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Europe :: GIBRALTAR
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GIBRALTAR
  • Introduction :: GIBRALTAR

  • Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led Spain to close the border and sever all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols and in 2013, the British reported a record number of entries by Spanish vessels into waters claimed by Gibraltar following a dispute over Gibraltar's creation of an artificial reef in those waters. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.
  • Geography :: GIBRALTAR

  • Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
    36 08 N, 5 21 W
    Europe
    total: 6.5 sq km
    land: 6.5 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 244
    more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.
    total: 1.2 km
    border countries (1): Spain 1.2 km
    12 km
    territorial sea: 3 nm
    Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
    a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
    mean elevation: NA
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m
    none
    agricultural land: 0%
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
    forest: 0%
    other: 100% (2011 est.)
    NA
    NA
    limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
    strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
  • People and Society :: GIBRALTAR

  • noun: Gibraltarian(s)
    adjective: Gibraltar
    Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans
    English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
    Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, Muslim 4%, other Christian 3.2%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 est.)
    29,258 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    0-14 years: 20.11% (male 3,014/female 2,870)
    15-24 years: 15.58% (male 2,383/female 2,174)
    25-54 years: 38.44% (male 5,678/female 5,569)
    55-64 years: 10.47% (male 1,418/female 1,644)
    65 years and over: 15.41% (male 2,216/female 2,292) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total: 34.2 years
    male: 33.3 years
    female: 35.2 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    0.24% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    14.08 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    8.37 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    -3.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    urban population: 100% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    GIBRALTAR (capital) 29,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 6.16 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 6.85 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 5.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    total population: 79.28 years
    male: 76.43 years
    female: 82.34 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    1.91 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
  • Government :: GIBRALTAR

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Gibraltar
    etymology: from the Spanish derivation of the Arabic "Jabal Tariq," which means "Mountain of Tariq" and which refers to the Rock of Gibraltar
    overseas territory of the UK
    parliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
    name: Gibraltar
    geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain
    previous 1969; latest passed by referendum 30 November 2006, entered into effect 14 December 2006, entered into force 2 January 2007 (2016)
    the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
    see United Kingdom
    18 years of age; universal; and British citizens with six months residence or more
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Lt. Gen. Edward DAVIS (since 19 January 2016)
    head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor
    description: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; 17 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by majority vote and 1 appointed by Parliament as speaker; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 26 November 2015 (next to be held not later than December 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - GSLP 68.4%, GSD 31.6%; seats by party - GSLP 10, GSD 7
    highest resident court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of at least 3 judges, including the court president); Supreme Court of Gibraltar (consists of the chief justice and 3 judges); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission, a 7-member body of judges and appointees of the governor; tenure of the Court of Appeal president based on terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice and judge normally appointed until retirement at age 67, but can be extended 3 years
    subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Magistrates' Court; specialized tribunals for issues relating to social security, taxes, and employment
    Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]
    Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Daniel FEETHAM]
    Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO]
    Progressive Democratic Party [Nick CRUZ]
    Chamber of Commerce
    Gibraltar Representatives Organization
    Women's Association
    ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), UPU
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean
    Barbary macaque; national colors: red, white, yellow
    name: "Gibraltar Anthem"
    lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY
    note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)
  • Economy :: GIBRALTAR

  • Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.
    The financial sector, tourism (over 11 million visitors in 2012), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%.
    $1.85 billion (2013 est.)
    $2 billion (2012 est.)
    $1.106 billion (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    $1.85 billion (2013 est.)
    6% (2008 est.)
    8.8% (2007 est.)
    0% (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    $43,000 (2008 est.)
    $41,200 (2007 est.)
    $38,400 (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    agriculture: 0%
    industry: 0%
    services: 100% (2008 est.)
    none
    tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
    NA%
    22,910 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    agriculture: NEGL
    industry: 40%
    services: 60% (2001)
    3% (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $475.8 million
    expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)
    25.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    1.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
    9.3% of GDP (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    1 July - 30 June
    2.5% (2013 est.)
    2.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $271 million (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods (2010 est.)
    $2.967 billion (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    fuels, manufactured goods, foodstuffs
    $NA
    Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2015 est.)
    0.7525 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.64 (2012)
    0.624 (2011)
  • Energy :: GIBRALTAR

  • 165 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    160 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    43,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    53,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    53,970 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    3.946 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
  • Communications :: GIBRALTAR

  • total subscriptions: 23,400
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    total: 38,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
    domestic: automatic exchange facilities
    international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
    Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides TV and radio broadcasting services via 1 TV station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)
    AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)
    1 (plus 3 repeaters) (1997)
    .gi
    3,509 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    total: 24,000
    percent of population: 82% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
  • Transportation :: GIBRALTAR

  • 1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    total: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 29 km
    paved: 29 km (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    total: 267
    by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 146, chemical tanker 64, container 28, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 8
    foreign-owned: 254 (Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 2, Germany 123, Greece 8, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 34, Norway 46, Sweden 11, UAE 5, UK 6)
    registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    major seaport(s): Gibraltar
  • Military and Security :: GIBRALTAR

  • Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2013)
    defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992
  • Transnational Issues :: GIBRALTAR

  • in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy