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Europe :: Gibraltar
(overseas territory of the UK)
Page last updated on June 23, 2015
 
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Gibraltar
  • Introduction :: GIBRALTAR

  • Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols and in 2013, the British reported a record number of entries by Spanish vessels into waters claimed by Gibraltar following a dispute over Gibraltar's creation of an artificial reef in those waters. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.
  • Geography :: GIBRALTAR

  • Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
    36 08 N, 5 21 W
    Europe
    total: 6.5 sq km
    land: 6.5 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 244
    more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.
    total: 1.2 km
    border countries (1): Spain 1.2 km
    12 km
    territorial sea: 3 nm
    Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
    a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m
    none
    agricultural land: 0%
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
    forest: 0%
    other: 100% (2011 est.)
    NA
    NA
    limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
    strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
  • People and Society :: GIBRALTAR

  • noun: Gibraltarian(s)
    adjective: Gibraltar
    Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans
    English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
    Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, Muslim 4%, other Christian 3.2%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 est.)
    29,185 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    0-14 years: 20.1% (male 3,009/female 2,862)
    15-24 years: 16% (male 2,433/female 2,225)
    25-54 years: 38.1% (male 5,593/female 5,524)
    55-64 years: 10.8% (male 1,488/female 1,664)
    65 years and over: 15% (male 2,156/female 2,231) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total: 34 years
    male: 33.1 years
    female: 35 years (2014 est.)
    0.25% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    14.15 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    8.33 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    -3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    urban population: 100% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    GIBRALTAR (capital) 29,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    total: 6.29 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 6.99 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    total population: 79.13 years
    male: 76.28 years
    female: 82.18 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    1.92 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
  • Government :: GIBRALTAR

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Gibraltar
    overseas territory of the UK
    NA
    name: Gibraltar
    geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain
    previous 1969; latest passed by referendum 30 November 2006, entered into effect 14 December 2006, entered into force 2 January 2007; amended 2009 (2009)
    the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
    18 years of age; universal; and British citizens with six months residence or more
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir James DUTTON (since 6 December 2013)
    head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
    description: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; 17 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by majority vote and 1 appointed by Parliament as speaker; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 8 December 2011 (next to be held not later than 8 December 2015)
    election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 48%, GSLP 46.8%, Progressive Democratic Party 4.4%, other 0.8%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 7
    highest resident court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of at least three judges, including the court president); Supreme Court of Gibraltar (consists of the chief justice and 3 judges); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission, a 7-member body of judges and appointees of the governor; tenure of the Court of Appeal president based on terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice and judge normally appointed until retirement at age 67, but can be extended 3 years
    subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Magistrates' Court; specialized tribunals for issues relating to social security, taxes, and employment
    Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]
    Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Daniel FEETHAM]
    Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO]
    Progressive Democratic Party [Nick CRUZ]
    Chamber of Commerce
    Gibraltar Representatives Organization
    Women's Association
    ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), UPU
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean
    Barbary macaque; national colors: red, white, yellow
    name: "Gibraltar Anthem"
    lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY
    note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)
  • Economy :: GIBRALTAR

  • Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (over 11 million visitors in 2012), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.
    $1.85 billion (2013 est.)
    $2 billion (2012 est.)
    $1.106 billion (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    $1.85 billion (2013 est.)
    6% (2008 est.)
    8.8% (2007 est.)
    0% (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    $43,000 (2008 est.)
    $41,200 (2007 est.)
    $38,400 (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    agriculture: 0%
    industry: 0%
    services: 100% (2008 est.)
    none
    tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
    NA%
    22,910 (2001) (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    agriculture: negligible
    industry: 40%
    services: 60% (2001)
    3% (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $475.8 million
    expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)
    25.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    1.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
    9.3% of GDP (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    1 July - 30 June
    2.5% (2013 est.)
    2.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    $271 million (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods (2010 est.)
    $2.967 billion (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    fuels, manufactured goods, foodstuffs
    $NA
    Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -
    0.75 (2014 est.)
    0.76 (2013 est.)
    0.64 (2012)
    0.62 (2011)
    0.65 (2010)
  • Energy :: GIBRALTAR

  • 161 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    156 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    43,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    100% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    20,220 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    28,380 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    3.946 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: GIBRALTAR

  • 23,100 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    34,750 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
    domestic: automatic exchange facilities
    international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
    Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides TV and radio broadcasting services via 1 TV station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)
    AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)
    1 (plus 3 repeaters) (1997)
    .gi
    3,509 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    20,200 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 189
  • Transportation :: GIBRALTAR

  • 1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    total: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 29 km
    paved: 29 km (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    total: 267
    by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 146, chemical tanker 64, container 28, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 8
    foreign-owned: 254 (Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 2, Germany 123, Greece 8, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 34, Norway 46, Sweden 11, UAE 5, UK 6)
    registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    major seaport(s): Gibraltar
  • Military :: GIBRALTAR

  • Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2013)
    males age 16-49: 7,037 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 6,017
    females age 16-49: 5,706 (2010 est.)
    male: 228
    female: 220 (2010 est.)
    defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992
  • Transnational Issues :: GIBRALTAR

  • in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
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