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Africa :: ETHIOPIA
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ETHIOPIA
  • Introduction :: ETHIOPIA

  • Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.
  • Geography :: ETHIOPIA

  • Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
    8 00 N, 38 00 E
    Africa
    total: 1,104,300 sq km
    land: 1 million sq km
    water: 104,300 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 27
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    Area comparison map:
    total: 5,925 km
    border countries (6): Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1,033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1,640 km, South Sudan 1,299 km, Sudan 744 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
    high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
    mean elevation: 1,330 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
    highest point: Ras Dejen 4,533 m
    small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
    agricultural land: 36.3%
    arable land 15.2%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 20%
    forest: 12.2%
    other: 51.5% (2011 est.)
    2,900 sq km (2012)
    122 cu km (2011)
    total: 5.56 cu km/yr (13%/1%/86%)
    per capita: 80.5 cu m/yr (2005)
    geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir
    deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
    landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
  • People and Society :: ETHIOPIA

  • 102,374,044
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    noun: Ethiopian(s)
    adjective: Ethiopian
    Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)
    Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
    Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
    0-14 years: 43.71% (male 22,430,798/female 22,316,910)
    15-24 years: 20.04% (male 10,182,973/female 10,332,626)
    25-54 years: 29.45% (male 14,970,645/female 15,178,999)
    55-64 years: 3.89% (male 1,939,635/female 2,047,041)
    65 years and over: 2.91% (male 1,338,985/female 1,635,432) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 81.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 75.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.3%
    potential support ratio: 15.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 17.8 years
    male: 17.6 years
    female: 18 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    2.88% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    36.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    urban population: 19.5% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ADDIS ABABA (capital) 3.238 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.82 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    19.6
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
    353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    total: 51.1 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 58.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    total population: 62.2 years
    male: 59.8 years
    female: 64.7 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    5.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    28.6% (2010/11)
    4.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    6.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 93.1% of population
    rural: 48.6% of population
    total: 57.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 6.9% of population
    rural: 51.4% of population
    total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 27.2% of population
    rural: 28.2% of population
    total: 28% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 72.8% of population
    rural: 71.8% of population
    total: 72% of population (2015 est.)
    1.15% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    730,300 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    23,400 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
    3.3% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    25.2% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    4.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 49.1%
    male: 57.2%
    female: 41.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 8 years
    male: 9 years
    female: 8 years (2012)
    total number: 10,693,164
    percentage: 53% (2005 est.)
    total: 7.3%
    male: 5%
    female: 9.6% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
  • Government :: ETHIOPIA

  • conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
    conventional short form: Ethiopia
    local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
    local short form: Ityop'iya
    former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
    abbreviation: FDRE
    etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word "Aethiopia," which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region
    federal parliamentary republic
    name: Addis Ababa
    geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples)
    oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
    National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
    several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2016)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen and DEBRETSION Gebre-Michael
    cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections
    election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu (OPDO) elected president by acclamation
    bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (108 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation
    elections: last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: House of Representatives percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 500, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1, independent 1
    highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court or Supreme Imperial Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the Federal Supreme Court has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
    judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
    subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts
    Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Mohammed KEDIR]
    Argoba People's Democratic Organization or APDO
    Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP
    Blue Party (Semayawi Party) [Yanatan TESFAYE, spokesman]
    Ethiopian Federal Democratic Forum or FORUM [Dr. Moga FRISSA] (a UDJ-led 6-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections)
    Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [Hailemarian DESALEGN] (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF)
    Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM
    Harari National League or HNL [YASIN Husein]
    Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP
    Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF
    Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
    Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
    ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Birru Geda (since 6 January 2011)
    chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
    FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Seattle
    consulate(s): Houston, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter H. VROOMAN (since 2015)
    embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
    mailing address: P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
    telephone: [251] 11 130-6000
    FAX: 124-2401 [251] 11 124 2401
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
    note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often appropriated by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996
    Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red
    name: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
    lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
    note: adopted 1992
  • Economy :: ETHIOPIA

  • Ethiopia has grown at a rate between 8% and 11% annually for more than a decade and the country is the fifth-fastest growing economy among the 188 IMF member countries. This growth has been driven by sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors. Ethiopia has the lowest level of income-inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world, with a Gini coefficient comparable to that of the Scandinavian countries. Yet despite progress toward eliminating extreme poverty, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, due both to rapid population growth and a low starting base. Changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns resulted in the worst drought in thirty years in 2015/2016, creating food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians.
    Almost 80% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Since 2005, the Ethiopian government has introduced a system to register traditional land use rights and provide certificates documenting these rights. Initial surveys show that land-use certificates have significantly increased the willingness of farmers to invest in improvements on their land, from terracing to irrigation. However, title rights in urban areas, particularly Addis Ababa, are poorly regulated, and subject to corruption.
    Ethiopia’s export earnings are led by the services sector - primarily Ethiopian airlines - followed by several commodities. While coffee remains the largest foreign exchange earner, Ethiopia is diversifying exports and commodities such as gold, sesame, khat, livestock and horticulture products are becoming increasingly important. Manufacturing represents less than 8% of total exports. The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted significant foreign investment in textiles, leather, commercial agriculture, and light manufacturing.
    Ethiopia remains a one-party state with a planned economy. In the fall of 2015, the government finalized and published the current 2016-2020 five year plan, known as the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II). GTP II emphasizes developing manufactures in sectors where Ethiopia has a comparative advantage in exporting, including textiles and garments, leather goods, and processed agricultural products. New infrastructure projects are to include power production and distribution, roads, rails, airports and industrial parks. To support industrialization, Ethiopia plans to increase power generation by 8,320 MW, up from an installed capacity of 2,000 MW, by building three more major dams and expanding to other sources of renewable energy. Construction is underway on an electric railway network that will connect Ethiopia to all its neighbors, with a link to the Port of Djibouti already finished and partially functioning. A tripling of capacity at the international airport in Addis Ababa to 25 million passengers will be completed in 2017, while construction of a completely new airport is being planned by 2025. Meanwhile, the domestic airport network has expanded to nineteen airports in a country where mountains and deserts make developing and maintaining a road network challenging. Despite difficult topography, more than a hundred thousand kilometers of roads have been built, connecting previously isolated regions.
    $161.6 billion (2015 est.)
    $146.7 billion (2014 est.)
    $133 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 72
    $61.63 billion (2015 est.)
    10.2% (2015 est.)
    10.3% (2014 est.)
    9.9% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    $1,800 (2015 est.)
    $1,700 (2014 est.)
    $1,500 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 208
    27% of GDP (2015 est.)
    26.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    28.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    household consumption: 68.6%
    government consumption: 8.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 39%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 10.3%
    imports of goods and services: -26.2% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 41.4%
    industry: 15.6%
    services: 43% (2015 est.)
    cereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
    food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, garments, chemicals, metals processing, cement
    8.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    49.27 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    agriculture: 85%
    industry: 5%
    services: 10% (2009 est.)
    17.5% (2012 est.)
    18% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    29.6% (2014 est.)
    lowest 10%: 4.1%
    highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)
    33 (2011)
    30 (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    revenues: $9.114 billion
    expenditures: $11 billion (2015 est.)
    15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    -3.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    45.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    47.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    note: official data cover central government debt, including debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury and treasury debt owned by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 97
    8 July - 7 July
    10.1% (2015 est.)
    7.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    NA%
    11.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
    11% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $11.53 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $9.981 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    $23.77 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $20.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    $27.75 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $22.58 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $NA
    -$7.893 billion (2015 est.)
    -$4.407 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    $3.761 billion (2015 est.)
    $3.721 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    coffee (27%, by value), oilseeds (17%), edible vegetables including khat (17%), gold (13%), flowers (7%), live animals (7%), raw leather products (3%), meat products (3%)
    Switzerland 14.3%, China 11.7%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.8%, Saudi Arabia 5.9%, Germany 5.7% (2015)
    $10.69 billion (2015 est.)
    $11.57 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    machinery and aircraft (14%, by value), metal and metal products, (14%), electrical materials, (13%), petroleum products (12%), motor vehicles, (10%), chemicals and fertilizers (4%)
    China 20.4%, US 9.2%, Saudi Arabia 6.5%, India 4.5% (2015)
    $3.589 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $3.483 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    $15.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $12.56 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    birr (ETB) per US dollar -
    21.55 (2015 est.)
    19.8 (2014 est.)
    19.8 (2013 est.)
    17.71 (2012 est.)
    16.899 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: ETHIOPIA

  • population without electricity: 71.2 million
    electrification - total population: 24 %
    electrification - urban areas: 85 %
    electrification - rural areas: 10 % (2013)
    6.632 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    5.227 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    400 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    2.47 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    88.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    3.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    430,000 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    51,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    51,960 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    8.213 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
  • Communications :: ETHIOPIA

  • total subscriptions: 890,642
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    total: 42.312 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    general assessment: inadequate telephone system with the Ethio Telecom maintaining a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
    domestic: the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily from a small base and now stands at over 40 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
    6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 18 community radio stations (2015)
    AM 8, FM 0, shortwave 1 (2001)
    1 (plus 24 repeaters) (2001)
    .et
    179 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    total: 11.538 million
    percent of population: 11.6% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
  • Transportation :: ETHIOPIA

  • 57 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    total: 17
    over 3,047 m: 3
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 40
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 20
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the 781 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
    narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge
    note: railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    total: 110,414 km
    paved: 14,354 km
    unpaved: 96,060 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    total: 8
    by type: cargo 8 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia
  • Military and Security :: ETHIOPIA

  • Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)
    0.91% of GDP (2012)
    1.1% of GDP (2011)
    0.91% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 107
  • Transnational Issues :: ETHIOPIA

  • Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia
    refugees (country of origin): 281,944 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 254,277 (Somalia) (refugees); 155,276 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 37,959 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2016)
    IDPs: 450,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Sumale and Oromiya regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2015)
    transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center