Europe :: GREECE
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  • Introduction :: GREECE

  • Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-communist and communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974 following the collapse of the dictatorship, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 2001. Greece has suffered a severe economic crisis since late 2009, due to nearly a decade of chronic overspending and structural rigidities. Since 2010, Greece has entered three bailout agreements with the European Commission, the European Central Bank (ECB), and the IMF. The Greek Government agreed to its current, $96 billion bailout in July 2015, which will conclude in August 2018.
  • Geography :: GREECE

  • Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
    39 00 N, 22 00 E
    total: 131,957 sq km
    land: 130,647 sq km
    water: 1,310 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 97
    slightly smaller than Alabama
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,110 km
    border countries (4): Albania 212 km, Bulgaria 472 km, Macedonia 234 km, Turkey 192 km
    13,676 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
    mountainous with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
    mean elevation: 498 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m
    lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential
    agricultural land: 63.4%
    arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 8.9%; permanent pasture 34.8%
    forest: 30.5%
    other: 6.1% (2011 est.)
    15,550 sq km (2012)
    74.25 cu km (2011)
    total: 9.47 cu km/yr (9%/2%/89%)
    per capita: 841.4 cu m/yr (2007)
    severe earthquakes
    volcanism: Santorini (elev. 367 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active
    air pollution; water pollution
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
    strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
  • People and Society :: GREECE

  • 10,773,253 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    noun: Greek(s)
    adjective: Greek
    population: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (2001 census)
    note: data represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity
    Greek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%
    Greek Orthodox (official) 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
    0-14 years: 13.93% (male 772,973/female 727,720)
    15-24 years: 9.68% (male 533,112/female 510,133)
    25-54 years: 42.71% (male 2,291,355/female 2,309,664)
    55-64 years: 13% (male 686,182/female 713,821)
    65 years and over: 20.68% (male 975,819/female 1,252,474) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 56.2%
    youth dependency ratio: 22.8%
    elderly dependency ratio: 33.4%
    potential support ratio: 3% (2015 est.)
    total: 44.2 years
    male: 43.1 years
    female: 45.3 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    -0.03% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    8.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    11.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    urban population: 78% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ATHENS (capital) 3.052 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.78 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    31.2 (2010 est.)
    3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    total: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    total population: 80.5 years
    male: 77.9 years
    female: 83.3 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    1.42 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    8.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    4.8 beds/1,000 population (2009)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 99.2% of population
    rural: 98.1% of population
    total: 99% of population
    urban: 0.8% of population
    rural: 1.9% of population
    total: 1% of population (2015 est.)
    0.26% (2015 est.)
    16,200 (2015 est.)
    300 (2015 est.)
    25.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    4.1% of GDP (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.7%
    male: 98.5%
    female: 96.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 17 years
    male: 17 years
    female: 17 years (2013)
    total: 52.4%
    male: 47.4%
    female: 58.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
  • Government :: GREECE

  • conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
    conventional short form: Greece
    local long form: Elliniki Dimokratia
    local short form: Ellas or Ellada
    former: Hellenic State, Kingdom of Greece
    etymology: the English name derives from the Roman (Latin) designation "Graecia," meaning "Land of the Greeks"; the Greeks call their country "Hellas" or "Ellada"
    parliamentary republic
    name: Athens
    geographic coordinates: 37 59 N, 23 44 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    13 regions (perifereies, singular - perifereia) and 1 autonomous monastic state* (aftonomi monastiki politeia); Agion Oros* (Mount Athos), Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki (East Macedonia and Thrace), Attiki (Attica), Dytiki Ellada (West Greece), Dytiki Makedonia (West Macedonia), Ionia Nisia (Ionian Islands), Ipeiros (Epirus), Kentriki Makedonia (Central Macedonia), Kriti (Crete), Notio Aigaio (South Aegean), Peloponnisos (Peloponnese), Sterea Ellada (Central Greece), Thessalia (Thessaly), Voreio Aigaio (North Aegean)
    3 February 1830 (from the Ottoman Empire); note - 25 March 1821, outbreak of the national revolt against the Ottomans; 3 February 1830, signing of the London Protocol recognizing Greek independence by Great Britain, France, and Russia
    Independence Day, 25 March (1821)
    many previous; latest entered into force 11 June 1975; amended 1986, 2001, 2008 (2016)
    civil legal system based on Roman law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Greece
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    chief of state: President Prokopis PAVLOPOULOS (since 13 March 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister Alexis TSIPRAS (since 21 September 2015); note - Vassiliki THANOU-CHRISTOFILOU served as interim prime minister beginning on 27 August 2015 after the resignation of Alexis TSIPRAS on 20 August 2015; she was Greece's first female prime minister
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president elected by Hellenic Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 February 2015 (next to be held by February 2020); president appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Hellenic Parliament
    election results: Prokopios PAVLOPOULOS (ND) elected president by Parliament - 233 of 300 votes
    description: unicameral Hellenic Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; 288 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 12 seats are filled from nationwide party lists; 50 seats allocated to the party with the highest total valid vote count and remaining seats are apportioned according to each party's or coalition's vote percentage; members serve up to 4 years)
    elections: last held on 20 September 2015 (next to be held by 2019); note - snap elections were called because of upheaval in the governing SYRIZA party over a new bailout deal with international creditors
    election results: percent of vote by party - SYRIZA 35.5%, ND 28.1%, Golden Dawn 7.0%, PASOK-DIMAR 6.3%, KKE 5.6%, To Potami 4.1%, ANEL 3.7%, EK 3.4%, other 6.3%; seats by party - SYRIZA 145, ND 75, Golden Dawn 18, PASOK-DIMAR 17, KKE 15, To Potami 11, ANEL 10, EK 9; note - only parties surpassing a 3% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; parties need 10 seats to become formal parliamentary groups but can retain that status if the party participated in the last election and received the minimum 3% threshold
    highest court(s): Hellenic Supreme Court of Civil and Penal Law (consists of 56 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges selected by the Supreme Judicial Council which includes the president of the Supreme Court, other judges, and the prosecutor of the Supreme Court; judges appointed for life following a 2-year probationary period
    subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court; Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; Court of Auditors
    Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow or ANTARSYA [collective leadership]
    Coalition of the Radical Left or SYRIZA [Alexios (Alexis) TSIPRAS]
    Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Dimitrios KOUTSOUMBAS]
    Democratic Left or DIMAR [Athanasios (Thanassis) THEOCHAROPOULOS]
    Golden Dawn [Nikolaos MICHALOLIAKOS]
    Independent Greeks or ANEL [Panagiotis (Panos) KAMMENOS]
    Movement of Democratic Socialists or KIDISO [Georgiose PAPANDREOU]
    New Democracy or ND [Kyriakos MITSOTAKIS]
    Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Fofi GENIMMATA]
    Popular Unity [Panagiotis LAFAZANIS]
    To Potami (The River) [Stavros THEODORAKIS]
    Union of Centrists or EK [Vassilis LEVENTIS]
    Supreme Administration of Civil Servants Unions or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
    Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]
    General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Theocharis LALACOS (since 27 June 2016)
    chancery: 2217 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 939-1300
    FAX: [1] (202) 939-1324
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Tampa (FL), San Francisco
    consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston
    chief of mission: Ambassador David D. PEARCE (since 18 October 2013)
    embassy: 91 Vasillisis Sophias Avenue, 10160 Athens
    mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108
    telephone: [30] (210) 721-2951
    FAX: [30] (210) 645-6282
    consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki (2012)
    nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; a blue square bearing a white cross appears in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country; there is no agreed upon meaning for the nine stripes or for the colors; the exact shade of blue has never been set by law and has varied from a light to a dark blue over time
    Greek cross (white cross on blue field, arms equal length); national colors: blue, white
    name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)
    lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS
    note: adopted 1864; the anthem is based on a 158-stanza poem by the same name, which was inspired by the Greek Revolution of 1821 against the Ottomans (only the first two stanzas are used); Cyprus also uses "Hymn to Liberty" as its anthem
  • Economy :: GREECE

