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Europe :: Greece
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Greece
  • Introduction :: GREECE

  • Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-communist and communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 2001. Since 2010, the prospect of a Greek default on its euro-denominated debt has created severe strains within the EMU and raised the question of whether a member country might voluntarily leave the common currency or be removed.
  • Geography :: GREECE

  • Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
    39 00 N, 22 00 E
    Europe
    total: 131,957 sq km
    land: 130,647 sq km
    water: 1,310 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 97
    slightly smaller than Alabama
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,110 km
    border countries (4): Albania 212 km, Bulgaria 472 km, Macedonia 234 km, Turkey 192 km
    13,676 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
    mountainous with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m
    lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential
    agricultural land: 63.4%
    arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 8.9%; permanent pasture 34.8%
    forest: 30.5%
    other: 6.1% (2011 est.)
    15,550 sq km (2007)
    74.25 cu km (2011)
    total: 9.47 cu km/yr (9%/2%/89%)
    per capita: 841.4 cu m/yr (2007)
    severe earthquakes
    volcanism: Santorini (elev. 367 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active
    air pollution; water pollution
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
    strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
  • People and Society :: GREECE

  • noun: Greek(s)
    adjective: Greek
    population: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (2001 census)
    note: percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity
    Greek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%
    Greek Orthodox (official) 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
    10,775,643 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    0-14 years: 14.01% (male 777,647/female 732,137)
    15-24 years: 9.72% (male 534,855/female 512,183)
    25-54 years: 42.97% (male 2,306,832/female 2,323,787)
    55-64 years: 12.84% (male 679,033/female 704,833)
    65 years and over: 20.46% (male 964,736/female 1,239,600) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 52.9%
    youth dependency ratio: 22.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 30.5%
    potential support ratio: 3.3% (2014 est.)
    total: 43.5 years
    male: 42.4 years
    female: 44.6 years (2014 est.)
    -0.01% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    8.66 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    11.09 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    2.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    urban population: 78% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ATHENS (capital) 3.06 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    total population: 80.43 years
    male: 77.83 years
    female: 83.2 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    1.42 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    9.8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    4.8 beds/1,000 population (2009)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 99.4% of population
    total: 99.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0.6% of population
    total: 0.2% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 99.4% of population
    rural: 97.5% of population
    total: 98.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.6% of population
    rural: 2.5% of population
    total: 1.4% of population (2012 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    25.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    4.1% of GDP (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.7%
    male: 98.5%
    female: 96.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 18 years
    male: 18 years
    female: 18 years (2012)
    total: 55.3%
    male: 48.4%
    female: 63.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
  • Government :: GREECE

  • conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
    conventional short form: Greece
    local long form: Elliniki Dimokratia
    local short form: Ellas or Ellada
    former: Kingdom of Greece
    parliamentary republic
    name: Athens
    geographic coordinates: 37 59 N, 23 44 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    13 regions (perifereies, singular - perifereia) and 1 autonomous monastic state* (aftonomi monastiki politeia); Agion Oros* (Mount Athos), Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki (East Macedonia and Thrace), Attiki (Attica), Dytiki Ellada (West Greece), Dytiki Makedonia (West Macedonia), Ionia Nisia (Ionian Islands), Ipeiros (Epirus), Kentriki Makedonia (Central Macedonia), Kriti (Crete), Notio Aigaio (South Aegean), Peloponnisos (Peloponnese), Sterea Ellada (Central Greece), Thessalia (Thessaly), Voreio Aigaio (North Aegean)
    1830 (from the Ottoman Empire)
    Independence Day, 25 March (1821)
    many previous; latest entered into force 11 June 1975; amended 1986, 2001, 2008 (2013)
    civil legal system based on Roman law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    chief of state: President Prokopis PAVLOPOULOS (since 13 March 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister Alexios TSIPRAS (since 26 January 2015)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections: president elected by parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 18 February 2015 (next to be held February 2020); president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote in the parliamentary election to become prime minister and form a government
    election results: Prokopis PAVLOPOULOS elected president; number of parliamentary votes - 233 out of 300
    description: unicameral Hellenic Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; 288 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 12 seats are filled from nationwide party lists; 50 seats allocated to the party with the highest total valid vote count and remaining seats are apportioned according to each party's or coalition's vote pecentage; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 25 January 2015 (next to be held by 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - SYRIZA 36.3%, ND 27.8%, Golden Dawn 6.3%, To Potami 6.1%, KKE 5.5%, ANEL 4.8%, PASOK-DP 4.7%, other 8.5%; seats by party - SYRIZA 149, ND 76, Golden Dawn 17, To Potami 17, KKE 15, ANEL 13, PASOK-DP 13; note - only parties surpassing a 3% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; parties need 10 seats to become formal parliamentary groups, but can retain that status if the party participated in the last election and received the minimum 3% threshold
    highest court(s): Hellenic Supreme Court of Civil and Penal Law (consists of 56 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges selected by the Supreme Judicial Council which includes the president of the Supreme Court, other judges, and the prosecutor of the Supreme Court; judges appointed for life following a 2-year probationary period
    subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court; Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; Court of Auditors
    Coalition of the Radical Left or SYRIZA [Alexis TSIPRAS]
    Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Dimitris KOUTSOUMBAS]
    Golden Dawn [Nikolaos MICHALOLIAKOS]
    Independent Greeks or ANEL [Panagiotis (Panos) KAMMENOS]
    Movement of Democratic Socialists or KIDISO [George PAPANDREOU]
    New Democracy or ND [Antonis SAMARAS]
    Panhellenic Socialist Movement-Democratic Alignment or PASOK-DP [Evangelos VENIZELOS]
    Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Georgios KARATZAFERIS]
    Teleia (Full Stop) [Apostolos GKLETSOS]
    To Potami (The River) [Stavros THEODORAKIS]
    Union of Centrists or EK [Vassilis LEVENTIS]
    Supreme Administration of Civil Servants Unions or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
    Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]
    General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Christos P. PANAGOPOULOUS (since 17 September 2012)
    chancery: 2217 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 939-1300
    FAX: [1] (202) 939-1324
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Tampa (FL), San Francisco
    consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston, New Orleans
    chief of mission: Ambassador David D. PEARCE (since 18 October 2013)
    embassy: 91 Vasillisis Sophias Avenue, 10160 Athens
    mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108
    telephone: [30] (210) 721-2951
    FAX: [30] (210) 645-6282
    consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki (2012)
    nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; a blue square bearing a white cross appears in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country; there is no agreed upon meaning for the nine stripes or for the colors; the exact shade of blue has never been set by law and has varied from a light to a dark blue over time
    Greek cross (white cross on blue field, arms equal length); national colors: blue, white
    name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)
    lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS
    note: adopted 1864; the anthem is based on a 158-stanza poem by the same name, which was inspired by the Greek Revolution of 1821 against the Ottomans (only the first two stanzas used); Cyprus also uses "Hymn to Liberty" as its anthem
  • Economy :: GREECE

