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Europe :: Czechia Print
Page last updated on June 10, 2020
  • Introduction :: Czechia
  • Background field listing
    At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country's predominantly Czech leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the territory that today comprises Czechia, and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. The country added the short-form name Czechia in 2016, while continuing to use the full form name, Czech Republic.
  • Geography :: Czechia
  • Location field listing
    Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    49 45 N, 15 30 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 78,867 sq km
    land: 77,247 sq km
    water: 1,620 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Area - comparative field listing
    about two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than South Carolina
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,143 km
    border countries (4): Austria 402 km, Germany 704 km, Poland 796 km, Slovakia 241 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
    Terrain field listing
    Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 433 m
    lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m
    highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
    Natural resources field listing
    hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 54.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 41% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 12.8% (2011 est.)
    forest: 34.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 10.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    320 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations
    Natural hazards field listing
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; land pollution caused by industry, mining, and agriculture
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    note 1: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

    note 2: the Hranice Abyss in Czechia is the world's deepest surveyed underwater cave at 404 m (1,325 ft); its survey is not complete and it could end up being some 800-1,200 m deep
  • People and Society :: Czechia
  • Population field listing
    10,702,498 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Czech(s)
    adjective: Czech
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Czech 64.3%, Moravian 5%, Slovak 1.4%, other 1.8%, unspecified 27.5% (2011 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Czech (official) 95.4%, Slovak 1.6%, other 3% (2011 census)
    Religions field listing
    Roman Catholic 10.4%, Protestant (includes Czech Brethren and Hussite) 1.1%, other and unspecified 54%, none 34.5% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 15.17% (male 834,447/female 789,328)
    15-24 years: 9.2% (male 508,329/female 475,846)
    25-54 years: 43.29% (male 2,382,899/female 2,249,774)
    55-64 years: 12.12% (male 636,357/female 660,748)
    65 years and over: 20.23% (male 907,255/female 1,257,515) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 56
    youth dependency ratio: 24.6
    elderly dependency ratio: 31.4
    potential support ratio: 3.2 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 43.3 years
    male: 42 years
    female: 44.7 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.06% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Birth rate field listing
    8.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Death rate field listing
    10.7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Net migration rate field listing
    2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 74.1% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.21% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    1.306 million PRAGUE (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    28.1 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 79.3 years
    male: 76.3 years
    female: 82.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.48 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    7.2% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    4.31 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    6.5 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 99.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.1% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    <.1% (2018 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    4,400 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    26% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Education expenditures field listing
    5.6% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Literacy field listing
    definition: NA
    total population: 99%
    male: 99%
    female: 99% (2011)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 17 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 18 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 6.7%
    male: 6.4%
    female: 7.2% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
  • Government :: Czechia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Czech Republic
    conventional short form: Czechia
    local long form: Ceska republika
    local short form: Cesko
    etymology: name derives from the Czechs, a West Slavic tribe who rose to prominence in the late 9th century A.D.
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Prague
    geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: the name may derive from an old Slavic root "praga" or "prah", meaning "ford", and refer to the city's origin at a crossing point of the Vltava (Moldau) River
    Administrative divisions field listing
    13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky (Karlovy Vary), Kralovehradecky (Hradec Kralove), Liberecky (Liberec), Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky (Olomouc), Pardubicky (Pardubice), Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky (Usti), Vysocina (Highlands), Zlinsky (Zlin)
    Independence field listing
    1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs commemorate 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day
    National holiday field listing
    Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1960; latest ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993
    amendments: passage requires at least three-fifths concurrence of members present in both houses of Parliament; amended several times, last in 2013
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Czechia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Milos ZEMAN (since 8 March 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Andrej BABIS (since 13 December 2017); First Deputy Prime Minister Jan HAMACEK (since 27 June 2018), Deputy Prime Minister Alena SCHILLEROVA (since 30 April 2019)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); elections last held on 12-13 January 2018 with a runoff on 26-27 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2023); prime minister appointed by the president for a 4-year term
    election results: Milos ZEMAN reelected president in the second round; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 51.4%, Jiri DRAHOS (independent) 48.6%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
    Senate or Senat (81 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
    Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members directly elected in 14 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote with a 5% threshold required to fill a seat; members serve 4-year terms)
    Senate - last held in 2 rounds on 5-6 and 12-13 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2020)
    Chamber of Deputies - last held on 20-21 October 2017 (next to be held by October 2021)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODS 16, KDU-CSL 16, CSSD 13, STAN 10, ANO 7, SEN 21 6, TOP 09 3, SZ 1, Movement for Prague 1, Pirates 1, SsCR 1, independent 6; composition men 68, women 13, percent of women 16%

    Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - ANO 29.6%, ODS 11.3%, Pirates 10.8%, SPD 10.6%, KSCM 7.8%, CSSD 7.3%, KDU-CSL 5.8%, TOP 09 5.3%, STAN 5.2%, other 6.3%; seats by party - ANO 78, ODS 25, Pirates 22, SPD 22, CSSD 15, KSCM 15, KDU-CSL 10, TOP 09 7, STAN 6; composition - men 155, women 45, percent of women 24%; note - total Parliament percent of women 20.6%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (organized into Civil Law and Commercial Division, and Criminal Division each with a court chief justice, vice justice, and several judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 justices); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 36 judges, including the court president and vice president, and organized into 6-, 7-, and 9-member chambers)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Chamber of Deputies and appointed by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed for 10-year, renewable terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the president of the Court; unlimited terms
    subordinate courts: High Court; regional and district courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK]
    Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA]
    Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]
    Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Jan HAMACEK]
    Freedom and Direct Democracy or SPD [Tomio OKAMURA]
    Green Party or SZ [Petr STEPANEK]
    Mayors and Independents or STAN [Petr GAZDIK]
    Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens or ANO [Andrej BABIS]
    Party of Civic Rights or SPO [Lubomir NECAS]
    Pirate Party or Pirates [Ivan BARTOS]
    Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Jiri POSPISIL]
    International organization participation field listing
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Hynek KMONICEK (since 24 April 2017)
    chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
    FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen B. KING (since 6 December 2017)
    telephone: [420] 257 022 000
    embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Prague 1 - Mala Strana
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    FAX: [420] 257 022 809
    Flag description field listing
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

    note: combines the white and red colors of Bohemia with blue from the arms of Moravia; is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia

    National symbol(s) field listing
    silver (or white), double-tailed, rampant lion; national colors: white, red, blue
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Kde domov muj?" (Where is My Home?)
    lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP

    note: adopted 1993; the anthem was originally written as incidental music to the play "Fidlovacka" (1834), it soon became very popular as an unofficial anthem of the Czech nation; its first verse served as the official Czechoslovak anthem beginning in 1918, while the second verse (Slovak) was dropped after the split of Czechoslovakia in 1993

  • Economy :: Czechia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Czechia is a prosperous market economy that boasts one of the highest GDP growth rates and lowest unemployment levels in the EU, but its dependence on exports makes economic growth vulnerable to contractions in external demand. Czechia’s exports comprise some 80% of GDP and largely consist of automobiles, the country’s single largest industry. Czechia acceded to the EU in 2004 but has yet to join the euro-zone. While the flexible koruna helps Czechia weather external shocks, it was one of the world’s strongest performing currencies in 2017, appreciating approximately 16% relative to the US dollar after the central bank (Czech National Bank - CNB) ended its cap on the currency’s value in early April 2017, which it had maintained since November 2013. The CNB hiked rates in August and November 2017 - the first rate changes in nine years - to address rising inflationary pressures brought by strong economic growth and a tight labor market.

    Since coming to power in 2014, the new government has undertaken some reforms to try to reduce corruption, attract investment, and improve social welfare programs, which could help increase the government’s revenues and improve living conditions for Czechs. The government introduced in December 2016 an online tax reporting system intended to reduce tax evasion and increase revenues. The government also plans to remove labor market rigidities to improve the business climate, bring procurement procedures in line with EU best practices, and boost wages. The country's low unemployment rate has led to steady increases in salaries, and the government is facing pressure from businesses to allow greater migration of qualified workers, at least from Ukraine and neighboring Central European countries.

    Long-term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, a shortage of skilled workers, a lagging education system, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $375.9 billion (2017 est.)
    $360.5 billion (2016 est.)
    $351.9 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 49
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $215.8 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    4.3% (2017 est.)
    2.5% (2016 est.)
    5.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $35,500 (2017 est.)
    $34,200 (2016 est.)
    $33,400 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 57
    Gross national saving field listing
    26.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    27.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    28.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 47.4% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 79.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -72.3% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 36.9% (2017 est.)
    services: 60.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
    Industries field listing
    motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    7.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Labor force field listing
    5.427 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 2.8%
    industry: 38%
    services: 59.2% (2015)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    2.9% (2017 est.)
    3.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Population below poverty line field listing
    9.7% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 4.1%
    highest 10%: 21.7% (2015 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 87.37 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 83.92 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    40.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Public debt field listing
    34.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    2.4% (2017 est.)
    0.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Current account balance field listing
    $2.317 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.037 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Exports field listing
    $144.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $131.1 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 32.8%, Slovakia 7.8%, Poland 6.1%, France 5.1%, UK 4.9%, Austria 4.4%, Italy 4.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    machinery and transport equipment, raw materials, fuel, chemicals
    Imports field listing
    $134.7 billion (2017 est.)
    $120.5 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals
    Imports - partners field listing
    Germany 29.8%, Poland 9.1%, China 7.4%, Slovakia 5.8%, Netherlands 5.3%, Italy 4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $148 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $85.73 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Debt - external field listing
    $205.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $138 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Exchange rates field listing
    koruny (CZK) per US dollar -
    23.34 (2017 est.)
    24.44 (2016 est.)
    24.44 (2015 est.)
    24.599 (2014 est.)
    20.758 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Czechia
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    77.39 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    62.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Electricity - exports field listing
    24.79 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Electricity - imports field listing
    13.82 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    21.63 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    60% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Crude oil - production field listing
    2,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    446 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    155,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    15 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    177,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    213,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    52,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    83,860 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Natural gas - production field listing
    229.4 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    8.721 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    8.891 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    3.964 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    115.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
  • Communications :: Czechia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 1,511,942
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 12,704,262
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: good telephone and Internet service; the Czech Republic has a sophisticated telecom market; mobile sector showing steady growth, but perhaps without enough competition, regulator makes progress for 5G services; the govt. trying to stimulate competition, improve end-users pricing and step up quality; strong growth in cable and fiber sectors; fixed wireless broadband remains strong, with penetration among the highest in the EU (2020)
    domestic: 14 per 100 fixed-line and mobile telephone usage increased to 119 per 100 mobile-cellular, the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population (2018)
    international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    22 TV stations operate nationally, with 17 of them in private hands; publicly operated Czech Television has 5 national channels; throughout the country, there are some 350 TV channels in operation, many through cable, satellite, and IPTV subscription services; 63 radio broadcasters are registered, operating over 80 radio stations, including 7 multiregional radio stations or networks; publicly operated broadcaster Czech Radio operates 4 national, 14 regional, and 4 Internet stations; both Czech Radio and Czech Television are partially financed through a license fee (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 8,141,303
    percent of population: 76.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 3,222,835
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
  • Military and Security :: Czechia
  • Military expenditures field listing
    1.19% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.13% of GDP (2018)
    1.04% of GDP (2017)
    0.96% of GDP (2016)
    1.03% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Military and security forces field listing
    Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces: Czech Land Forces, Czech Air Force (2019)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
    Military deployments field listing
    340 Afghanistan (NATO) (2019 est.)
  • Transportation :: Czechia
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 48 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,971,616 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 26,619,650 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    OK (2016)
    Airports field listing
    128 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 41 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
    under 914 m: 16 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 87 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 25 (2013)
    under 914 m: 61 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    7,160 km gas, 675 km oil, 94 km refined products (2016)
    Railways field listing
    total: 9,408 km (2017)
    standard gauge: 9,385 km 1.435-m gauge (3,218 km electrified) (2017)
    narrow gauge: 23 km 0.760-m gauge (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Roadways field listing
    total: 55,744 km (includes urban and category I, II, III roads) (2019)
    paved: 55,744 km (includes 1,252 km of expressways) (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Waterways field listing
    664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Ports and terminals field listing
    river port(s): Prague (Vltava)
    Decin, Usti nad Labem (Elbe)
  • Transnational Issues :: Czechia
  • Disputes - international field listing


    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 1,502 (2018)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy