    32.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    urban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.12% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MALABO (capital) 145,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.72 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    342 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    total: 67.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 68.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 66.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    total population: 64.2 years
    male: 63.1 years
    female: 65.4 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    4.48 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    12.6% (2011)
    3.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 72.5% of population
    rural: 31.5% of population
    total: 47.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 27.5% of population
    rural: 68.5% of population
    total: 52.1% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 79.9% of population
    rural: 71% of population
    total: 74.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 20.1% of population
    rural: 29% of population
    total: 25.5% of population (2015 est.)
    4.88% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    27,400 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    1,100 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    16.2% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    5.6% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 95.3%
    male: 97.4%
    female: 93% (2015 est.)
  • Government :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
    conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
    local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee Equatoriale
    local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee Equatoriale
    former: Spanish Guinea
    etymology: the country is named for the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel; the "equatorial" refers to the fact that the country lies just north of the Equator
    presidential republic
    name: Malabo
    geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
    12 October 1968 (from Spain)
    Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
    approved by referendum 17 November 1991; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
    mixed system of civil and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Equatorial Guinea
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)
    head of government: Prime Minister Francisco Pascual Eyegue OBAMA Asue (since 23 June 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga NGUEMA Onguene; Second Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Mesie MIBUY; Third Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Nsue MOKUY
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 April 2016 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
    election results: Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (PDGE) 93.7%
    description: bicameral National Assembly or Asemblea Nacional, formerly the unicameral Parliament, consists of the Senate or Senado (70 seats; 55 members directly elected by simple majority vote and 15 appointed by the president) and the House of People's Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (100 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the constitutional referendum of 2011 established the Senate and was implemented at the time of the May 2013 elections
    elections: last held on 26 May 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 54, CPDS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 99, CPDS 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice - who is also chief of state - and 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 4 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members appointed by the president, 2 of which are nominated by the Chamber of Deputies
    subordinate courts: Court of Guarantees; military courts; Courts of Appeal; first instance tribunals; district and county tribunals
    Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Andres ESONO ONDO]
    Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Jeronimo OSA OSA ECORO] (ruling party)
    Electoral Coalition or EC
    Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Carmelo MBA BACALE]
    Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ AYECABA]
    not officially registered parties: Democratic Republican Force or FDR [Guillermo NGUEMA ELA]
    Independent Candidacy or CI [Gabriel NSE OBIANG OBONO]
    Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]
    Union for the Center Right or UDC [Avelino MOCACHE MEAENGA]
    note: in November 2014, the government hosted a National Dialogue process to engage with the political opposition; the opposition particiapated with limited attendance and engagement; on March 18, 2015, the CPDS, FDR, and UP formed a coalition called the Front of Democratic Opposition or FOD
    ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform)
    Coalicion CEIBA (group formed by diverse, exiled political parties)
    C.O.R.E.D. (originally led by Raimundo Ela Nsang; based in Paris)
    EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)
    ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, CPLP (associate), FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Miguel Ntutumu EVUNA ANDEME (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700
    FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252
    consul general(s): Houston
    chief of mission: Ambassador Julie FURUTA-TOY (since January 2016)
    embassy: Carretera Malabo II, Malabo, Guinea Ecuatorial
    mailing address: US Embassy Malabo, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
    telephone: [240] 333 09 57 41
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red, with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice); green symbolizes the jungle and natural resources, blue represents the sea that connects the mainland to the islands, white stands for peace, and red recalls the fight for independence
    silk cotton tree; national colors: green, white, red, blue
    name: "Caminemos pisando la senda" (Let Us Tread the Path)
    lyrics/music: Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO/Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO or Ramiro Sanchez LOPEZ (disputed)
    note: adopted 1968
  • Economy :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • Exploitation of oil and gas deposits, beginning in the 1990s, has driven economic growth in Equatorial Guinea, allowing per capita GDP to rise to over $29,000 in 2014. Forestry and farming are minor components of GDP. Although preindependence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect of the rural economy since independence has diminished the potential for agriculture-led growth. Subsistence farming is the dominant form of livelihood. Declining revenue from hydrocarbon production, high levels of infrastructure expenditures, lack of economic diversification, and corruption have pushed the economy into decline in recent years and led to limited improvements in the general population’s living conditions.
    Foreign assistance programs by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut since 1993 because of corruption and mismanagement, and as a middle income country Equatorial Guinea is now ineligible for most donor assistance. The government has been widely criticized for its lack of transparency and misuse of oil revenues and has attempted to address this issue by working towards compliance with the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. US foreign assistance to Equatorial Guinea is limited in part because of US restrictions pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Act.
    Equatorial Guinea hosted two economic diversification symposia in 2014 that focused on attracting investment in five sectors: agriculture and animal ranching, fishing, mining and petrochemicals, tourism, and financial services. Undeveloped mineral resources include gold, zinc, diamonds, columbite-tantalite, and other base metals.
    $25.39 billion (2015 est.)
    $28.91 billion (2014 est.)
    $28.99 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 134
    $9.403 billion (2015 est.)
    -12.2% (2015 est.)
    -0.3% (2014 est.)
    -6.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    $31,800 (2015 est.)
    $37,200 (2014 est.)
    $38,300 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 58
    23.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    25.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    29.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    household consumption: 19.8%
    government consumption: 6.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 62.4%
    investment in inventories: 0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 61%
    imports of goods and services: -49.7% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 5.1%
    industry: 85.7%
    services: 9.2% (2014 est.)
    coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber
    petroleum, natural gas, sawmilling
    -10.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    195,200 (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    22.3% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $2.99 billion
    expenditures: $3.58 billion (2015 est.)
    29.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    -5.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    13% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    calendar year
    3.2% (2015 est.)
    4.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    8.5% (31 December 2010)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    14% (31 December 2015 est.)
    15% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    $2.001 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.504 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    $3.788 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.841 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    $940.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $655.2 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    -$617 million (2015 est.)
    -$1.493 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    $9.169 billion (2015 est.)
    $14.76 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    petroleum products, timber
    China 16.6%, South Korea 15.1%, Spain 9%, Brazil 8.2%, Netherlands 6.8%, South Africa 6.6%, India 5.8%, UK 5.7%, France 5.7% (2015)
    $4.143 billion (2015 est.)
    $5.475 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    petroleum sector equipment, other equipment, construction materials, vehicles
    Netherlands 16.9%, Spain 16.3%, China 14.9%, US 8.9%, Cote dIvoire 6%, France 4.8% (2015)
    $1.903 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.907 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    $1.416 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.562 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
    580.5 (2015 est.)
    494.42 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • population without electricity: 300,000
    electrification - total population: 66 %
    electrification - urban areas: 93 %
    electrification - rural areas: 48 % (2013)
    100 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    93 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    164,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    22.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    77.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    248,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    318,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    4,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    4,863 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    6.29 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    1.49 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    4.8 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    5.614 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
  • Communications :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • total subscriptions: 11,334
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    total: 533,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 72 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    general assessment: digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and decent mobile cellular coverage
    domestic: fixed-line density is about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and in 2015 stood at about 70 percent of the population
    international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
    state maintains control of broadcast media with domestic broadcast media limited to 1 state-owned TV station, 1 private TV station owned by the president's eldest son, 1 state-owned radio station, and 1 private radio station owned by the president's eldest son; satellite TV service is available; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible (2013)
    AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 5 (2001)
    1 (2001)
    .gq
    7 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 227
    total: 158,000
    percent of population: 21.3% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
  • Transportation :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • 7 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    total: 6
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    condensate 42 km; condensate/gas 5 km; gas 79 km; oil 71 km (2013)
    total: 2,880 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    total: 5
    by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 3
    foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    major seaport(s): Bata, Luba, Malabo
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Bioko Island
  • Military and Security :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • Equatorial Guinea Armed Forces (FAGE): Equatorial Guinea National Guard (Guardia Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, GNGE (Army), Navy, Air Force (2013)
    18 years of age for selective compulsory military service, although conscription is rare in practice; 2-year service obligation; women hold only administrative positions in the Navy (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation; UN urged Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
    current situation: Equatorial Guinea is a source country for children subjected to sex trafficking and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor; Equatorial Guinean girls may be encouraged by their parents to engage in the sex trade in urban centers to receive groceries, gifts, housing, and money; children are also trafficked from nearby countries for work as domestic servants, market laborers, ambulant vendors, and launderers; women are trafficked to Equatorial Guinea from Cameroon, Benin, other neighboring countries, and China for forced labor or prostitution
    tier rating: Tier 3 – Equatorial Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards on the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, the government made no efforts to investigate or prosecute any suspected trafficking offenders or to identify or protect victims, despite its 2004 law prohibiting all forms of trafficking and mandating the provision of services to victims; undocumented migrants continued to be deported without being screened to assess whether any were trafficking victims; authorities did not undertake any trafficking awareness campaigns, implement any programs to address forced child labor, or make any other efforts to prevent trafficking (2015)