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Europe :: Czech Republic
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Czech Republic
  • Introduction :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country's predominantly Czech leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the territory that today comprises the Czech Republic, and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.
  • Geography :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria
    49 45 N, 15 30 E
    Europe
    total: 78,867 sq km
    land: 77,247 sq km
    water: 1,620 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 116
    slightly smaller than South Carolina
    total: 2,143 km
    border countries (4): Austria 402 km, Germany 704 km, Poland 796 km, Slovakia 241 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
    Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
    lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m
    highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
    hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land
    agricultural land: 54.8%
    arable land 41%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 12.8%
    forest: 34.4%
    other: 10.8% (2011 est.)
    385.3 sq km (2007)
    13.15 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.7 cu km/yr (41%/56%/2%)
    per capita: 164.7 cu m/yr (2009)
    flooding
    air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
  • People and Society :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • noun: Czech(s)
    adjective: Czech
    Czech 64.3%, Moravian 5%, Slovak 1.4%, other 1.8%, unspecified 27.5% (2011 est.)
    Czech (official) 95.4%, Slovak 1.6%, other 3% (2011 census)
    Roman Catholic 10.4%, Protestant (includes Czech Brethren and Hussite) 1.1%, other and unspecified 54%, none 34.5% (2011 est.)
    10,644,842 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    0-14 years: 15% (male 819,864/female 776,639)
    15-24 years: 10.23% (male 559,108/female 529,598)
    25-54 years: 43.7% (male 2,387,303/female 2,264,774)
    55-64 years: 13.06% (male 673,060/female 717,296)
    65 years and over: 18.01% (male 791,823/female 1,125,377) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 47.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 22.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 25.4%
    potential support ratio: 3.9% (2014 est.)
    total: 40.9 years
    male: 39.6 years
    female: 42.3 years (2014 est.)
    0.16% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    9.63 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    10.34 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    2.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    urban population: 73% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.35% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    PRAGUE (capital) 1.303 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 2.63 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.76 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    total population: 78.48 years
    male: 75.5 years
    female: 81.62 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    1.44 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    86.3%
    note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2008)
    7.2% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    3.71 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    6.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 99.9% of population
    rural: 99.6% of population
    total: 99.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.1% of population
    rural: 0.4% of population
    total: 0.2% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    0.05% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    3,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    fewer than 100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    29.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    2% (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    4.5% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    definition: NA
    total population: 99%
    male: 99%
    female: 99% (2011 est.)
    total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2012)
    total: 19.5%
    male: 19.9%
    female: 19% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
  • Government :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • conventional long form: Czech Republic
    conventional short form: Czech Republic
    local long form: Ceska republika
    local short form: Cesko
    parliamentary democracy
    name: Prague
    geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky (Karlovy Vary), Kralovehradecky (Hradec Kralove), Liberecky (Liberec), Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky (Olomouc), Pardubicky (Pardubice), Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky (Usti), Vysocina (Highlands), Zlinsky (Zlin)
    1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs commemorate 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day
    Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
    previous 1960; latest ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993; amended several times, last in 2013 (2013)
    new civil code enacted in 2014, replacing civil code of 1964 - based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory - and reintroducing former Czech legal terminology
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Milos ZEMAN (since 8 March 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Bohuslav SOBOTKA (since 17 January 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Andrej BABIS and Deputy Prime Minister Pavel BELOBRADEK (both since 29 January 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections: constitutional amendment passed in 2012 introduced presidential election by popular vote instead of by Parliament; president elected for a five-year term (may not serve more than two consecutive terms); elections last held on 11-12 January 2013 with a runoff on 25-26 January 2013 (next to be held in January 2018); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Milos ZEMAN elected president; percent of popular vote - Milos ZEMAN 54.8%, Karel SCHWARZENBERG 45.2%
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two-rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held in two rounds on 10-11 and 17-18 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 25-26 October 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CSSD 33, ODS 14, KDU-CSL 11, ANO 4, SPO 2, Green 2, KSCM 1, S.cz 1, STAN 1, HOPB 1, SLK 1, independent 10; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 20.5%, ANO 2011 18.7%, KSCM 14.9%, TOP 09 12%, ODS 7.7%, Usvit 6.9%, KDU-CSL 6.8% other 12.5%; seats by party - CSSD 50, ANO 2011 47, KSCM 33, TOP 09 26, ODS 16, Usvit 14, KDU-CSL 14
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into Civil Law and Commercial Division, and Criminal Division each with a court chief justice, vice justice, and several judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 justices); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 28 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Chamber of Deputies and appointed by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed for 10-year, renewable terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the president of the Court; judge term NA
    subordinate courts: High Court; superior, regional, and district courts
    parties in parliament: Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK]
    Citizens for Budejovice or HOPB [Juraj THOMA]
    Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA]
    Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]
    Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Bohuslav SOBOTKA]
    Dawn of Direct Democracy or Usvit [Tomio OKAMURA]
    Green Party or SZ [Jana DRAPALOVA]
    Mayors and Independents or STAN [Martin PUTA]
    Mayors for Liberec Region or SLK [Marek PIETER]
    Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens or ANO [Andrej BABIS]
    North Bohemians or S.cz [Bronislav SCHWARZ]
    Party of Civic Rights or SPO [Jan VELEBA]
    Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Karel SCHWARZENBERG]
    parties outside parliament: Czech Pirate Party [Lukas CERNOHORSKY]
    Free Citizens Party or Svobodni [Petr MACH]
    Liberal Reform Party or Ostravak [Eva SCHWARZOVA]
    Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Josef STREDULA]
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Petr GANDALOVIC (since 23 May 2011)
    chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
    FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew H. SCHAPIRO (since 30 September 2014)
    embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Prague 1 - Mala Strana
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [420] 257 022 000
    FAX: [420] 257 022 809
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
    note: is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia
    double-tailed lion; national colors: white, red, blue
    name: "Kde domov muj?" (Where is My Home?)
    lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP
    note: adopted 1993; the anthem was originally written as incidental music to the play "Fidlovacka" (1834), it soon became very popular as an unofficial anthem of the Czech nation; its first verse served as the official Czechoslovak anthem beginning in 1918, while the second verse (Slovak) was dropped after the split of Czechoslovakia in 1993
  • Economy :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • The Czech Republic is a stable and prosperous market economy closely integrated with the EU, especially since the country's EU accession in 2004. The auto industry is the largest single industry, and, together with its upstream suppliers, accounts for nearly 24% of Czech manufacturing. The Czech Republic produced more than a million cars for the first time in 2010, over 80% of which were exported. While the conservative, inward-looking Czech financial system has remained relatively healthy, the small, open, export-driven Czech economy remains sensitive to changes in the economic performance of its main export markets, especially Germany. When Western Europe and Germany fell into recession in late 2008, demand for Czech goods plunged, leading to double digit drops in industrial production and exports. As a result, real GDP fell sharply in 2009. The economy slowly recovered in the second half of 2009 and registered weak growth in the next two years. In 2012 and 2013, however, the economy fell into a recession again, due both to a slump in external demand in the EU and to the government’s austerity measures, returning to weak growth in 2014. Foreign and domestic businesses alike voice concerns about corruption, especially in public procurement. Other long term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.
    $314.6 billion (2014 est.)
    $308.3 billion (2013 est.)
    $310.5 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 52
    $205.7 billion (2014 est.)
    2% (2014 est.)
    -0.7% (2013 est.)
    -0.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $29,900 (2014 est.)
    $29,300 (2013 est.)
    $29,500 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 59
    25.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    24.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    24.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    household consumption: 48.2%
    government consumption: 19.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 25%
    investment in inventories: 0.4%
    exports of goods and services: 84.5%
    imports of goods and services: -77.2%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 2.6%
    industry: 37.4%
    services: 60% (2014 est.)
    wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
    motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments
    4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    5.416 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    agriculture: 2.6%
    industry: 37.4%
    services: 60% (2012)
    7.9% (2014 est.)
