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Europe :: Estonia Print
Page last updated on October 09, 2020
  • Introduction :: Estonia
  • Background field listing
    After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the West. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010, and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.
  • Geography :: Estonia
  • Location field listing
    Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    59 00 N, 26 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 45,228 sq km
    land: 42,388 sq km
    water: 2,840 sq km

    note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

    country comparison to the world: 133
    Area - comparative field listing
    about twice the size of New Jersey
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 657 km
    border countries (2): Latvia 333 km, Russia 324 km
    Coastline field listing
    3,794 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: limits as agreed to by Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Sweden, and Russia
    Climate field listing
    maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers
    Terrain field listing
    marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 61 m
    lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
    Natural resources field listing
    oil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 22.2% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 14.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 7.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 52.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 25.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    40 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
    Natural hazards field listing
    sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amounts of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen dramatically and the pollution load of wastewater at purification plants has decreased substantially due to improved technology and environmental monitoring; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
  • People and Society :: Estonia
  • Population field listing
    1,228,624 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Estonian(s)
    adjective: Estonian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Estonian 68.7%, Russian 24.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, Belarusian 1%, Finn 0.6%, other 1.6%, unspecified 1.6% (2011 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Estonian (official) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)
    Religions field listing
    Orthodox 16.2%, Lutheran 9.9%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 16.22% (male 102,191/female 97,116)
    15-24 years: 8.86% (male 56,484/female 52,378)
    25-54 years: 40.34% (male 252,273/female 243,382)
    55-64 years: 13.58% (male 76,251/female 90,576)
    65 years and over: 21% (male 89,211/female 168,762) (2020 est.)
    population Pyramid: population Pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 58.4
    youth dependency ratio: 26.1
    elderly dependency ratio: 32.3
    potential support ratio: 3.1 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 43.7 years
    male: 40.4 years
    female: 47 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Population growth rate field listing
    -0.65% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    Birth rate field listing
    9.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Death rate field listing
    12.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Net migration rate field listing
    -3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 69.2% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    445,000 TALLINN (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    26.6 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    9 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 77.4 years
    male: 72.7 years
    female: 82.3 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.61 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    6.4% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    3.46 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    4.7 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.9% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    7,400 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: intermediate (2020)
    vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    21.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Education expenditures field listing
    5.2% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.8% (2015)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 16 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 17 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 11.8%
    male: 12.3%
    female: 11.4% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
  • Government :: Estonia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
    conventional short form: Estonia
    local long form: Eesti Vabariik
    local short form: Eesti
    former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: the country name may derive from the Aesti, an ancient people who lived along the eastern Baltic Sea in the first centuries A.D.
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Tallinn
    geographic coordinates: 59 26 N, 24 43 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: the Estonian name is generally believed to be derived from "Taani-linn" (originally meaning "Danish castle", now "Danish town") after a stronghold built in the area by the Danes; it could also have come from "tali-linn" ("winter castle" or "winter town") or "talu-linn" ("home castle" or "home town")
    Administrative divisions field listing
    15 urban municipalities (linnad, singular - linn), 64 rural municipalities (vallad, singular vald)

    urban municipalities: Haapsalu, Keila, Kohtla-Jarve, Loksa, Maardu, Narva, Narva-Joesuu, Paide, Parnu, Rakvere, Sillamae, Tallinn, Tartu, Viljandi, Voru