  • Greece has a capitalist economy with a public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP about two-thirds that of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 18% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP. The Greek economy averaged growth of about 4% per year between 2003 and 2007, but the economy went into recession in 2009 as a result of the world financial crisis, tightening credit conditions, and Athens' failure to address a growing budget deficit. By 2013 the economy had contracted 26%, compared with the pre-crisis level of 2007. Greece met the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criterion of no more than 3% of GDP in 2007-08, but violated it in 2009, with the deficit reaching 15% of GDP. Austerity measures reduced the deficit to about 4% in 2013, including government debt payments, but the deficit spiked to 12.7% of GDP in 2014. Deteriorating public finances, inaccurate and misreported statistics, and consistent underperformance on reforms prompted major credit rating agencies to downgrade Greece's international debt rating in late 2009, and led the country into a financial crisis. Under intense pressure from the EU and international market participants, the government adopted a medium-term austerity program that includes cutting government spending, decreasing tax evasion, overhauling the health-care and pension systems, and reforming the labor and product markets. Athens, however, faced long-term challenges to continue pushing through unpopular reforms in the face of widespread unrest from the country's powerful labor unions and the general public.
    In April 2010, a leading credit agency assigned Greek debt its lowest possible credit rating, and in May 2010, the International Monetary Fund and Euro-Zone governments provided Greece emergency short- and medium-term loans worth $147 billion so that the country could make debt repayments to creditors. In exchange for the largest bailout ever assembled, the government announced combined spending cuts and tax increases totaling $40 billion over three years, on top of the tough austerity measures already taken. Greece, however, struggled to meet 2010 targets set by the EU and the IMF, especially after Eurostat - the EU's statistical office - revised upward Greece's deficit and debt numbers for 2009 and 2010. European leaders and the IMF agreed in October 2011 to provide Athens a second bailout package of $169 billion. The second deal however, called for holders of Greek government bonds to write down a significant portion of their holdings. As Greek banks held a significant portion of sovereign debt, the banking system was adversely affected by the write down and $60 billion of the second bailout package was set aside to ensure the banking system was adequately capitalized. In exchange for the second loan, Greece promised to introduce an additional $7.8 billion in austerity measures during 2013-15. However, the massive austerity cuts have prolonged Greece's economic recession and depressed tax revenues. Greece's lenders have continually called on Athens to step up efforts to increase tax collection, dismiss public servants, privatize public enterprises, and rein in health spending.
    Investor confidence began to show signs of strengthening by the end of 2013, and the decline in GDP slowed to 3.9% that year, Greece’s best performance since 2009. Greece subsequently marked three significant milestones in 2014: balancing its 2013 budget - not including debt repayments; re-entering financial markets in April with the first issue of government debt since 2010; and posting its first quarter of positive growth since 2008. Buoyed by Greece’s success, Prime Minister Antonios SAMARAS in October announced plans to exit its bailout program early, provoking a plunge in the Greek stock and debt markets that pushed Greece back to the negotiating table with its creditors and ultimately resulted in an agreement to extend the EU portion of Greece’s bailout through February 2015. The Greek economy posted an annual economic growth rate of 0.8 percent in 2014, the first year of positive growth since 2008. However, widespread discontent with austerity measures resulted in a victory for the anti-austerity SYRIZA in the January 2015 parliamentary elections. In February, Greece reached a tentative agreement with its creditors that would provide emergency liquidity to Greece in exchange for significant economic reforms. Uncertainty regarding Greece’s future in the Eurozone has dampened investor confidence and lowered growth projections for 2015.
    $284.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $282.1 billion (2013 est.)
    $293.5 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 53
    $238 billion (2014 est.)
    0.8% (2014 est.)
    -3.9% (2013 est.)
    -6.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    $25,900 (2014 est.)
    $25,700 (2013 est.)
    $26,700 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 66
    11.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    12.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    11.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    household consumption: 72%
    government consumption: 16.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 12.9%
    investment in inventories: 2.2%
    exports of goods and services: 30.6%
    imports of goods and services: -34.4%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 3.5%
    industry: 15.9%
    services: 80.6% (2014 est.)
    wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products
    tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
    0% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    3.91 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    agriculture: 12.9%
    industry: 14.7%
    services: 72.4% (2013 est.)
    26.5% (2014 est.)
    27.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    44% (2013 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2%
    highest 10%: 25.4% (2013 est.)
    34.4 (2013 est.)
    33 (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    revenues: $119.5 billion
    expenditures: $127.9 billion (2014 est.)
    48.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    -3.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    174.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    175.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    calendar year
    -1.3% (2014 est.)
    -0.9% (2013 est.)
    0.75% (31 December 2013)
    1.5% (31 December 2010)
    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
    country comparison to the world: 133
    6.6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    7% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $124.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $126.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    country comparison to the world: 34
    $260.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $264.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    $302 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $332.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    $44.58 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $33.65 billion (31 December 2011)
    $72.64 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    $2.202 billion (2014 est.)
    $1.768 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    $35.8 billion (2014 est.)
    $36.6 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
    Turkey 11.8%, Italy 9.1%, Germany 6.7%, Bulgaria 5.4%, Cyprus 4.5% (2013)
    $62.8 billion (2014 est.)
    $62.19 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
    Russia 14.1%, Germany 9.8%, Italy 8.1%, Iraq 7.8%, France 4.7%, Netherlands 4.7%, China 4.6% (2013)
    $6.433 billion (February 2015 est.)
    $5.752 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    $568.7 billion (30 September 2013 est.)
    $577.2 billion (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    $30.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $27.74 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    $46.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $46.35 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7489 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: GREECE

