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Central America and Caribbean :: GRENADA
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GRENADA
  • Introduction :: GRENADA

  • Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when Christopher COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974 making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. In 1979, a leftist New Jewel Movement seized power under Maurice BISHOP ushering in the Grenada Revolution. On 19 October 1983, factions within the revolutionary government overthrew and killed BISHOP and members of his party. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. The rule of law was restored and democratic elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since then.
  • Geography :: GRENADA

  • Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
    12 07 N, 61 40 W
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 344 sq km
    land: 344 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 208
    twice the size of Washington, DC
    0 km
    121 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
    volcanic in origin with central mountains
    mean elevation: NA
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m
    timber, tropical fruit
    agricultural land: 32.3%
    arable land 8.8%; permanent crops 20.6%; permanent pasture 2.9%
    forest: 50%
    other: 17.7% (2011 est.)
    20 sq km (2012)
    approximately one-third of the population is found in the capital of St. George's; the island's population is concentrated along the coast
    lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November
    volcanism: Mount Saint Catherine (840 m) lies on the island of Grenada; Kick 'em Jenny, an active submarine volcano (seamount) on the Caribbean Sea floor, lies about 8 km north of the island of Grenada; these two volcanoes are at the southern end of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends up to the Netherlands dependency of Saba in the north
    deforestation causing habitat destruction and species loss; coastal erosion and contamination; pollution and sedimentation; inadequate solid waste management
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada
  • People and Society :: GRENADA

  • 111,724 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    noun: Grenadian(s)
    adjective: Grenadian
    African descent 82.4%, mixed 13.3%, East Indian 2.2%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.)
    English (official), French patois
    Protestant 49.2% (includes Pentecostal 17.2%, Seventh Day Adventist 13.2%, Anglican 8.5%, Baptist 3.2%, Church of God 2.4%, Evangelical 1.9%, Methodist 1.6%, other 1.2%), Roman Catholic 36%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, Rastafarian 1.2%, other 5.5%, none 5.7%, unspecified 1.3% (2011 est.)
    0-14 years: 23.99% (male 13,914/female 12,893)
    15-24 years: 15.03% (male 8,377/female 8,414)
    25-54 years: 40.38% (male 23,099/female 22,013)
    55-64 years: 10.52% (male 6,016/female 5,740)
    65 years and over: 10.08% (male 5,210/female 6,048) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 50.7
    youth dependency ratio: 39.9
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.8
    potential support ratio: 9.3 (2015 est.)
    total: 31.5 years
    male: 31.5 years
    female: 31.6 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    0.44% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    15.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    -2.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    approximately one-third of the population is found in the capital of St. George's; the island's population is concentrated along the coast
    urban population: 36.3% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.76% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    SAINT GEORGE'S (capital) 39,000 (2018)
    at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    total: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    total population: 74.5 years
    male: 71.9 years
    female: 77.4 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    2.02 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    6.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    3.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    improved:
    urban: 99% of population
    rural: 95.3% of population
    total: 96.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1% of population
    rural: 4.7% of population
    total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 97.5% of population
    rural: 98.3% of population
    total: 98% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.5% of population
    rural: 1.7% of population
    total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
    21.3% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    10.3% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    total: 17 years
    male: 17 years
    female: 17 years (2015)
  • Government :: GRENADA

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Grenada
    etymology: derivation of the name remains obscure; some sources attribute the designation to Spanish influence (most likely named for the Spanish city of Granada), with subsequent French and English interpretations resulting in the present-day Grenada; in Spanish "granada" means "pomegranate"
    parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
    name: Saint George's
    geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick
    7 February 1974 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
    history: previous 1967; latest presented 19 December 1973, effective 7 February 1974, suspended 1979 following a revolution, but restored in 1983
    amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the membership in both houses and assent to by the governor general; passage of amendments to constitutional sections such as personal rights and freedoms, the structure, authorities, and procedures of the branches of government, the delimitation of electoral constituencies, or the procedure for amending the constitution also requires two-thirds majority approval in a referendum; amended 1991, 1992 (2018)
    common law based on English model
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years for persons from a non-Caribbean state and 4 years for a person from a Caribbean state
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 20 February 2013)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    Senate (13 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 10 on the advice of the prime minister and 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms)
    House of Representatives (15 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    House of Representatives - last held on 13 March 2018 (next to be not later than 2023)
    election results:
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NNP 58.9%, NDC 40.5%; other 0.6% seats by party - NNP 15
    highest court(s): regionally, the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, travelling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside at the member states with 2 in Grenada; appeals beyond the ECSC in civil and criminal matters are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the UK
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, and independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
    subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; Court of Magisterial Appeals
    National Democratic Congress or NDC [Nazim BURKE]
    New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ethelstan Angus FRIDAY (since 3 September 2013)
    chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468
    consulate(s) general: Miami
    chief of mission: the US does not have an embassy in Grenada; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada
    embassy: Lance-aux-Epines Stretch, Saint George's
    mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's
    telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1176
    FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820
    a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars stand for the seven administrative divisions, with the central star denoting the capital, St. George; yellow represents the sun and the warmth of the people, green stands for vegetation and agriculture, and red symbolizes harmony, unity, and courage
    Grenada dove, Bougainvillea flower; national colors: red, yellow, green
    name: "Hail Grenada"
    lyrics/music: Irva Merle BAPTISTE/Louis Arnold MASANTO
    note: adopted 1974
  • Economy :: GRENADA

  • Grenada relies on tourism and revenue generated by St. George’s University - a private university offering degrees in medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, the health sciences, nursing, arts and sciences, and business - as its main source of foreign exchange. In the past two years the country expanded its sources of revenue, including from selling passports under its citizenship by investment program. These projects produced a resurgence in the construction and manufacturing sectors of the economy.
    In 2017, Grenada experienced its fifth consecutive year of growth and the government successfully marked the completion of its five-year structural adjustment program that included among other things austerity measures, increased tax revenue and debt restructuring. Public debt-to-GDP was reduced from 100% of GDP in 2013 to 71.8% in 2017.
    $1.606 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.549 billion (2016 est.)
    $1.455 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 199
    $1.115 billion (2017 est.)
    3.5% (2017 est.)
    3.7% (2016 est.)
    6.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    $14,900 (2017 est.)
    $14,500 (2016 est.)
    $13,600 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 115
    12% of GDP (2017 est.)
    17% of GDP (2016 est.)
    13.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    household consumption: 84.4%
    government consumption: 14.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 15.9%
    investment in inventories: -0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 20.4%
    imports of goods and services: -35.1% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 9.1%
    industry: 14.2%
    services: 76.7% (2017 est.)
    bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, soursop, citrus, avocados, root crops, corn, vegetables, fish
    food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction, education, call-center operations
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    55,270 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    agriculture: 11%
    industry: 20%
    services: 69% (2008 est.)
    24% (2017 est.)
    28.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    38% (2008 est.)
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $279.2 million
    expenditures: $284.6 million (2017 est.)
    25.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    -0.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    71.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    82.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    calendar year
    2% (2017 est.)
    1.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    6.5% (31 December 2009)
    6.5% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    8.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
    8.66% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    $223 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $214 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    $807.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $796.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    $574.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $566.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    $NA
    -$73 million (2017 est.)
    -$34 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $43.4 million (2017 est.)
    $44.2 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    nutmeg, bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace, chocolate, fish
    US 25.3%, Japan 10.1%, Guyana 8.7%, Dominica 6.6%, St. Lucia 6.4%, Netherlands 4.7%, Barbados 4.1%, St. Kitts and Nevis 4% (2017)
    $310.2 million (2017 est.)
    $313.7 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel
    US 31.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 24.9%, China 6.7% (2017)
    $207.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    $198 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    $793.5 million (2017 est.)
    $682.3 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
    2.7 (2017 est.)
    2.7 (2016 est.)
    2.7 (2015 est.)
    2.7 (2014 est.)
    2.7 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: GRENADA

  • population without electricity: 11,121
    electrification - total population: 91%
    electrification - urban areas: 100%
    electrification - rural areas: 80% (2012)
    200 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    185 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    50,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    98% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    860 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    500,000 Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
  • Communications :: GRENADA

  • total subscriptions: 32,491
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    total subscriptions: 113,177
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    general assessment: adequate, automatic, island-wide telephone system
    domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links
    international: country code - 1-473; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; also a landing point for the Southern Caribbean Fiber (SCF) submarine cable with links to 10 other islands in the Caribbean extending from Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis to Trinidad and Tobago; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad (2018)
    multiple publicly and privately owned television and radio stations; Grenada Information Service (GIS) is government-owned and provides television and radio services; the Grenada Broadcasting Network, jointly owned by the government and the Caribbean Communications Network of Trinidad and Tobago, operates a TV station and 2 radio stations; Meaningful Television (MTV) broadcasts island-wide and is part of a locally-owned media house, Moving Target Company, that also includes an FM radio station and a weekly newspaper; multi-channel cable TV subscription service is provided by Columbus Communications Grenada (FLOW GRENADA) and is available island wide; approximately 25 private radio stations also broadcast throughout the country (2018)
    .gd
    total: 62,123
    percent of population: 55.9% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    total: 22,235
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
  • Transportation :: GRENADA

  • number of registered air carriers: 0
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 0
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 0
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    J3 (2016)
    3 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    total: 3
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    total: 1,127 km
    paved: 902 km
    unpaved: 225 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    total: 6
    by type: general cargo 3, other 3 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    major seaport(s): Saint George's
  • Military and Security :: GRENADA

  • no regular military forces; Royal Grenada Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: GRENADA

  • none
    small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US