    rural municipalities: Alutaguse, Anija, Antsla, Elva, Haademeeste, Haljala, Harku, Hiiumaa, Jarva, Joelahtme, Jogeva, Johvi, Kadrina, Kambja, Kanepi, Kastre, Kehtna, Kihnu, Kiili, Kohila, Kose, Kuusalu, Laane-Harju, Laane-Nigula, Laaneranna, Luganuse, Luunja, Marjamaa, Muhu, Mulgi, Mustvee, Noo, Otepaa, Peipsiaare, Pohja-Parnumaa, Pohja-Sakala, Poltsamaa, Polva, Raasiku, Rae, Rakvere, Räpina, Rapla, Rouge, Ruhnu, Saarde, Saaremaa, Saku, Saue, Setomaa, Tapa, Tartu, Toila, Tori, Torva, Turi, Vaike-Maarja, Valga, Viimsi, Viljandi, Vinni, Viru-Nigula, Vormsi, Voru
    Independence field listing
    24 February 1918 (from Soviet Russia); 20 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 20 August 1991 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union restoring its statehood
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 28 June 1992
    amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of Parliament members or by the president of the republic; passage requires three readings of the proposed amendment and a simple majority vote in two successive memberships of Parliament; passage of amendments to the "General Provisions" and "Amendment of the Constitution" chapters requires at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament to conduct a referendum and majority vote in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2015
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Estonia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal; age 16 for local elections
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Kersti KALJULAID (since 10 October 2016)
    head of government: Juri RATAS (since 23 November 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after 3 rounds of balloting, then an electoral college consisting of Parliament members and local council members elects the president, choosing between the 2 candidates with the highest number of votes; election last held on 29-30 August 2016, but three rounds were inconclusive; two electoral college votes on 24 September 2016 were also indecisive, so the election passed back to Parliament; on 3 October the Parliament elected Kersti KALJULAID as president; prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
    election results: Kersti KALJULAID elected president; Parliament vote - Kersti KALJULAID (independent) 81 of 98 votes; note - KALJULAID is Estonia's first female president
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 3 March 2019 (next to be held in March 2023)
    election results: percent of vote by party - RE 28.9%, K 23.1%, EKRE 17.8%, Pro Patria 11.4%, SDE 9.8%, other 9%; seats by party - RE 34, K 26, EKRE 19, Pro Patria 12, SDE 10; composition - men 72, women 29, percent of women 28.7%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 19 justices, including the chief justice, and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional review chambers)
    judge selection and term of office: the chief justice is proposed by the president of the republic and appointed by the Riigikogu; other justices proposed by the chief justice and appointed by the Riigikogu; justices appointed for life
    subordinate courts: circuit (appellate) courts; administrative, county, city, and specialized courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) or K [Juri RATAS]
    Estonia 200 [Kristina KALLAS]
    Estonian Conservative People's Party (Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond) or EKRE [Mart HELME]
    Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) or RE [Kaja KALLAS]
    Free Party or EV [Andres HERKEL]
    Pro Patria (Isamaa) [Helir-Valdor SEEDER]
    Social Democratic Party or SDE [Jevgeni OSSINOVSKI]
    International organization participation field listing
    Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Jonatan VSEVIOV (since 17 September 2018)
    chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
    FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Brian RORAFF (since July 2019)
    telephone: [372] 668-8100
    embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    FAX: [372] 668-8265
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white; various interpretations are linked to the flag colors; blue represents faith, loyalty, and devotion, while also reminiscent of the sky, sea, and lakes of the country; black symbolizes the soil of the country and the dark past and suffering endured by the Estonian people; white refers to the striving towards enlightenment and virtue, and is the color of birch bark and snow, as well as summer nights illuminated by the midnight sun
    National symbol(s) field listing
    barn swallow, cornflower; national colors: blue, black, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Mu isamaa, mu onn ja room" (My Native Land, My Pride and Joy)
    lyrics/music: Johann Voldemar JANNSEN/Fredrik PACIUS

    note: adopted 1920, though banned between 1940 and 1990 under Soviet occupation; the anthem, used in Estonia since 1869, shares the same melody as Finland's but has different lyrics

  • Economy :: Estonia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Estonia, a member of the EU since 2004 and the euro zone since 2011, has a modern market-based economy and one of the higher per capita income levels in Central Europe and the Baltic region, but its economy is highly dependent on trade, leaving it vulnerable to external shocks. Estonia's successive governments have pursued a free market, pro-business economic agenda, and sound fiscal policies that have resulted in balanced budgets and the lowest debt-to-GDP ratio in the EU.

    The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and strong trade ties with Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Russia. The economy’s 4.9% GDP growth in 2017 was the fastest in the past six years, leaving the Estonian economy in its best position since the financial crisis 10 years ago. For the first time in many years, labor productivity increased faster than labor costs in 2017. Inflation also rose in 2017 to 3.5% alongside increased global prices for food and energy, which make up a large share of Estonia’s consumption.

    Estonia is challenged by a shortage of labor, both skilled and unskilled, although the government has amended its immigration law to allow easier hiring of highly qualified foreign workers, and wage growth that outpaces productivity gains. The government is also pursuing efforts to boost productivity growth with a focus on innovations that emphasize technology start-ups and e-commerce.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $41.65 billion (2017 est.)
    $39.72 billion (2016 est.)
    $38.92 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 116
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $25.97 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    4.9% (2017 est.)
    2.1% (2016 est.)
    1.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $31,700 (2017 est.)
    $30,200 (2016 est.)
    $29,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 64
    Gross national saving field listing
    27% of GDP (2017 est.)
    24.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    25.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 50.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 20.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.2% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 77.2% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -74% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 2.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 29.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 68.1% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    grain, potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
    Industries field listing
    food, engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textiles; information technology, telecommunications
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    9.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Labor force field listing
    670,200 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 2.7%
    industry: 20.5%
    services: 76.8% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    5.8% (2017 est.)
    6.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Population below poverty line field listing
    21.1% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 2.3%
    highest 10%: 25.6% (2015)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 10.37 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 10.44 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    39.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Public debt field listing
    9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    9.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