  • Greece has a capitalist economy with a public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP about two-thirds that of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 18% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP.
    The Greek economy averaged growth of about 4% per year between 2003 and 2007, but the economy went into recession in 2009 as a result of the world financial crisis, tightening credit conditions, and Athens' failure to address a growing budget deficit. By 2013 the economy had contracted 26%, compared with the pre-crisis level of 2007. Greece met the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criterion of no more than 3% of GDP in 2007-08, but violated it in 2009, with the deficit reaching 15% of GDP. Deteriorating public finances, inaccurate and misreported statistics, and consistent underperformance on reforms prompted major credit rating agencies to downgrade Greece's international debt rating in late 2009 and led the country into a financial crisis. Under intense pressure from the EU and international market participants, the government accepted a bailout program that called on Athens to cut government spending, decrease tax evasion, overhaul the civil-service, health-care, and pension systems, and reform the labor and product markets. Austerity measures reduced the deficit to 3% in 2015. Successive Greek governments, however, failed to push through many of the most unpopular reforms in the face of widespread political opposition, including from the country's powerful labor unions and the general public.
    In April 2010, a leading credit agency assigned Greek debt its lowest possible credit rating, and in May 2010, the International Monetary Fund and euro-zone governments provided Greece emergency short- and medium-term loans worth $147 billion so that the country could make debt repayments to creditors. In exchange for the largest bailout ever assembled, the government announced combined spending cuts and tax increases totaling $40 billion over three years, on top of the tough austerity measures already taken. Greece, however, struggled to meet the targets set by the EU and the IMF, especially after Eurostat - the EU's statistical office - revised upward Greece's deficit and debt numbers for 2009 and 2010. European leaders and the IMF agreed in October 2011 to provide Athens a second bailout package of $169 billion. The second deal called for holders of Greek government bonds to write down a significant portion of their holdings to try to alleviate Greece’s government debt burden. However, Greek banks, saddled with a significant portion of sovereign debt, were adversely affected by the write down and $60 billion of the second bailout package was set aside to ensure the banking system was adequately capitalized. In exchange for the second bailout, Greece promised to step up efforts to increase tax collection, to reduce the size of government, and to rein in health spending. These austerity measures were designed to generate $7.8 billion in savings during 2013-15, but in fact prolonged Greece's economic recession and depressed tax revenues.
    In 2014, the Greek economy began to turn the corner on the recession. Greece achieved three significant milestones: balancing the budget - not including debt repayments; issuing government debt in financial markets for the first time since 2010; and generating 0.7% GDP growth — the first economic expansion since 2007.
    Despite the nascent recovery, widespread discontent with austerity measures helped propel the far-left Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) party into government in national legislative elections in January 2015. Between January and July 2015, frustrations between the SYRIZA-led government and Greece’s EU and IMF creditors over the implementation of bailout measures and disbursement of funds led the Greek government to run up significant arrears to suppliers and Greek banks to rely on emergency lending, and also called into question Greece’s future in the euro zone. To stave off a collapse of the banking system, Greece imposed capital controls in June 2015 shortly before rattling international financial markets by becoming the first developed nation to miss a loan payment to the IMF. Unable to reach an agreement with creditors, Prime Minister Alexios TSIPRAS held a nationwide referendum on 5 July on whether to accept the terms of Greece’s bailout, campaigning for the ultimately successful “no” vote. The TSIPRAS government subsequently agreed, however, to a new $96 billion bailout in order to avert Greece’s exit from the monetary bloc. On 20 August, Greece signed its third bailout which allowed it to cover significant debt payments to its EU and IMF creditors and ensure the banking sector retained access to emergency liquidity. The TSIPRAS government — which retook office on 20 September after calling new elections in late August — successfully secured disbursal of two delayed tranches of bailout funds. Despite the economic turmoil, Greek GDP did not contract as sharply as feared, with official source estimates of a -0.2% contraction in 2015, boosted in part by a strong tourist season.
    $286 billion (2015 est.)
    $286.6 billion (2014 est.)
    $284.8 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 55
    $195.3 billion (2015 est.)
    -0.2% (2015 est.)
    0.7% (2014 est.)
    -3.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    $26,400 (2015 est.)
    $26,200 (2014 est.)
    $25,900 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 68
    9.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    10.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    9.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    household consumption: 70.3%
    government consumption: 20%
    investment in fixed capital: 11.7%
    investment in inventories: -1.8%
    exports of goods and services: 30.1%
    imports of goods and services: -30.3% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 3.9%
    industry: 13.3%
    services: 82.8% (2015 est.)
    wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products
    tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
    0.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    4.832 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    agriculture: 12.6%
    industry: 15%
    services: 72.4% (30 October 2015 est.)
    25% (30 October 2015 est.)
    26.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    36% (2014 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.7%
    highest 10%: 26.7% (2015 est.)
    36.7 (2012 est.)
    35.7 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    revenues: $56.33 billion
    expenditures: $60.19 billion (2015 est.)
    27.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    -1.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    171.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    178.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    calendar year
    -1.1% (2015 est.)
    -1.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    0.05% (31 March 2016)
    0.15% (11 June 2014)
    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
    country comparison to the world: 146
    6% (31 December 2015 est.)
    6.52% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $118.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $115.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    country comparison to the world: 31
    $260.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $264.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    $267.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $298.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    $44.58 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $33.65 billion (31 December 2011)
    $72.64 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    -$8 million (2015 est.)
    -$5.006 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $25.31 billion (2015 est.)
    $35.6 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
    Italy 11.2%, Germany 7.3%, Turkey 6.6%, Cyprus 5.9%, Bulgaria 5.2%, US 4.8%, UK 4.2%, Egypt 4% (2015)
    $47.21 billion (2015 est.)
    $63.76 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
    Germany 10.7%, Italy 8.4%, Russia 7.9%, Iraq 7%, China 5.9%, Netherlands 5.5%, France 4.5% (2015)
    $6.433 billion (February 2015 est.)
    $6.212 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    $514.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $575.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $31.24 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $30.15 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    $40.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $40.96 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2015 est.)
    0.7525 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: GREECE

