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Africa :: Guinea
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Guinea
  • Introduction :: GUINEA

  • Guinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Guinea held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively. Alpha CONDE was elected to a five-year term as president in 2010, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. Previously, Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though all the polls were rigged. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy.
  • Geography :: GUINEA

  • Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
    11 00 N, 10 00 W
    Africa
    total: 245,857 sq km
    land: 245,717 sq km
    water: 140 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 79
    slightly smaller than Oregon
    total: 4,046 km
    border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1,062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km
    320 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
    generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
    bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
    arable land: 12.21%
    permanent crops: 2.85%
    other: 84.94% (2012 est.)
    949.2 sq km (2003)
    226 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.55 cu km/yr (39%/10%/51%)
    per capita: 64.3 cu m/yr (2005)
    hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
    deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands
  • People and Society :: GUINEA

  • noun: Guinean(s)
    adjective: Guinean
    Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%
    French (official)
    note: each ethnic group has its own language
    Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%
    11,474,383 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    0-14 years: 42% (male 2,437,142/female 2,387,105)
    15-24 years: 19.5% (male 1,130,432/female 1,108,834)
    25-54 years: 30.4% (male 1,748,867/female 1,739,881)
    55-64 years: 4.4% (male 243,032/female 266,578)
    65 years and over: 3.6% (male 182,084/female 230,428) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 82.4%
    youth dependency ratio: 76.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.6%
    potential support ratio: 17.7% (2014 est.)
    total: 18.7 years
    male: 18.4 years
    female: 18.9 years (2014 est.)
    2.63% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    36.02 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    urban population: 36.7% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 3.82% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    CONAKRY (capital) 1.886 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    19
    note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2012 est.)
    610 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    total: 55.24 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 58.17 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 52.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    total population: 59.6 years
    male: 58.08 years
    female: 61.17 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    4.93 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    5.6% (2012)
    6.3% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
    0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 92.2% of population
    rural: 65% of population
    total: 74.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 7.8% of population
    rural: 35% of population
    total: 25.2% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 32.7% of population
    rural: 11.2% of population
    total: 18.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 67.3% of population
    rural: 88.8% of population
    total: 81.1% of population (2012 est.)
    1.74% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    125,800 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    5,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    4.4% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    18.7% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    2.5% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 25.3%
    male: 36.8%
    female: 12.2% (2010 est.)
    total: 9 years
    male: 10 years
    female: 7 years (2011)
    total number: 571,774
    percentage: 25% (2003 est.)
  • Government :: GUINEA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
    conventional short form: Guinea
    local long form: Republique de Guinee
    local short form: Guinee
    former: French Guinea
    republic
    name: Conakry
    geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore
    2 October 1958 (from France)
    Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
    previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010 (2010)
    civil law system based on the French model
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Said FOFANA (since 24 December 2010)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held on 27 June 2010 with a runoff held on 7 November 2010
    election results: Alpha CONDE elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE 52.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO 47.5%
    description: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; 76 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 38 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next scheduled for 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, other 14
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Constitutional, Civil, Penal, Commercial, and Administrative Chambers, and Chamber of Accounts; court consists of the first president, chamber presidents, and NA members); note - the court is due to be reorganized by the New National Assembly in accordance with the 2010 constitution and democratic transition
    judge selection and term of office: court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; member tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace
    National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
    Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE] (ruling party)
    Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean Marie DORE]
    Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
    Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
    note: listed are the five most popular parties as of January 2014; overall, there are more than 140 registered parties
    National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG)
    Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
    ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mamady CONDE (since 14 July 2014)
    chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
    FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800
    chief of mission: Ambassador Alexander Mark LASKARIS (since 28 September 2012)
    embassy: Koloma, Conakry, east of Hamdallaye Circle
    mailing address: B. P. 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
    telephone: [224] 655-10-40-00
    FAX: [224] 655-10-42-97
    three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal
    national colors: red, yellow, green
    name: "Liberte" (Liberty)
    lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA
    note: adopted 1958
  • Economy :: GUINEA

