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South America :: Guyana Print
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GUYANA
  • Introduction :: Guyana
  • Background field listing
    Originally a Dutch colony in the 17th century, by 1815 Guyana had become a British possession. The abolition of slavery led to settlement of urban areas by former slaves and the importation of indentured servants from India to work the sugar plantations. The resulting ethnocultural divide has persisted and has led to turbulent politics. Guyana achieved independence from the UK in 1966, and since then it has been ruled mostly by socialist-oriented governments. In 1992, Cheddi JAGAN was elected president in what is considered the country's first free and fair election since independence. After his death five years later, his wife, Janet JAGAN, became president but resigned in 1999 due to poor health. Her successor, Bharrat JAGDEO, was elected in 2001 and again in 2006. Early elections held in May 2015 resulted in the first change in governing party and the replacement of President Donald RAMOTAR by current President David GRANGER
    GUYANA SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Guyana
  • Location field listing
    Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    5 00 N, 59 00 W
    Map references field listing
    South America
    Area field listing
    total: 214,969 sq km
    land: 196,849 sq km
    water: 18,120 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than Idaho
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,933 km
    border countries (3): Brazil 1308 km, Suriname 836 km, Venezuela 789 km
    Coastline field listing
    459 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
    Climate field listing
    tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, November to January)
    Terrain field listing
    mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 207 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    2775 highest point: Laberintos del Norte on Mount Roraima
    Natural resources field listing
    bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 8.4% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 2.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 6.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 77.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 14.2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    1,430 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    population is heavily concentrated in the northeast in and around Georgetown, with noteable concentrations along the Berbice River to the east; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated
    Natural hazards field listing
    flash flood threat during rainy seasons
    Environment - current issues field listing
    water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals; deforestation
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    the third-smallest country in South America after Suriname and Uruguay; substantial portions of its western and eastern territories are claimed by Venezuela and Suriname respectively; contains some of the largest unspoiled rainforests on the continent
  • People and Society :: Guyana
  • Population field listing
    740,685 (July 2018 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 166
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Guyanese
    Ethnic groups field listing
    East Indian 39.8%, black (African) 29.3%, mixed 19.9%, Amerindian 10.5%, other 0.5% (includes Portuguese, Chinese, white) (2012 est.)
    Languages field listing
    English (official), Guyanese Creole, Amerindian languages (including Caribbean and Arawak languages), Indian languages (including Caribbean Hindustani, a dialect of Hindi), Chinese (2014 est.)
    Religions field listing
    Protestant 34.8% (Pentecostal 22.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 5.4%, Anglican 5.2%, Methodist 1.4%), Hindu 24.8%, Roman Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 6.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, Rastafarian 0.5%, other Christian 20.8%, other 0.9%, none 3.1% (2012 est.)
    Demographic profile field listing

    Guyana is the only English-speaking country in South America and shares cultural and historical bonds with the Anglophone Caribbean. Guyana's two largest ethnic groups are the Afro-Guyanese (descendants of African slaves) and the Indo-Guyanese (descendants of Indian indentured laborers), which together comprise about three quarters of Guyana's population. Tensions periodically have boiled over between the two groups, which back ethnically based political parties and vote along ethnic lines. Poverty reduction has stagnated since the late 1990s. About one-third of the Guyanese population lives below the poverty line; indigenous people are disproportionately affected. Although Guyana's literacy rate is reported to be among the highest in the Western Hemisphere, the level of functional literacy is considerably lower, which has been attributed to poor education quality, teacher training, and infrastructure.

    Guyana's emigration rate is among the highest in the world - more than 55% of its citizens reside abroad - and it is one of the largest recipients of remittances relative to GDP among Latin American and Caribbean counties. Although remittances are a vital source of income for most citizens, the pervasive emigration of skilled workers deprives Guyana of professionals in healthcare and other key sectors. More than 80% of Guyanese nationals with tertiary level educations have emigrated. Brain drain and the concentration of limited medical resources in Georgetown hamper Guyana's ability to meet the health needs of its predominantly rural population. Guyana has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the region and continues to rely on international support for its HIV treatment and prevention programs.