  • 54.98 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    52.02 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    2.602 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    4.705 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    22.3 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    70.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    11.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    15.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    1,247 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    418,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    10 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    498,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    284,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    183,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    124,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    5 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    3.6 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    3.866 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    991.1 million cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    78.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
  • Communications :: GREECE

  • 5.461 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    13.354 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service
    domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands
    international: country code - 30; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cyprus; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region)
    Broadcast media dominated by the private sector; roughly 150 private TV channels, about ten of which broadcast nation-wide; 1 government-owned terrestrial TV channel with national coverage; 3 privately owned satellite channels; multi-channel satellite and cable TV services available; upwards of 1,500 radio stations, all of them privately owned; government-owned broadcaster has 2 national radio stations (2014)
    AM 26, FM 88, shortwave 4 (1998)
    36 (plus 1,341 repeaters); also 2 stations in the American Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (1995)
    .gr
    3.201 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    4.971 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 45
  • Transportation :: GREECE

  • 77 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    total: 68
    over 3,047 m: 6
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
    914 to 1,523 m: 18
    under 914 m: 10 (2013)
    total: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m:
    7 (2013)
    9 (2013)
    gas 1,329 km; oil 94 km (2013)
    total: 2,548 km
    standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (764 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    total: 116,960 km
    paved: 41,357 km (includes 1,091 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 75,603 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    6 km (the 6-km-long Corinth Canal crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; it shortens a sea voyage by 325 km) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    total: 860
    by type: bulk carrier 262, cargo 49, carrier 1, chemical tanker 68, container 35, liquefied gas 13, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 109, petroleum tanker 302, roll on/roll off 14
    foreign-owned: 42 (Belgium 17, Bermuda 3, Cyprus 3, Italy 5, UK 6, US 8)
    registered in other countries: 2,459 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Bahamas 225, Barbados 14, Belize 2, Bermuda 8, Brazil 1, Cabo Verde 1, Cambodia 2, Cayman Islands 9, Comoros 4, Curacao 1, Cyprus 201, Dominica 4, Egypt 8, Gibraltar 8, Honduras 4, Hong Kong 27, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 62, Italy 7, Jamaica 3, Liberia 505, Malta 469, Marshall Islands 408, Mexico 2, Moldova 1, Panama 379, Philippines 5, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 42, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 4, Singapore 22, UAE 3, Uruguay 1, Vanuatu 3, Venezuela 4, unknown 10) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    major seaport(s): Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki
    oil terminal(s): Agioi Theodoroi
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Revithoussa
  • Military :: GREECE

  • Hellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES), Hellenic Navy (Elliniko Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Elliniki Polemiki Aeroporia, EPA) (2013)
    19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; during wartime the law allows for recruitment beginning January of the year of inductee's 18th birthday, thus including 17 year olds; 18 years of age for volunteers; conscript service obligation is 1 year for the Army and 9 months for the Air Force and Navy; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2014)
    males age 16-49: 2,485,389
    females age 16-49: 2,469,854 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 2,032,378
    females age 16-49: 2,016,552 (2010 est.)
    male: 52,754
    female: 49,485 (2010 est.)
    1.72% of GDP (2012)
    2.31% of GDP (2011)
    2.63% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 48
  • Transnational Issues :: GREECE

  • Greece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Greece rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia; the mass migration of unemployed Albanians still remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Greece and Italy
    stateless persons: 199 (2014)
    a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime
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