Library

 
View Text Low Bandwidth Version
Download Publication
Middle East :: Georgia
Page last updated on July 30, 2015
 
view 14 photos of
Georgia
  • Introduction :: GEORGIA

  • The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
    Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate parliamentary elections in November 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the "Rose Revolution," new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions.
    Billionaire philanthropist Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary elections and removed UNM from power. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Georgian Dream's Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI was inaugurated as president on 17 November 2013, ending a tense year of power-sharing between SAAKASHVILI and IVANISHVILI. IVANISHVILI voluntarily resigned from office after the presidential succession, and Georgia's legislature on 20 November 2013 confirmed Irakli GARIBASHVILI as his replacement. Georgia's recent elections represent unique examples of a former Soviet state that emerged to conduct democratic and peaceful government transitions of power. Popular and government support for integration with the West is high in Georgia. Joining the EU and NATO are among the country's top foreign policy goals.
  • Geography :: GEORGIA

  • Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe
    42 00 N, 43 30 E
    Asia
    total: 69,700 sq km
    land: 69,700 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 121
    slightly smaller than South Carolina; slightly larger than West Virginia
    total: 1,814 km
    border countries (4): Armenia 219 km, Azerbaijan 428 km, Russia 894 km, Turkey 273 km
    310 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
    largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; fertile soils in river valley flood plains and foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,201 m
    timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
    agricultural land: 35.5%
    arable land 5.8%; permanent crops 1.8%; permanent pasture 27.9%
    forest: 39.4%
    other: 25.1% (2011 est.)
    4,328 sq km (2007)
    63.33 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.81 cu km/yr (20%/22%/58%)
    per capita: 410.6 cu m/yr (2005)
    earthquakes
    air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them
  • People and Society :: GEORGIA

  • noun: Georgian(s)
    adjective: Georgian
    Georgian 83.8%, Azeri 6.5%, Armenian 5.7%, Russian 1.5%, other 2.5% (2002 est.)
    Georgian (official) 71%, Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
    note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia
    Orthodox Christian (official) 83.9%, Muslim 9.9%, Armenian-Gregorian 3.9%, Catholic 0.8%, other 0.8%, none 0.7% (2002 census)
    4,931,226 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    0-14 years: 17.73% (male 460,376/female 414,028)
    15-24 years: 13.35% (male 344,179/female 314,321)
    25-54 years: 40.93% (male 978,151/female 1,040,364)
    55-64 years: 12.45% (male 275,586/female 338,524)
    65 years and over: 15.53% (male 299,876/female 465,821) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 48.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 27%
    elderly dependency ratio: 21.7%
    potential support ratio: 4.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 37.7 years
    male: 34.9 years
    female: 40.4 years (2014 est.)
    -0.08% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    12.74 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    10.82 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    -2.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    urban population: 53.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    TBILISI (capital) 1.15 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 16.15 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 18.31 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 13.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    total population: 75.95 years
    male: 71.85 years
    female: 80.36 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    1.76 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    53.4%
    note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2010)
    9.4% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    4.27 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    2.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 97.3% of population
    total: 98.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 2.7% of population
    total: 1.3% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 95.5% of population
    rural: 90.7% of population
    total: 93.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 4.5% of population
    rural: 9.3% of population
    total: 6.7% of population (2012 est.)
    0.27% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    6,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    22.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    1.1% (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    2% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 14 years (2013)
    total number: 121,659
    percentage: 18% (2005 est.)
    total: 33.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
  • Government :: GEORGIA

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Georgia
    local long form: none
    local short form: Sak'art'velo
    former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
    republic
    name: Tbilisi
    geographic coordinates: 41 41 N, 44 50 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (kalaki), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika)
    regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli; note - the breakaway region of South Ossetia consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti
    city: Tbilisi
    autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)
    note 1: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown in parentheses
    note 2: the United States recognizes the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia to be part of Georgia
    9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)
    Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
    previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995; amended several times, last in 2013 (2013)
    civil law system
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (since 17 November 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Irakli GARIBASHVILI (since 20 November 2013)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018)
    election results: Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI elected president; percent of vote - Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI 62.1%, Davit BAKRADZE 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE 10.2%, other 6%
    description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats; 77 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 73 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 1 October 2012 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Georgian Dream-led coalition 55%, United National Movement 40.3%, other 4.7%; seats by party - Georgian Dream 85, United National Movement 65
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into several specialized judicial chambers; number of judges determined by the president of Georgia); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    note - the Abkhazian and Ajarian Autonomous republics each have a supreme court and a hierarchy of lower courts
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Parliament; judges serve not less than 10-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president following candidate selection by the Justice Council of Georgia, a 12-member consultative body of high-level judges, and presidential and parliamentary appointees; judges appointed for 10-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional (town) and district courts
    Alliance of Patriots [Irma INASHVILI]
    Conservative Party [Zviad DZIDZIGURI]
    European Democrats [Paata DAVITAIA]
    Free Georgia [Kakha KUKAVA]
    Georgian Dream (a five-party coalition composed of Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, Republican Party, National Forum, Conservative Party, and Industry Will Save Georgia, plus two factions of independent majoritarians)
    Georgian Dream (a six-party coalition composed of Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, Republican Party, Our Georgia-Free Democrats, National Forum, Conservative Party, and Industry Will Save Georgia)
    Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Irakli GARIBASHVILI]
    Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]
    Georgian Troupe [Jondi BAGHTURIA]
    Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Giorgi TOPADZE]
    Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]
    National Democratic Party or NDP [Bachuki KARDAVA]
    National Forum [Kakhaber SHARTAVA]
    New Rights [Pikria CHIKHRADZE]
    Our Georgia-Free Democrats (OGFD) [Irakli ALASANIA]
    People's Party [Koba DAVITASHVILI
    Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE]
    Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]
    United Democratic Movement [Nino BURJANADZE]
    United National Movement or UNM [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]
    other: separatists in the Russian-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
    ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CPLP (associate), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Archil GEGESHIDZE (since 12 April 2013)
    chancery: 1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
    FAX: [1] (202) 387-0864
    consulate(s) general: New York (closed)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Richard NORLAND (since 25 July 2012)
    embassy: 11 George Balanchine Street, T'bilisi 0131
    mailing address: 7060 T'bilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060
    telephone: [995] (32) 227-70-00
    FAX: [995] (32) 253-23-10
    white rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; sometimes referred to as the Five-Cross Flag; although adopted as the official Georgian flag in 2004, the five-cross design appears to date back to the 14th century
    Saint George, lion; national colors: red, white
    name: "Tavisupleba" (Liberty)
    lyrics/music: Davit MAGRADSE/Zakaria PALIASHVILI (adapted by Joseb KETSCHAKMADSE)
    note: adopted 2004; after the Rose Revolution, a new anthem with music based on the operas "Abesalom da Eteri" and "Daisi" was adopted
  • Economy :: GEORGIA

  • Georgia's main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. The country imports nearly all of its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its energy needs. Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages and gas supply interruptions of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by increasingly relying on natural gas imports from Azerbaijan instead of from Russia. Construction of the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus gas pipeline, and the Kars-Akhalkalaki Railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit point for gas, oil, and other goods. The expansion of the South Caucasus pipeline, as part of the Shah Deniz II Southern Gas Corridor project, will result in a $2 billion foreign investment in Georgia, the largest ever in the country. Gas from Shah Deniz II is expected to begin flowing in 2019. Georgia's economy sustained GDP growth of more than 10% in 2006-07, based on strong inflows of foreign investment and robust government spending. However, GDP growth slowed following the August 2008 conflict with Russia, and sunk to negative 4% in 2009 as foreign direct investment and workers' remittances declined in the wake of the global financial crisis. The economy rebounded in 2010-13, but FDI inflows, the engine of Georgian economic growth prior to the 2008 conflict, have not recovered fully. Unemployment has also remained high. Georgia has historically suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, since 2004 the government has simplified the tax code, improved tax administration, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on petty corruption, leading to higher revenues. The country is pinning its hopes for renewed growth on a determined effort to continue to liberalize the economy by reducing regulation, taxes, and corruption in order to attract foreign investment, with a focus on hydropower, agriculture, tourism, and textiles production. The government has received high marks from the World Bank for its anti-corruption efforts. Since 2012, the Georgian Dream-led government has continued the previous administration's low-regulation, low-tax, free market policies, while modestly increasing social spending, strengthening anti-trust policy, and amending the labor code to comply with International Labor Standards. The government published its 2020 Economic Development Strategy in early 2014 and former Prime Minister Bidzina IVANISHVILI launched the Georgian Co-Investment Fund, a $6 billion private equity fund that will invest in tourism, agriculture, logistics, energy, infrastructure, and manufacturing. In mid-2014, Georgia signed an association agreement with the European Union, paving the way to free trade and visa-free travel.
    $34.21 billion (2014 est.)
    $32.66 billion (2013 est.)
    $31.61 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $16.54 billion (2014 est.)
    4.7% (2014 est.)
    3.3% (2013 est.)
    6.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $7,700 (2014 est.)
    $7,300 (2013 est.)
    $7,100 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 149
    15.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    19.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    18.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    household consumption: 72.3%
    government consumption: 17.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 22.4%
    investment in inventories: 3.6%
    exports of goods and services: 46.3%
    imports of goods and services: -62.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 9.1%
    industry: 21.8%
    services: 69.1% (2014 est.)
    citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
    steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine
    8.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    1.959 million (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    agriculture: 55.6%
    industry: 8.9%
    services: 35.5% (2006 est.)
    14.9% (2014 est.)
    14.6% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    9.2% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2%
    highest 10%: 31.3% (2008)
    46 (2011)
    37.1 (1996)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    revenues: $4.594 billion
    expenditures: $5.048 billion (2014 est.)
    28.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    -2.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    36.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    36.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities; Georgia does not maintain intra-governmental debt or social funds
    country comparison to the world: 109
    calendar year
    3.1% (2014 est.)
    -0.5% (2013 est.)
    3.75% (15 January 2013)
    5.25% (31 December 2012)
    note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy rate of the National Bank of Georgia
    country comparison to the world: 100
    12.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    13.59% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    $2.632 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.297 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    $4.72 billion (31 September 2012 est.)
    $4.249 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $8.007 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.634 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    $943.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $795.7 million (31 December 2011)
    $1.06 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    -$1.593 billion (2014 est.)
    -$1.028 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $4.493 billion (2014 est.)
    $4.191 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores
    Azerbaijan 24.3%, Armenia 9%, Turkey 7%, Ukraine 6.3%, Bulgaria 5.6%, US 5.1%, Russia 4.4%, Germany 4.1% (2013)
    $8.328 billion (2014 est.)
    $7.697 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
    Turkey 16%, China 8.3%, Ukraine 7.7%, Azerbaijan 7.3%, Russia 6.7%, Germany 5.6%, Romania 4.5%, US 4.3%, Japan 4% (2013)
    $3.283 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.823 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    $12.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $12.11 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    $12.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $11.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    $1.642 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.482 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    laris (GEL) per US dollar -
    1.763 (2014 est.)
    1.6634 (2013 est.)
    1.65 (2012 est.)
    1.6865 (2011 est.)
    1.7823 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: GEORGIA