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 25.38% (male 95,740 /female 92,282)
    15-24 years: 21.55% (male 81,676 /female 77,942)
    25-54 years: 38.52% (male 149,199 /female 136,129)
    55-64 years: 8.15% (male 27,684 /female 32,678)
    65 years and over: 6.39% (male 19,336 /female 28,019) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 53.5 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 45.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 13.3 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 26.7 years
    male: 26.3 years
    female: 27 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.48% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Birth rate field listing
    15.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Death rate field listing
    7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Net migration rate field listing
    -4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Population distribution field listing
    population is heavily concentrated in the northeast in and around Georgetown, with noteable concentrations along the Berbice River to the east; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 26.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.83% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    110,000 GEORGETOWN (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.09 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    20.8 years (2009 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    229 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 29.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 33.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 25.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 68.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 65.9 years (2018 est.)
    female: 72.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.97 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    33.9% (2014)
    Health expenditures field listing
    5.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Physicians density field listing
    0.21 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    1.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 98.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 82% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 83.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 12.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 18% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 16.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    1.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    8,200 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <200 (2017 est.)
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    20.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    8.5% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.2% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school (2015 est.)
    total population: 88.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 87.2% (2015 est.)
    female: 89.8% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 10 years (2012)
    male: 10 years (2012)
    female: 10 years (2012)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 21.6% (2017 est.)
    male: 17.3% (2017 est.)
    female: 28% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
  • Government :: Guyana
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Cooperative Republic of Guyana
    conventional short form: Guyana
    former: British Guiana
    etymology: the name is derived from Guiana, the original name for the region that included British Guiana, Dutch Guiana, and French Guiana; ultimately the word is derived from an indigenous Amerindian language and means "Land of Many Waters" (referring to the area's multitude of rivers and streams)
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Georgetown
    geographic coordinates: 6 48 N, 58 09 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions field listing
    10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo
    Independence field listing
    26 May 1966 (from the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest promulgated 6 October 1980 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage of amendments affecting constitutional articles such as national sovereignty, government structure and powers, and constitutional amendment procedures requires approval by the Assembly membership, approval in a referendum, and assent to by the president; other amendments only require Assembly approval; amended many times, last in 2016 (2018)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: na
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President David GRANGER (since 16 May 2015); Vice Presidents Sydney ALLICOCK, Carl Barrington GREENIDGE, Moses Veerasammy NAGAMOOTOO, and Hemraj RAMJATTAN (since 20 May 2015); Prime Minister Moses Veerasammy NAGAMOOTOO (since 20 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President David GRANGER (since 16 May 2015); Vice Presidents Sydney ALLICOCK, Carl Barrington GREENIDGE, Moses Veerasammy NAGAMOOTOO, and Hemraj RAMJATTAN (since 20 May 2015); Prime Minister Moses Veerasammy NAGAMOOTOO (since 20 May 2015)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: the predesignated candidate of the winning party in the last National Assembly election becomes president for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 11 May 2015 (next to be held no later than 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: David GRANGER (APNU-AFC) designated president by the majority party in the National Assembly
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral National Assembly (65 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies and a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 11 May 2015 (next to be held by May 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - APNU-AFC 50.3%, PPP/C 49.2%, other 0.5%; seats by party - APNU-AFC 33, PPP/C 32
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Judicature (consists of the Court of Appeal with a chief justice and 3 justices, and the High Court with a chief justice and 10 justices organized into 3- or 5-judge panels); note - in 2009, Guyana acceded to the Caribbean Court of Justice as the final court of appeal in civil and criminal cases, replacing that of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president; other judges of both courts appointed by the Judicial Service Commission, a body appointed by the president; judges appointed for life with retirement at age 65
    subordinate courts: Land Court; magistrates' courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    A Partnership for National Unity or APNU [David A. GRANGER]
    Alliance for Change or AFC [Raphael TROTMAN]
    Justice for All Party [C.N. SHARMA]
    National Independent Party or NIP [Saphier Husain SUBEDAR]
    People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Donald RAMOTAR]
    The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]
    United Republican Party or URP [Vishnu BANDHU]
    International organization participation field listing
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Riyad David INSANALLY (since 16 Sept 2016)
    chancery: 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-1297
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Perry L. HOLLOWAY (since 2 October 2015)
    embassy: US Embassy, 100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown
    mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown; US Embassy, 3170 Georgetown Place, Washington DC 20521-3170
    telephone: [592] 225-4900 through 4909
    FAX: [592] 225-8497
    Flag description field listing
    green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a long, yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow, black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow, white border between the yellow and the green; green represents forest and foliage; yellow stands for mineral resources and a bright future; white symbolizes Guyana's rivers; red signifies zeal and the sacrifice of the people; black indicates perseverance
    National symbol(s) field listing
    Canje pheasant (hoatzin), jaguar, Victoria Regia water lily; national colors: red, yellow, green, black, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: Dear Land of Guyana, of Rivers and Plains
    lyrics/music: Archibald Leonard LUKERL/Robert Cyril Gladstone POTTER