  • electrification - total population: 100 % (2016)
    57.55 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    57.73 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    2.602 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    4.705 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    22.3 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    70.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    11.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    15.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    1,162 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    1,863 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    468,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    10 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    518,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    282,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    265,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    73,720 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    5 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    2.924 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    2.931 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    991.1 million cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    78.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
  • Communications :: GREECE

  • total subscriptions: 5,177,090
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    total: 12.682 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 118 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service
    domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands
    international: country code - 30; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cyprus; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region) (2015)
    Broadcast media dominated by the private sector; roughly 150 private TV channels, about ten of which broadcast nationwide; 1 government-owned terrestrial TV channel with national coverage; 3 privately owned satellite channels; multi-channel satellite and cable TV services available; upwards of 1,500 radio stations, all of them privately owned; government-owned broadcaster has 2 national radio stations (2014)
    AM 26, FM 88, shortwave 4 (1998)
    36 (plus 1,341 repeaters); also 2 stations in the American Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (1995)
    3.201 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    total: 7.202 million
    percent of population: 66.8% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
  • Transportation :: GREECE

  • 77 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    total: 68
    over 3,047 m: 6
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
    914 to 1,523 m: 18
    under 914 m: 10 (2013)
    total: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 7 (2013)
    9 (2013)
    gas 1,329 km; oil 94 km (2013)
    total: 2,548 km
    standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (764 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    total: 116,960 km
    paved: 41,357 km (includes 1,091 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 75,603 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    6 km (the 6-km-long Corinth Canal crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; it shortens a sea voyage by 325 km) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    total: 860
    by type: bulk carrier 262, cargo 49, carrier 1, chemical tanker 68, container 35, liquefied gas 13, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 109, petroleum tanker 302, roll on/roll off 14
    foreign-owned: 42 (Belgium 17, Bermuda 3, Cyprus 3, Italy 5, UK 6, US 8)
    registered in other countries: 2,459 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Bahamas 225, Barbados 14, Belize 2, Bermuda 8, Brazil 1, Cabo Verde 1, Cambodia 2, Cayman Islands 9, Comoros 4, Curacao 1, Cyprus 201, Dominica 4, Egypt 8, Gibraltar 8, Honduras 4, Hong Kong 27, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 62, Italy 7, Jamaica 3, Liberia 505, Malta 469, Marshall Islands 408, Mexico 2, Moldova 1, Panama 379, Philippines 5, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 42, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 4, Singapore 22, UAE 3, Uruguay 1, Vanuatu 3, Venezuela 4, unknown 10) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    major seaport(s): Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki
    oil terminal(s): Agioi Theodoroi
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Revithoussa
  • Military and Security :: GREECE

  • Hellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES), Hellenic Navy (Elliniko Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Elliniki Polemiki Aeroporia, EPA) (2013)
    19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; during wartime the law allows for recruitment beginning January of the year of inductee's 18th birthday, thus including 17 year olds; 18 years of age for volunteers; conscript service obligation is 1 year for the Army and 9 months for the Air Force and Navy; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2014)
    2.46% of GDP (2015 est.)
    2.2% of GDP (2014)
    2.19% of GDP (2013)
    2.26% of GDP (2012)
    note: based on 2010 prices
    country comparison to the world: 48
  • Transnational Issues :: GREECE

  • Greece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Greece rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia; the mass migration of unemployed Albanians still remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Greece and Italy
    refugees (country of origin): 9,101 (Syria); 5,411 (Tanzania); 5,223 (Afghanistan) (2015)
    stateless persons: 198 (2015)
    note: 1,023,035 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals by sea (2015 - September 2016)
    a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime