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Fiji
  • Introduction :: FIJI

  • Fiji became independent in 1970 after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). The coups and a 1990 constitution that cemented native Melanesian control of Fiji led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. A new constitution enacted in 1997 was more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian, but a civilian-led coup in May 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in August 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government led by Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE. Reelected in May 2006, QARASE was ousted in a December 2006 military coup led by Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA, who initially appointed himself acting president but in January 2007 became interim prime minister. Since taking power BAINIMARAMA has neutralized his opponents, crippled Fiji's democratic institutions, and initially refused to hold elections. In 2012, he promised to hold elections in 2014.
  • Geography :: FIJI

  • Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
    18 00 S, 175 00 E
    Oceania
    total: 18,274 sq km
    land: 18,274 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 157
    slightly smaller than New Jersey
    0 km
    1,129 km
    measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
    tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
    mostly mountains of volcanic origin
    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m
    timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower
    agricultural land: 23.3%
    arable land 9%; permanent crops 4.7%; permanent pasture 9.6%
    forest: 55.7%
    other: 21% (2011 est.)
    30 sq km (2003)
    28.55 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.08 cu km/yr (30%/11%/59%)
    per capita: 100.1 cu m/yr (2005)
    cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
    deforestation; soil erosion
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    includes 332 islands; approximately 110 are inhabited
  • People and Society :: FIJI

  • noun: Fijian(s)
    adjective: Fijian
    iTaukei 56.8% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indian 37.5%, Rotuman 1.2%, other 4.5% (European, part European, other Pacific Islanders, Chinese)
    note: a 2010 law replaces 'Fijian' with 'iTuakei' when referring to the original and native settlers of Fiji (2007 est.)
    English (official), Fijian (official), Hindustani
    Protestant 45% (Methodist 34.6%, Assembly of God 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.9%, and Anglican 0.8%), Hindu 27.9%, other Christian 10.4%, Roman Catholic 9.1%, Muslim 6.3%, Sikh 0.3%, other 0.3%, none 0.8% (2007 est.)
    909,389 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    0-14 years: 28.03% (male 130,251/female 124,633)
    15-24 years: 16.73% (male 77,716/female 74,449)
    25-54 years: 41.12% (male 191,393/female 182,571)
    55-64 years: 8.04% (male 37,019/female 36,141)
    65 years and over: 6.07% (male 25,386/female 29,830) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 52.5%
    youth dependency ratio: 43.9%
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.6%
    potential support ratio: 11.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 27.9 years
    male: 27.7 years
    female: 28.1 years (2014 est.)
    0.67% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    19.43 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    6.04 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    -6.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    urban population: 53.7% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SUVA (capital) 176,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 9.94 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 10.97 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 8.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    total population: 72.43 years
    male: 69.79 years
    female: 75.2 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    2.47 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    4.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    0.43 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    2 beds/1,000 population (2009)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 92.2% of population
    total: 96.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 7.8% of population
    total: 3.7% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 92.1% of population
    rural: 81.7% of population
    total: 87.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 7.9% of population
    rural: 18.3% of population
    total: 12.8% of population (2012 est.)
    0.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    fewer than 100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    35.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    4.2% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 102
  • Government :: FIJI

  • conventional long form: Republic of Fiji
    conventional short form: Fiji
    local long form: Republic of Fiji/Matanitu ko Viti
    local short form: Fiji/Viti
    republic
    name: Suva (on Viti Levu)
    geographic coordinates: 18 08 S, 178 25 E
    time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins fourth Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in January
    14 provinces and 1 dependency*; Ba, Bua, Cakaudrove, Kadavu, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Nadroga and Navosa, Naitasiri, Namosi, Ra, Rewa, Rotuma*, Serua, Tailevu
    10 October 1970 (from the UK)
    Fiji Independence Day, 10 October (1970)
    several previous; latest signed into law September 2013 (2013)
    common law system based on the English model
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Ratu Epeli NAILATIKAU (since 30 July 2009)
    head of government: Prime Minister Voreqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA (since 22 September 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament
    elections: presidential candidates nominated 1 each by the prime minister and by the Parliament opposition leader and indirectly elected by majority vote by Parliament; president serves a 3-year term (eligible for a second term); note - prior to 2007, the Great Council of Chiefs elected the president, but the Council was suspended in 2007 and disestablished in 2012; under the new constitution of 2013, the president is elected by Parliament; prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Ratu Epeli NAILATIKAU reappointed in November 2012; term ends in 2015
    description: unicameral Parliament (50 seats; members directly elected in a nationwide, multi-seat constituency by open-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms; the new constitution of 2013 restructured Parliament frome bicameral to unicameral
    elections: last held on 17 September 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Fiji First 59.2%, SDL 28.2%, National Federation Party 5.5%, other 7.1%; seats by party - Fiji First 32, SDL 15, National Federation Party 3
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, all justices of the Court of Appeal, and judges appointed specifically as Supreme Court judges); Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, all puisne judges of the High Court, and judges specifically appointed to the Court of Appeal); High Court (chaired by the chief justice and includes a minimum of 10 puisne judges; High Court organized into civil, criminal, family, employment, and tax divisions); note - in 1987, the Supreme Court assumed functions formerly performed by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president of Fiji on the advice of the prime minister following consultation with the parliamentary leader of the opposition; judges of the Supreme Court, the president of the Court of Appeal, the justices of the Court of Appeal, and puisne judges of the High Court appointed by the president of Fiji upon the nomination of the Judicial Service Commission after consulting with the cabinet minister and the committee of the House of Representatives responsible for the administration of justice; the chief justice, Supreme Court judges and justices of Appeal generally required to retire at age 70 but may be waived for one or more sessions of the court; puisne judges appointed for not less than 4 years nor more than 7 years with mandatory retirement at age 65
    subordinate courts: Magistrates' Court (organized into civil, criminal, juvenile, and small claims divisions)
    FijiFirst [Aiyaz SAYED-KHAIYUM]
    Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]
    Fiji United Freedon Party or FUFP [Jagath KARUNARATNE]
    National Federation Party or NFP [Dalip KUMAR] (primarily Indian)
    Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Adi Sivia QORO]
    Social Democratic Liberal Party or SODELPA [Pio TABAIWALU]
    Group Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (for restoration of a democratic government)
    Viti Landowners Association
    ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca (suspended), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Winston THOMPSON (since 20 April 2009)
    chancery: 2000 M Street, NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 466-8320
    FAX: [1] (202) 466-8325
    consulate(s): Los Angeles, Portland, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador Judith CEFKIN (since 3 February 2015); note - also accredited to Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu
    embassy: 158 Princes Rd, Tamavua
    mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
    telephone: [679] 331-4466
    FAX: [679] 330-8685
    light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the blue symbolizes the Pacific ocean and the Union Jack reflects the links with Great Britain; the shield - taken from Fiji's coat of arms - depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George; the four quarters depict stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove
    Fijian canoe; national color: light blue
    name: "God Bless Fiji"
    lyrics/music: Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT/C. Austin MILES (adapted by Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT)
    note: adopted 1970; known in Fijian as "Meda Dau Doka" (Let Us Show Pride); adapted from the hymn, "Dwelling in Beulah Land," the anthem's English lyrics are generally sung, although they differ in meaning from the official Fijian lyrics
  • Economy :: FIJI

  • Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed and connected of the Pacific island economies. Earnings from the tourism industry, with an estimated 692,630 tourists visiting in 2014, and remittances from Fijian’s working abroad are the country’s largest foreign exchange earners. Fiji's sugar remains a significant industry and a major export. The sugar industry reforms since 2010 have improved productivity and returns, but the industry faces the complete withdrawal of European Union preferential prices by 2017. Fiji’s trade imbalance continues to widen with increased imports and sluggish performance of domestic exports. The return to parliamentary democracy and successful elections in September 2014 have boosted investor confidence. Private sector investment in 2014 reached 15% of GDP, compared to 13% in 2013.
    $7.317 billion (2014 est.)
    $7.022 billion (2013 est.)
    $6.71 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 165
    $4.173 billion (2014 est.)
    4.2% (2014 est.)
    4.6% (2013 est.)
    1.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    $8,200 (2014 est.)
    $8,000 (2013 est.)
    $7,700 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 140
    16.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    7.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    20.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    household consumption: 81.2%
    government consumption: 14.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.4%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 51.6%
    imports of goods and services: -69.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 12.7%
    industry: 18.2%
    services: 69.1% (2014 est.)
    sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish
    tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries
    2.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    345,700 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    agriculture: 70%
    industry and services: 30% (2001 est.)
    7.6% (1999)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    31% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.6%
    highest 10%: 34.9% (2009 est.)
    revenues: $1.369 billion
    expenditures: $1.451 billion (2014 est.)
    32.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    -1.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    49.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    51.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    calendar year
    0.1% (2014 est.)
    3.4% (2013 est.)
    1.75% (31 December 2010)
    3% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    5.71% (31 December 2014 est.)
    5.84% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $1.864 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.849 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $3.078 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.953 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $2.773 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.585 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $452.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $392.2 million (31 December 2011)
    $418.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    -$354.6 million (2014 est.)
    -$581.4 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    $1.188 billion (2014 est.)
    $1.38 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, coconut oil
    US 12.4%, Australia 11.3%, Samoa 6.1%, Tonga 5.4%, UK 5.2% (2013)
    $2.241 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.692 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals
    Singapore 17.5%, France 16.1%, NZ 13.6%, Australia 12%, China 10.1%, Malaysia 9.8% (2013)
    $911 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $936.9 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    $587.4 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $569.6 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    $3.889 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.581 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    $50.08 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $49.65 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Fijian dollars (FJD) per US dollar -
    1.9877 (2014 est.)
    1.8979 (2013 est.)
    1.79 (2012 est.)
    1.7932 (2011 est.)
    1.9183 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: FIJI

  • 857.5 million kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    777.6 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    245,100 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    49% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    45.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    5.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    30 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    11,380 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    692 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    10,050 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    1.543 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
  • Communications :: FIJI

  • 88,400 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    858,800 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center
    domestic: telephone or radio telephone links to almost all inhabited islands; most towns and large villages have automatic telephone exchanges and direct dialing; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 100 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Canada, as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2011)
    Fiji TV, a publicly traded company, operates a free-to-air channel as well as Sky Fiji and Sky Pacific multi-channel pay-TV services; state-owned commercial company, Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Ltd, operates 6 radio stations - 2 public broadcasters and 4 commercial broadcasters with multiple repeaters; 5 radio stations with repeaters operated by Communications Fiji, Ltd; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2009)
    AM 13, FM 40, shortwave 0 (1998)
    NA
    .fj
    21,739 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    114,200 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 153
  • Transportation :: FIJI

  • 28 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    total: 4
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 24
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m:
    19 (2013)
    total: 597 km
    narrow gauge: 597 km 0.600-m gauge
    note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation; used to haul sugarcane during the harvest season, which runs from May to December (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    total: 3,440 km
    paved: 1,686 km
    unpaved: 1,754 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    203 km (122 km are navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    total: 11
    by type: passenger 4, passenger/cargo 4, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2
    foreign-owned: 2 (Australia 2) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    major seaport(s): Lautoka, Levuka, Suva
  • Military :: FIJI

  • Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF): Land Forces, Naval Forces (2011)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2013)
    males age 16-49: 233,240
    females age 16-49: 222,587 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 183,730
    females age 16-49: 188,325 (2010 est.)
    male: 8,403
    female: 8,039 (2010 est.)
    1.47% of GDP (2012)
    1.44% of GDP (2011)
    1.47% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 61
  • Transnational Issues :: FIJI

  • none
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