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Africa :: Equatorial Guinea
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  • Introduction :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • Equatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule. This tiny country, composed of a mainland portion plus five inhabited islands, is one of the smallest on the African continent. President Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MBASOGO has ruled since 1979 when he seized power in a coup. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, the 1996, 2002, and 2009 presidential elections - as well as the 1999, 2004, 2008, and 2013 legislative elections - were widely seen as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has discouraged political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade has become Sub-Saharan Africa's third largest oil exporter. Despite the country's economic windfall from oil production, resulting in a massive increase in government revenue in recent years, improvements in the population's living standards lagged.
  • Geography :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon
    2 00 N, 10 00 E
    Africa
    total: 28,051 sq km
    land: 28,051 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 146
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    total: 528 km
    border countries: Cameroon 183 km, Gabon 345 km
    296 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical; always hot, humid
    coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m
    petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay
    arable land: 4.28%
    permanent crops: 2.14%
    other: 93.58% (2012 est.)
    NA
    26 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.02 cu km/yr (80%/15%/5%)
    per capita: 31.41 cu m/yr (2005)
    violent windstorms; flash floods
    volcanism: Santa Isabel (elev. 3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, form Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea
    tap water is non-potable; deforestation
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    insular and continental regions widely separated
  • People and Society :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
    adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
    Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)
    Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) 32.4% (1994 census)
    nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices
    722,254 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    0-14 years: 40.8% (male 149,597/female 144,788)
    15-24 years: 19.5% (male 71,609/female 69,061)
    25-54 years: 31.5% (male 112,956/female 114,785)
    55-64 years: 4.2% (male 13,052/female 17,247)
    65 years and over: 4% (male 12,310/female 16,849) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 70.8%
    youth dependency ratio: 66.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.7%
    potential support ratio: 21.1% (2014 est.)
    total: 19.4 years
    male: 18.8 years
    female: 19.9 years (2014 est.)
    2.54% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    33.83 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    8.39 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    urban population: 39.8% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 3.12% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MALABO (capital) 145,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    240 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    total: 71.12 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 72.17 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 70.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    total population: 63.49 years
    male: 62.43 years
    female: 64.58 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    4.66 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    12.6% (2011)
    4.7% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 65.5% of population
    rural: 41.6% of population
    total: 50.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 34.5% of population
    rural: 58.4% of population
    total: 49.1% of population (2006 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 92.2% of population
    rural: 86.8% of population
    total: 88.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 7.8% of population
    rural: 13.2% of population
    total: 11.1% of population (2006 est.)
    6.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    31,400 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    1,400 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    10.6% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    5.6% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    0.6% of GDP (2002)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 94.5%
    male: 97.2%
    female: 91.6% (2012 est.)
    total number: 35,382
    percentage: 28% (2000 est.)
  • Government :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
    conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
    local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee equatoriale
    local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee equatoriale
    former: Spanish Guinea
    republic
    name: Malabo
    geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
    12 October 1968 (from Spain)
    Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
    approved by referendum 17 November 1991; amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)
    mixed system of civil and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MGASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)
    head of government: Prime Minister Vicente Ehate TOMI (since 22 May 2012); First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga NGUEMA Onguene; Second Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Nsue MOKOY
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (two-term limit); election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
    election results: Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MBASOGO 95.8%, Placido MICO Abogo 3.6%, other 0.6%
    description: bicameral National Assembly or Asemblea Nacional, formerly the unicameral Parliament, consists of the Senate or Senado (70 seats; 55 members directly elected by simple majority vote and 15 appointed by the president) and the House of People's Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (100 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the constitutional referendum of 2011 established the Senate which was formed at the time of the May 2013 elections
    elections: last held on 26 May 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 54, CPDS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 99, CPDS 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice and NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 4 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members appointed by the president, two of which are nominated by the Chamber of Deputies
    subordinate courts: Court of Guarantees; military courts; Courts of Appeal; first instance tribunals; district and county tribunals
    Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Andres Esono ONDO]
    Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Jeronimo Osa Osa ECORO] (ruling party)
    Electoral Coalition or EC
    Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]
    Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Carmelo Mba BACALE]
    Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ Ayecaba]
    ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform)
    EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)
    ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, CPLP (associate), FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Miguel Ntutumu Evuna ANDEME (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700
    FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252
    consul general(s): Houston
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mark L. ASQUINO (since 4 October 2012)
    embassy: Carretera Malabo II, Malabo, Guinea Ecuatorial
    mailing address: US Embassy Malabo, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
    telephone: [240] 333 09 57 41
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red, with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice); green symbolizes the jungle and natural resources, blue represents the sea that connects the mainland to the islands, white stands for peace, and red recalls the fight for independence
    silk cotton tree; national colors: green, white, red, blue
    name: "Caminemos pisando la senda" (Let Us Tread the Path)
    lyrics/music: Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO/Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO or Ramiro Sanchez LOPEZ (disputed)
    note: adopted 1968
  • Economy :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • The discovery and exploitation of large oil and gas reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth, but fluctuating oil prices along with slowing or declining oil production have resulted in much lower GDP growth in recent years. The economy is still dominated by hydrocarbon production. The government has solicited foreign investment, particularly from the United States, to diversify the economy and in February 2014 the government hosted an economic diversification symposium focused on attracting investment in five sectors: agriculture and animal ranching, fishing, mining and petrochemicals, tourism, and financial services. Undeveloped mineral resources include gold, zinc, diamonds, columbite-tantalite, and other base metals. Forestry and farming are also minor components of GDP. Subsistence farming is the dominant form of livelihood. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect of the rural economy under successive regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led growth. The government has stated its intention to reinvest some oil revenue into agriculture. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of corruption and mismanagement. The government has been widely criticized for its lack of transparency and misuse of oil revenues and has attempted to address this issue by working towards compliance with the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.
    $25.33 billion (2014 est.)
    $25.99 billion (2013 est.)
    $27.31 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 133
    $15.4 billion (2014 est.)
    -2.5% (2014 est.)
    -4.8% (2013 est.)
    3.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    $32,600 (2014 est.)
    $34,300 (2013 est.)
    $37,100 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    43.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    46.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    49.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    household consumption: 15.5%
    government consumption: 6.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 57.6%
    investment in inventories: 1.3%
    exports of goods and services: 77.4%
    imports of goods and services: -58.4%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 5.1%
    industry: 85.7%
    services: 9.2% (2014 est.)
    coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber
    petroleum, natural gas, sawmilling
    -4.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    195,200 (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    22.3% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $5.2 billion
    expenditures: $6.262 billion (2014 est.)
    33.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    -6.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    8.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    8.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    calendar year
    6.1% (2014 est.)
    6.3% (2013 est.)
    8.5% (31 December 2010)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    15% (31 December 2014 est.)
    15% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    $1.11 billion (31 December 2008)
    $835.2 million (31 December 2007)
    $132.1 million (31 December 2008)
    $174.5 million (31 December 2007)
    $3.363 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.384 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    $3.788 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.841 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $-80.51 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $-578 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    -$1.509 billion (2014 est.)
    -$1.542 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    $13.26 billion (2014 est.)
    $14.74 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    petroleum products, timber
    China 18%, Japan 14.9%, UK 13.5%, France 11.1%, Brazil 7.8%, Spain 7.8%, US 6.7%, Norway 4.2%, Netherlands 4.2% (2013)
    $6.436 billion (2014 est.)
    $6.913 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    petroleum sector equipment, other equipment, construction materials, vehicles
    US 28%, Spain 16.5%, China 13.2%, France 5.7%, Italy 5.1%, Cote dIvoire 4.1% (2013)
    $2.763 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.507 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    $1.385 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.548 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
    491.2 (2014 est.)
    494.04 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
    495.28 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • 97 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    90.21 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    41,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    90.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    9.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    290,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    3,074 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    2,290 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    2,320 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    4,561 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    6.88 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    2.16 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    4.72 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    5.614 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • 14,900 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    501,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    general assessment: digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and good mobile cellular coverage
    domestic: fixed-line density is about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and in 2011 stood at about 60 percent of the population
    international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
    state maintains control of broadcast media with domestic broadcast media limited to 1 state-owned TV station, 1 private TV station owned by the president's eldest son, 1 state-owned radio station, and 1 private radio station owned by the president's eldest son; satellite TV service is available; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible (2013)
    AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 5 (2001)
    1 (2001)
    .gq
    7 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 227
    14,400 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 196
  • Transportation :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • 7 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    total: 6
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    condensate 42 km; condensate/gas 5 km; gas 79 km; oil 71 km (2013)
    total: 2,880 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    total: 5
    by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 3
    foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    major seaport(s): Bata, Luba, Malabo
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Bioko Island
  • Military :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • Equatorial Guinea Armed Forces (FAGE): Equatorial Guinea National Guard (Guardia Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, GNGE (Army); Navy; Air Force (2013)
    18 years of age for selective compulsory military service, although conscription is rare in practice; 2-year service obligation; women hold only administrative positions in the Navy (2013)
    males age 16-49: 151,147
    females age 16-49: 150,345 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 113,277
    females age 16-49: 115,320 (2010 est.)
    male: 7,398
    female: 7,126 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: EQUATORIAL GUINEA

  • in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation; UN urged Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
    current situation: Equatorial Guinea is a source and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sexual exploitation; children are trafficked from nearby countries for work as domestic servants, market laborers, ambulant vendors, and launderers; women may also be trafficked to Equatorial Guinea from Cameroon, Benin, other neighboring countries, and China for forced labor or prostitution; Equatorial Guinean girls may be encouraged by their parents to engage in the sex trade in urban centers to receive groceries, gifts, housing, and money
    tier rating: Tier 3 – Equatorial Guinea is not making significant efforts to comply with the minimum standards on the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2013, the government initiated no investigations or prosecutions of suspected trafficking offenses and demonstrated no efforts to identify victims or to provide them with necessary services, despite being required to do so under its 2004 anti-trafficking law; undocumented migrants were deported without screening to assess whether they were trafficking victims; the government did not launch any public anti-trafficking campaigns or implement any programs to address forced child labor (2014)
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