    7.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    8.6% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.5%
    highest 10%: 29.1% (2012 est.)
    24.9 (2012)
    25.4 (1996)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    revenues: $81.98 billion
    expenditures: $85.32 billion (2014 est.)
    41% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    -1.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    43.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    45.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    calendar year
    0.4% (2014 est.)
    1.4% (2013 est.)
    0.05% (31 December 2013)
    0.05% (31 December 2012)
    note: this is the two-week repo, the main rate CNB uses
    country comparison to the world: 151
    4.7% (31 December 2014 est.)
    4.97% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    $126.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $126.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    $152.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $155.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $131.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $137.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $54.92 billion (30 December 3013 est.)
    $59.88 billion (28 December 2012)
    $53.2 billion (30 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $1.266 billion (2014 est.)
    -$2.853 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    $147.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $135.6 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    machinery and transport equipment, raw materials, fuel, chemicals
    Germany 31.7%, Slovakia 9%, Poland 6%, France 5%, UK 4.9%, Austria 4.6% (2013)
    $135.1 billion (2014 est.)
    $126 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals
    Germany 30.3%, Poland 8.2%, Slovakia 7.2%, China 5.8%, Netherlands 5.5%, Russia 5.1%, Austria 4.2% (2013)
    $59.15 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $56.22 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    $116.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $114.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    $140.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $136 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    $22.38 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $21.38 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    koruny (CZK) per US dollar -
    20.63 (2014 est.)
    19.571 (2013 est.)
    19.59 (2012 est.)
    17.696 (2011 est.)
    19.098 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • 81.71 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    70.45 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    27.46 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    10.57 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    20.52 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    63.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    19.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    5.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    11.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    7,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    422.9 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    140,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    15 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    166,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    187,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    35,720 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    60,820 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    252 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    8.477 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    8 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    8.479 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    4.276 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    91.15 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
  • Communications :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • 2.1 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    12.973 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; virtually all exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
    domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s, but the number of fixed line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s, and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population
    international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2011)
    roughly 130 TV broadcasters operating some 350 channels with 4 publicly operated and the remainder in private hands; 16 TV stations have national coverage with 4 being publicly operated; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; 63 radio broadcasters are registered operating roughly 80 radio stations with 15 stations publicly operated; 10 radio stations provide national coverage with the remainder local or regional (2008)
    AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)
    71 (2008)
    .cz
    4.148 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    6.681 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 39
  • Transportation :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • 128 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    total: 41
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 16 (2013)
    total: 87
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 25
    under 914 m:
    61 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 7,160 km; oil 536 km; refined products 94 km (2013)
    total: 9,469 km
    standard gauge: 9,449 km 1.435-m gauge (3,165 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 20 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    total: 130,671 km (includes urban roads)
    paved: 130,671 km (includes 730 km of expressways) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    river port(s): Prague (Vltava); Decin, Usti nad Labem (Elbe)
  • Military :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • Army of the Czech Republic (Armada Ceske Republiky): General Staff (Generalni Stab; includes Land Forces (Pozemni Sily) and Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily)) (2015)
    18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
    males age 16-49: 2,506,826
    females age 16-49: 2,407,634 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 2,072,267
    females age 16-49: 1,988,839 (2010 est.)
    male: 49,999
    female: 47,501 (2010 est.)
    1.04% of GDP (2015)
    1.08% of GDP (2014)
    1.06% of GDP (2013)
    1.13% of GDP (2012)
    1.15% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 94
  • Transnational Issues :: CZECH REPUBLIC

  • while threats of international legal action never materialized in 2007, 915,220 Austrians, with the support of the popular Freedom Party, signed a petition in January 2008, demanding that Austria block the Czech Republic's accession to the EU unless Prague closes its controversial Soviet-style nuclear plant in Temelin, bordering Austria
    stateless persons: 1,502 (2014)
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy (2008)
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