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Europe :: Germany
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  • Introduction :: GERMANY

  • As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.
  • Geography :: GERMANY

  • Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
    51 00 N, 9 00 E
    total: 357,022 sq km
    land: 348,672 sq km
    water: 8,350 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 63
    three times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montana
    Area comparison map:
    total: 3,714 km
    border countries (9): Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 467 km, Switzerland 348 km
    2,389 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
    lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
    lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m
    highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
    coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
    agricultural land: 48%
    arable land 34.1%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 13.3%
    forest: 31.8%
    other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
    5,157 sq km (2006)
    154 cu km (2011)
    total: 32.3 cu km/yr (16%/84%/0%)
    per capita: 391.4 cu m/yr (2007)
    emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
  • People and Society :: GERMANY

  • noun: German(s)
    adjective: German
    German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)
    German (official)
    note: Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romany are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romany are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
    Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
    80,854,408 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    0-14 years: 12.88% (male 5,346,086/female 5,068,071)
    15-24 years: 10.38% (male 4,279,962/female 4,113,746)
    25-54 years: 41.38% (male 16,934,180/female 16,519,932)
    55-64 years: 13.91% (male 5,571,694/female 5,675,104)
    65 years and over: 21.45% (male 7,591,298/female 9,754,335) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 51.8%
    youth dependency ratio: 19.6%
    elderly dependency ratio: 32.2%
    potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 46.5 years
    male: 45.4 years
    female: 47.5 years (2015 est.)
    -0.17% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    8.47 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    11.42 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    urban population: 75.3% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.16% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BERLIN (capital) 3.563 million; Hamburg 1.831 million; Munich 1.438 million; Cologne 1.037 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    total: 3.43 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.72 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    total population: 80.57 years
    male: 78.26 years
    female: 83 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    1.44 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2005)
    11.3% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    3.89 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    8.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 99.3% of population
    rural: 99% of population
    total: 99.2% of population
    urban: 0.7% of population
    rural: 1% of population
    total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
    0.15% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    77,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    22.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    1.1% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    5% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    total: 16 years
    male: 17 years
    female: 16 years (2012)
    total: 8.1%
    male: 8.8%
    female: 7.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
  • Government :: GERMANY

  • conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
    conventional short form: Germany
    local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    local short form: Deutschland
    former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
    federal republic
    name: Berlin
    geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat), while Hamburg prides itself on being a Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt)
    18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)
    Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
    previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949; amended many times, last in 2012 (2015)
    civil law system
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    birthright citizenship: no, unless one parent is a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government
    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Joachim GAUCK (since 23 March 2012)
    head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
    cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention consisting of the 630-member Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and 630 delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 19 February 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); chancellor indirectly elected by absolute majority by the Federal Parliament for a 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 17 December 2013 (next to be held following the September 2017 general election)
    election results: Joachim GAUCK elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Joachim GAUCK (independent) 991, Beate KLARSFELD (independent) 126, Olaf ROSE (National People's Union) 3; Angela MERKEL (CDU) reelected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 462 for, 150 against, 4 abstentions
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments or landtags) and the Federal Diet or Bundestag (631 seats - total seats can vary each electoral term; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Bundestag - last held on 22 September 2013 (next to be held no later than autumn 2017); most all postwar German governments have been coalitions; note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
    election results: Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 41.5%, SPD 25.7%, Left 8.6%, Greens 8.4%, FDP 4.8%, other 10.9%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 311, SPD 193, Left 64, Greens 63
    highest court(s): Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges including the court president, vice-presidents, presiding judges, and other judges, and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels; Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated States and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president of Germany; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68
    subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 German states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts
    Alliance '90/Greens [Cem OEZDEMIR and Simone PETER]
    Alternative for Germany or AfD [Bernd LUCKE]
    Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]
    Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]
    Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
    Left Party or Die Linke [Katia KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]
    Social Democratic Party or SPD [Sigmar GABRIEL]
    other: business associations and employers' organizations
    trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hans Peter WITTIG (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
    FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador John B. EMERSON (since 26 August 2013)
    embassy: Pariser Platz 2
    mailing address: Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin
    telephone: [49] (30) 8305-0
    FAX: [49] (30) 8305-1215
    consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
    three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field
    golden eagle; national colors: black, red, yellow
    name: "Das Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans)
    lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN
    note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as "Deutschlandlied" (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, "Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany
  • Economy :: GERMANY