    note: adopted 1966

  • Economy :: Guyana
  • Economy - overview field listing

    The Guyanese economy exhibited moderate economic growth in recent years and is based largely on agriculture and extractive industries. The economy is heavily dependent upon the export of six commodities - sugar, gold, bauxite, shrimp, timber, and rice - which represent nearly 60% of the country's GDP and are highly susceptible to adverse weather conditions and fluctuations in commodity prices. Guyana closed or consolidated several sugar estates in 2017, reducing production of sugar to a forecasted 147,000 tons in 2018, less than half of 2017 production. Much of Guyana's growth in recent years has come from a surge in gold production. With a record-breaking 700,000 ounces of gold produced in 2016, Gold production in Guyana has offset the economic effects of declining sugar production. In January 2018, estimated 3.2 billion barrels of oil were found offshore and Guyana is scheduled to become a petroleum producer by March 2020.

    Guyana's entrance into the Caricom Single Market and Economy in January 2006 broadened the country's export market, primarily in the raw materials sector. Guyana has experienced positive growth almost every year over the past decade. Inflation has been kept under control. Recent years have seen the government's stock of debt reduced significantly - with external debt now less than half of what it was in the early 1990s. Despite these improvements, the government is still juggling a sizable external debt against the urgent need for expanded public investment. In March 2007, the Inter-American Development Bank, Guyana's principal donor, canceled Guyana's nearly $470 million debt, equivalent to 21% of GDP, which along with other Highly Indebted Poor Country debt forgiveness, brought the debt-to-GDP ratio down from 183% in 2006 to 52% in 2017. Guyana had become heavily indebted as a result of the inward-looking, state-led development model pursued in the 1970s and 1980s. Chronic problems include a shortage of skilled labor and a deficient infrastructure.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $6.301 billion (2017 est.)
    $6.169 billion (2016 est.)
    $5.969 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 171
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $3.561 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    2.1% (2017 est.)
    3.4% (2016 est.)
    3.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $8,100 (2017 est.)
    $8,000 (2016 est.)
    $7,800 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 151
    Gross national saving field listing
    10.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15% of GDP (2016 est.)
    8.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 71.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 25.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 47.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -63% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 15.4% (2017 est.)
    industry: 15.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 69.3% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    sugarcane, rice, edible oils; beef, pork, poultry; shrimp, fish
    Industries field listing
    bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    -5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Labor force field listing
    313,800 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: NA
    industry: NA
    services: NA
    Unemployment rate field listing
    11.1% (2013)
    11.3% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Population below poverty line field listing
    35% (2006 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 33.8% (1999)
    highest 10%: 33.8% (1999)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    44.6 (2007)
    43.2 (1999)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 1.002 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 1.164 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    28.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -4.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Public debt field listing
    52.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    50.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    2% (2017 est.)
    0.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    5.5% (31 December 2011)
    4.25% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    13% (31 December 2017 est.)
    13% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $758.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $701.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $758.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $701.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $1.903 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.875 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $610.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $440.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $339.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Current account balance field listing
    -$237 million (2017 est.)
    $13 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Exports field listing
    $1.439 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.38 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Exports - partners field listing
    Canada 24.9%, US 16.5%, Panama 9.6%, UK 7.7%, Jamaica 5.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 5% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    sugar, gold, bauxite, alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber
    Imports field listing
    $1.626 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.341 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Imports - commodities field listing
    manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
    Imports - partners field listing