  • 9.694 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    9.379 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    930 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    614 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    4.35 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    38.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    61.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    1,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    531 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    35 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    16,790 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    18,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    9.151 million cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    1.776 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    1.77 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    6.258 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
  • Communications :: GEORGIA

  • 1.276 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    4.699 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    general assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country
    domestic: cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 100 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi
    international: country code - 995; the Georgia-Russia fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Russia; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2011)
    1 public broadcaster in Tbilisi, 1 state-owned broadcaster in Ajaria Autonomous Republic; 8 privately owned TV stations; state run public broadcaster operates 2 TV stations; dozens of cable TV operators, several major commercial TV stations, and several dozen private radio stations; state run public broadcaster operates 2 radio stations (2012)
    AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)
    12 (plus repeaters) (1998)
    .ge
    357,864 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    1.3 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 89
  • Transportation :: GEORGIA

  • 22 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    total: 18
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m:
    1 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    gas 1,596 km; oil 1,175 km (2013)
    total: 1,612 km
    broad gauge: 1,575 km 1.520-m gauge (1,575 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    total: 19,109 km
    paved: 19,109 km (includes 69 km of expressways) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    total: 142
    by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 114, chemical tanker 1, container 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 2
    foreign-owned: 95 (Bulgaria 1, China 10, Egypt 7, Hong Kong 3, Israel 1, Italy 2, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, Romania 7, Russia 6, Syria 24, Turkey 14, UAE 2, UK 5, Ukraine 10, US 1)
    registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    major seaport(s): Black Sea - Bat'umi, P'ot'i
  • Military :: GEORGIA

  • Georgian Armed Forces: Land Forces (include Air and Air Defense Forces); separatist Abkhazia Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Forces; separatist South Ossetia Armed Forces
    note: Georgian naval forces have been incorporated into the Coast Guard, which is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs rather than the Ministry of Defense (2015)
    18 to 34 years of age for compulsory and voluntary active duty military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (2012)
    males age 16-49: 1,080,840
    females age 16-49: 1,122,031 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 893,003
    females age 16-49: 931,683 (2010 est.)
    male: 29,723
    female: 27,242 (2010 est.)
    2.7% of GDP (2013)
    2.88% of GDP (2012)
    3.25% of GDP (2011)
    2.88% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 27
  • Transnational Issues :: GEORGIA

  • Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia
    IDPs: 232,700 (displaced in the 1990s as a result of armed conflict in the breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; displaced in 2008 by fighting between Georgia and Russia over South Ossetia) (2014)
    stateless persons: 770 (2014)
    limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia
GO TOP