  • The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and declining net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms. Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II - and its decrease to 5.2% in 2014. The new German government introduced a minimum wage of about $11.60 (8.50 euros) per hour to take effect in 2015. Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2012 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.1%. The budget was essentially in balance in 2014. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016 though the target was already reached in 2012. The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power with renewable energy, which accounted for 27.8% of gross electricity consumption in 2014, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production. Extremely low inflation, caused largely by low global energy prices and a weak euro, are expected to boost German GDP growth in 2015.
    $3.748 trillion (2014 est.)
    $3.69 trillion (2013 est.)
    $3.675 trillion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 6
    $3.874 trillion (2014 est.)
    1.6% (2014 est.)
    0.4% (2013 est.)
    0.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    $46,200 (2014 est.)
    $45,500 (2013 est.)
    $45,300 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 27
    26.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    25.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    26.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    household consumption: 54.6%
    government consumption: 19.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
    investment in inventories: -0.8%
    exports of goods and services: 45.8%
    imports of goods and services: -39%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 0.7%
    industry: 30.4%
    services: 68.9%
    (2014 est.)
    potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry
    among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
    1.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    44.79 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    agriculture: 1.6%
    industry: 24.6%
    services: 73.8%
    5% (2014 est.)
    5.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    15.5% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.6%
    highest 10%: 24% (2000)
    27 (2006)
    30 (1994)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    revenues: $1.721 trillion
    expenditures: $1.696 trillion (2014 est.)
    44.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    0.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    74.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    76.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euro; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank
    country comparison to the world: 33
    calendar year
    0.8% (2014 est.)
    1.6% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    0.75% (31 December 2013)
    1.5% (31 December 2010)
    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
    country comparison to the world: 133
    2.47% (31 December 2014 est.)
    2.75% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    $1.841 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.944 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    country comparison to the world: 5
    $4.347 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.451 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    $4.976 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.335 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    $1.486 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $1.184 trillion (31 December 2011)
    $1.43 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    $286.4 billion (2014 est.)
    $238.7 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    $1.492 trillion (2014 est.)
    $1.439 trillion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products
    France 9.6%, UK 7.9%, US 6.9%, Netherlands 6.9%, China 5.8%, Austria 5.3%, Italy 5.1%, Poland 4.5%, Switzerland 4.3% (2014)
    $1.188 trillion (2014 est.)
    $1.163 trillion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products
    Netherlands 13.8%, France 8%, China 6.6%, Belgium 6.3%, Italy 5.4%, UK 4.8%, Poland 4.6%, Czech Republic 4.4%, Austria 4.3%, Switzerland 4.1% (2014)
    $192.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $198.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    $192.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $198.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    $1.416 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.574 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    $1.986 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.059 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7489 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: GERMANY

  • 585.2 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    540.1 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    71.43 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    39.16 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    177.1 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    45.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    6.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    2.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    41.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    48,830 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    670.7 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    1.83 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    226.8 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    2.15 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    2.399 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    407,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    734,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    10.06 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    77.48 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    19.24 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    86.84 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    116 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    788.3 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
  • Communications :: GERMANY

  • total subscriptions: 47.02 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    total: 99.5 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    general assessment: one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
    domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
    international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2011)
    a mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008)
    AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
    373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
    total: 70.3 million
    percent of population: 86.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
  • Transportation :: GERMANY

  • 539 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    total: 318
    over 3,047 m: 14
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 49
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 60
    914 to 1,523 m: 70
    under 914 m: 125 (2013)
    total: 221
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 35
    under 914 m:
    185 (2013)
    23 (2013)
    condensate 37 km; gas 26,985 km; oil 2,826 km; refined products 4,479 km; water 8 km (2013)
    total: 43,468.3 km
    standard gauge: 43,209.3 km 1.435-m gauge (19,973 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 220 km 1.000-m gauge (79 km electrified); 15 km 0.900-m gauge; 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    total: 645,000 km
    paved: 645,000 km (includes 12,800 km of expressways)
    note: includes local roads (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    total: 427
    by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 6, cargo 51, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, container 298, liquefied gas 6, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 6, vehicle carrier 1
    foreign-owned: 6 (Finland 3, Netherlands 1, Switzerland 2)
    registered in other countries: 3,420 (Antigua and Barbuda 1094, Australia 2, Bahamas 30, Bermuda 14, Brazil 6, Bulgaria 12, Burma 1, Cayman Islands 3, Cook Islands 1, Curacao 25, Cyprus 192, Denmark 9, Dominica 5, Estonia 1, France 1, Gibraltar 123, Hong Kong 10, Isle of Man 56, Jamaica 10, Liberia 1185, Luxembourg 9, Malta 135, Marshall Islands 248, Morocco 1, Netherlands 86, NZ 2, Panama 24, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 2, Portugal 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Singapore 32, Slovakia 3, Spain 4, Sri Lanka 8, Sweden 3, UK 59, US 5, Venezuela 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Rostock; North Sea - Wilhelmshaven
    river port(s): Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe); Lubeck (Wakenitz)
    oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals
    container port(s): Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,915,487), Hamburg (9,014,165) (2011)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg
  • Military :: GERMANY

  • Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Services (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw) (2013)
    17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)
    males age 16-49: 18,529,299
    females age 16-49: 17,888,543 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 15,027,886
    females age 16-49: 14,510,527 (2010 est.)
    male: 405,438
    female: 384,930 (2010 est.)
    1.35% of GDP (2012)
    1.34% of GDP (2011)
    1.35% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 74
  • Transnational Issues :: GERMANY

  • none
    refugees (country of origin): 41,167 (Iraq); 40,994 (Syria); 27,814 (Afghanistan); 22,242 (Turkey); 18,814 (Iran); 9,294 (Serbia and Kosovo) (2014)
    stateless persons: 11,917 (2014)
    source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center