    Trinidad and Tobago 27.5%, US 26.5%, China 8.9%, Suriname 6.1% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $565.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $581 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Debt - external field listing
    $1.69 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.542 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Exchange rates field listing
    Guyanese dollars (GYD) per US dollar -
    207 (2017 est.)
    206.5 (2016 est.)
    206.5 (2015 est.)
    206.5 (2014 est.)
    206.45 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Guyana
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 154,540 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 79% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 91% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 75% (2012)
    Electricity - production field listing
    1.01 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    790.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    428,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    89% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    14,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    13,720 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    2.131 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
  • Communications :: Guyana
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 135,795 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 643,210 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 87 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: reliable international long distance service; 100% digital network; national transmission supported by fiber optic cable and rural network by microwaves; more than 150,000 lines; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 75 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 592; SIP trunking to most providers; international calls via diverse fiber optic cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
    Broadcast media field listing
    government-dominated broadcast media; the National Communications Network (NCN) TV is state-owned; a few private TV stations relay satellite services; the state owns and operates 2 radio stations broadcasting on multiple frequencies capable of reaching the entire country; government limits on licensing of new private radio stations has constrained competition in broadcast media (2017)
    Internet country code field listing
    .gy
    Internet users field listing
    total: 262,425 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 35.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 64,889 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
  • Transportation :: Guyana
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 43,835 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    8R (2016)
    Airports field listing
    117 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 11 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    under 914 m: 8 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 106 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 16 (2013)
    under 914 m: 89 (2013)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 7,970 km (2001)
    paved: 590 km (2001)
    unpaved: 7,380 km (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Waterways field listing
    330 km (the Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km respectively) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 55 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 26, oil tanker 6, other 23 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Georgetown
  • Military and Security :: Guyana
  • Military expenditures field listing
    1.42% of GDP (2016)
    1.46% of GDP (2015)
    1.28% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Military branches field listing
    Guyana Defense Force: Army (includes Air Corps, Coast Guard) (2012)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 years of age or older for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)
  • Transnational Issues :: Guyana
  • Disputes - international field listing
    all of the area west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela preventing any discussion of a maritime boundaryGuyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their watersSuriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari Rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Guyana is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor – children are particularly vulnerable; women and girls from Guyana, Venezuela, Suriname, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic are forced into prostitution in Guyana’s interior mining communities and urban areas; forced labor is reported in mining, agriculture, forestry, domestic service, and shops; Guyanese nationals are also trafficked to Suriname, Jamaica, and other Caribbean countries for sexual exploitation and forced labor
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Guyana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Guyana was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government released its anti-trafficking action plan in June 2014 but made uneven efforts to implement it; law enforcement was weak, investigating seven trafficking cases, prosecuting four alleged traffickers, and convicting one trafficker – a police officer – who was released on bail pending appeal; in 2014, as in previous years, Guyanese courts dismissed the majority of ongoing trafficking prosecutions; the government referred some victims to care services, which were provided by NGOs with little or no government support (2015)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    transshipment point for narcotics from South America - primarily Venezuela - to Europe and the US; producer of cannabis; rising money laundering related to drug trafficking and human smuggling