  • Guinea is a poor country that possesses major mineral, hydropower, solar power, and agricultural resources. Historically Guinea was an exporter of agricultural commodities, but it has shifted to importing many food crops. Gold, bauxite, alumina, and diamonds are Guinea’s main mineral exports. Guinea has the largest reserves of bauxite in the world. Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in a 2008 coup, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea, but the IMF approved a new 3-year Extended Credit Facility (ECF) arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013 the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014 Guinea complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth. The biggest threats to Guinea’s economy are political instability, the continuation of the Ebola epidemic, and low international commodity prices. Rising international donor support and reduced government investment spending will lessen fiscal strains created by the Ebola epidemic, but economic recovery will be a long process while the government continues to fight the disease.
    $15.31 billion (2014 est.)
    $14.95 billion (2013 est.)
    $14.61 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $6.77 billion (2014 est.)
    2.5% (2014 est.)
    2.3% (2013 est.)
    3.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $1,300 (2014 est.)
    $1,300 (2013 est.)
    $1,300 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 220
    -2.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -0.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    -1.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    household consumption: 101.3%
    government consumption: 12.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 14.5%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 26%
    imports of goods and services: -54.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 20.2%
    industry: 44.5%
    services: 35.3% (2014 est.)
    rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
    bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; alumina refining; light manufacturing, agricultural processing
    4.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    5.045 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    agriculture: 76%
    industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)
    NA%
    47% (2006 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
    39.4 (2007)
    40.3 (1994)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    revenues: $1.52 billion
    expenditures: $1.812 billion (2014 est.)
    22.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    -4.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    calendar year
    12.5% (2014 est.)
    11.9% (2013 est.)
    NA% (31 December 2010)
    22.25% (31 December 2005)
    23% (31 December 2014 est.)
    26% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    $1.916 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.856 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $2.199 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.02 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    $2.251 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.022 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    $NA
    -$1.05 billion (2014 est.)
    -$974.7 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $1.754 billion (2014 est.)
    $1.784 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
    India 26.6%, South Korea 7.7%, Spain 7.4%, Ireland 5.5%, Ukraine 5.2%, US 4.8%, Germany 4.7% (2013)
    $2.155 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.128 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
    China 15.3%, Netherlands 9.8%, UK 4.2% (2013)
    $185.3 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $165.7 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    $843.5 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $724.9 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    $148 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $148 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
    7,025 (2014 est.)
    7,003.5 (2013 est.)
    6,986 (2012 est.)
    6,658 (2011 est.)
    5,726.1 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: GUINEA

  • 950 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    883.5 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    398,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    67.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    32.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    8,810 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    9,089 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    1.388 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: GUINEA

  • 18,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    4.781 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    general assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system
    domestic: Conakry reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems for nationwide links; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding and exceeds 40 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)
    AM 0, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2006)
    6 (2001)
    .gn
    15 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    95,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 157
  • Transportation :: GUINEA

  • 16 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    total: 4
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 12
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m:
    2 (2013)
    total: 1,185 km
    standard gauge: 238 km 1.435-m gauge
    narrow gauge: 947 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    total: 44,348 km
    paved: 4,342 km
    unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger system) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar
  • Military :: GUINEA

  • National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)
    18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 18-month conscript service obligation (2012)
    males age 16-49: 2,359,203
    females age 16-49: 2,329,784 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,493,991
    females age 16-49: 1,535,418 (2010 est.)
    male: 118,443
    female: 115,901 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: GUINEA

  • conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Guinea resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998
    refugees (country of origin): 6,494 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2014)
    current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children; Guinean girls are subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg or to work as street vendors, shoe shiners, or miners; some Guinean children are forced to mine in Senegal, Mali, and possibly other West African countries; Guinean women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude and sex trafficking in Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire, Benin, Senegal, Western Europe, the US, and the Middle East, while Thai, Chinese, and Vietnamese women are forced into prostitution in Guinea
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government conducted six trafficking investigations in 2013 and prosecuted and convicted only one trafficking offender, which was an increase over the previous year; the government failed to provide victims with protective services and did not support NGOs that assisted victims but continued to refer child victims to NGOs on an ad hoc basis; Guinean law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, excluding, for example, debt bondage (2014)
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