    country comparison to the world: 199
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    3.7% (2017 est.)
    0.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Current account balance field listing
    $809 million (2017 est.)
    $443 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Exports field listing
    $13.44 billion (2017 est.)
    $12.36 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Exports - partners field listing
    Finland 16.2%, Sweden 13.5%, Latvia 9.2%, Russia 7.3%, Germany 6.9%, Lithuania 5.9% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    machinery and electrical equipment 30%, food products and beverages 9%, mineral fuels 6%, wood and wood products 14%, articles of base metals 7%, furniture and bedding 11%, vehicles and parts 3%, chemicals 4% (2016 est.)
    Imports field listing
    $14.42 billion (2017 est.)
    $13.23 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and electrical equipment 28%, mineral fuels 11%, food and food products 10%, vehicles 9%, chemical products 8%, metals 8% (2015 est.)
    Imports - partners field listing
    Finland 14%, Germany 10.7%, Lithuania 8.9%, Sweden 8.5%, Latvia 8.2%, Poland 7.2%, Russia 6.7%, Netherlands 5.9%, China 4.7% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $345 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $352.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Debt - external field listing
    $19.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $18.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Exchange rates field listing
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.92 (2017 est.)
    0.9 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Estonia
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    11.55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    8.795 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Electricity - exports field listing
    5.613 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Electricity - imports field listing
    3.577 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    2.578 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    72% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    28% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    28,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    27,150 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    35,520 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    481.4 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    481.4 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    5.306 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
  • Communications :: Estonia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 345,690
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 1,924,034
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: a range of regulatory measures, competition and foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures has greatly improved telephone service with a wide range of high-quality voice, data, and Internet services; one of the most advanced mobile markets in Europe; one of the highest broadband penetration in Europe; govt. commits 20 million euro to rural broadband program; regulator auctions spectrum in the 2.6GHz band for LTE and 5G services (2020)
    domestic: 28 per 100 for fixed-line and 155 per 100 for mobile-cellular; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the Internet, a large percentage of the population files income tax returns online, and online voting - in local and parliamentary elections - has climbed steadily since first being introduced in 2005; a large percent of Estonian households have broadband access (2018)
    international: country code - 372; landing points for the EE-S-1, EESF-3, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC and EESF-2 fiber-optic submarine cables to other Estonia points, Finland, and Sweden; 2 international switches are located in Tallinn (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    the publicly owned broadcaster, Eesti Rahvusringhaaling (ERR), operates 3 TV channels and 5 radio networks; growing number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting nationally, regionally, and locally; fully transitioned to digital television in 2010; national private TV channels expanding service; a range of channels are aimed at Russian-speaking viewers; in 2016, there were 42 on-demand services available in Estonia, including 19 pay TVOD and SVOD services; roughly 85% of households accessed digital television services
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 1,111,896
    percent of population: 89.36% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 441,167
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
  • Military and Security :: Estonia
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Estonian Defense Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Estonian Defence League (Reserves); Ministry of Interior: Border Guards (2019)
    Military expenditures field listing
    2.14% of GDP (2019 est.)
    2% of GDP (2018)
    2.03% of GDP (2017)
    2.07% of GDP (2016)
    2.02% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Estonian Defense Forces have approximately 6,000 active duty personnel (5,000 Army; 400 Navy; 500 Air Force); est. 15,000 Estonian Defense League (2020 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the Estonian Defense Forces have a limited inventory of Soviet-era and more modern Western weapons systems; France and the Netherlands are the leading suppliers of armaments to Estonia since 2010 (2019 est.)
    Military deployments field listing
    approximately 100 Mali (Operation Barkhane/MINUSMA/EUTM) (2020)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-27 for compulsory military or governmental service, conscript service requirement 8-11 months depending on education; NCOs, reserve officers, and specialists serve 11 months (2016)
  • Transportation :: Estonia
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 14
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 31,981 (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    ES (2016)
    Airports field listing
    18 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 13 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 5 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2012)
    Pipelines field listing
    2360 km gas (2016)
    Railways field listing
    total: 2,146 km (2016)
    broad gauge: 2,146 km 1.520-m and 1.524-m gauge (132 km electrified) (2016)

    note: includes 1,510 km public and 636 km non-public railway

    country comparison to the world: 71
    Roadways field listing
    total: 58,412 km (includes urban roads) (2011)
    paved: 10,427 km (includes 115 km of expressways) (2011)
    unpaved: 47,985 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Waterways field listing
    335 km (320 km are navigable year-round) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 69
    by type: general cargo 1, oil tanker 6, other 62 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Kuivastu, Kunda, Muuga, Parnu Reid, Sillamae, Tallinn
  • Transnational Issues :: Estonia
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Russia and Estonia in May 2005 signed a technical border agreement, but Russia in June 2005 recalled its signature after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia implements strict Schengen border rules with Russia

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 77,877 (2018); note - following independence in 1991, automatic citizenship was restricted to those who were Estonian citizens prior to the 1940 Soviet occupation and their descendants; thousands of ethnic Russians remained stateless when forced to choose between passing Estonian language and citizenship tests or applying for Russian citizenship; one reason for demurring on Estonian citizenship was to retain the right of visa-free travel to Russia; stateless residents can vote in local elections but not general elections; stateless parents who have been lawful residents of Estonia for at least five years can apply for citizenship for their children before they turn 15 years old
    Illicit drugs field listing
    growing producer of synthetic drugs; increasingly important transshipment zone for cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs since joining the European Union and the Schengen Accord; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds; major use of opiates and ecstasy