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  • Introduction :: HAITI

  • The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first post-colonial black-led nation in the world, declaring its independence in 1804. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has experienced political instability for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the forced resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations. Continued instability and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti inaugurated a democratically elected president and parliament in May of 2006. This was followed by contested elections in 2010 that resulted in the election of Haiti's current President, Michel MARTELLY. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years.
  • Geography :: HAITI

  • Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
    19 00 N, 72 25 W
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 27,750 sq km
    land: 27,560 sq km
    water: 190 sq km
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    total: 376 km
    border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km
    1,771 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
    tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
    mostly rough and mountainous
    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
    bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land
    agricultural land: 66.4%
    arable land 38.5%; permanent crops 10.2%; permanent pasture 17.7%
    forest: 3.6%
    other: 30% (2011 est.)
    970 sq km (2009)
    14.03 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.2 cu km/yr (17%/3%/80%)
    per capita: 134.3 cu m/yr (2009)
    lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
    extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
    shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)
  • People and Society :: HAITI

  • noun: Haitian(s)
    adjective: Haitian
    black 95%, mulatto and white 5%
    French (official), Creole (official)
    Roman Catholic (official) 54.7%, Protestant 28.5% (Baptist 15.4%, Pentecostal 7.9%, Adventist 3%, Methodist 1.5%, other .7%), voodoo (official) 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10.2%
    note: many Haitians practice elements of voodoo in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; voodoo was recognized as an official religion in 2003
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 34% (male 1,701,559/female 1,693,236)
    15-24 years: 21.6% (male 1,078,994/female 1,081,005)
    25-54 years: 35.3% (male 1,755,722/female 1,770,386)
    55-64 years: 5% (male 241,174/female 263,369)
    65 years and over: 4.1% (male 183,627/female 227,659) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 64.2%
    youth dependency ratio: 56.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.5%
    potential support ratio: 13.4% (2014 est.)
    total: 22.2 years
    male: 22 years
    female: 22.4 years (2014 est.)
    note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2014 est.)
    22.83 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    7.91 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    -4.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 57.4% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 3.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.376 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012)
    380 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 49.43 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 53.26 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 45.56 deaths/1,000 live births
    note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2014 est.)
    total population: 63.18 years
    male: 61.77 years
    female: 64.6 years (2014 est.)
    2.79 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    34.5% (2012)
    9.4% of GDP (2013)
    1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)
    urban: 74.6% of population
    rural: 47.5% of population
    total: 62.4% of population
    urban: 25.4% of population
    rural: 52.5% of population
    total: 37.6% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 31% of population
    rural: 16.3% of population
    total: 24.4% of population
    urban: 69% of population
    rural: 83.7% of population
    total: 75.6% of population (2012 est.)
    1.97% (2013 est.)
    138,900 (2013 est.)
    6,400 (2013 est.)
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2013)
    10.7% (2014)
    11.6% (2012)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 60.7%
    male: 64.3%
    female: 57.3% (2015 est.)
    total number: 2,587,205
    percentage: 21% (2006 est.)
  • Government :: HAITI

  • conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
    conventional short form: Haiti
    local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d Ayiti
    local short form: Haiti/Ayiti
    name: Port-au-Prince
    geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
    10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
    1 January 1804 (from France)
    Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
    many previous (23 total); latest adopted 10 March 1987; amended 2012 (2013)
    civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Michel MARTELLY (since 14 May 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister Evans PAUL (since 16 January 2015)
    cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 28 November 2010; runoff on 20 March 2011 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly
    election results: Michel MARTELLY elected president in runoff with 67.6% of the vote against Mirlande MANIGAT with 31.7%
    description: bicameral legislature or "le Corps Legislatif ou parlement" consists of le Senat or Senate (30 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years) and la Chambre de deputes or Chamber of Deputies (99 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - when the two chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assemblee Nationale or the National Assembly that is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution
    elections: Senate - last held on 28 November 2010 with run-off election on 20 March 2011 (next possible election on 26 October 2014); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 28 November 2010 with run-off election on 20 March 2011 (next regular election may be held on 26 October 2014)
    election results: 2010 Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Inite 6, ALTENATIV 4, LAVNI 1; 2010 Chamber of Deputies- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Inite 32, Altenativ 11, Ansanm Nou Fo 10, AAA 8, LAVNI 7, RASANBLE 4, KONBIT 3, MOCHRENA 3, Platforme Liberation 3, PONT 3, Repons Peyizan 3, MAS 2, MODELH-PRDH 1, PLAPH 1, RESPE 1, Veye Yo 1, independent 2, vacant 4
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of the Haiti Constitution states "Judges of the Supreme Court.... are appointed for 10 years." whereas Article 177 states "Judges of the Supreme Court..... are appointed for life."
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrates' courts; special courts
    Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]
    Christian and Citizen For Haiti's Reconstruction or ACCRHA [Chavannes JEUNE]
    Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
    Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
    December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
    Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH)
    Democratic Centers's National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
    Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti-Revolutionary Party of Haiti or MODELH-PRDH
    Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
    Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]
    For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]
    Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]
    Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
    Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]
    Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
    Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT
    Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
    Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]
    Liberation Platform or PLATFORME LIBERATION
    Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT and Camille LEBLANC]
    Merging of Haitian Social Democratics or FUSION [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements)
    Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]
    National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]
    New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]
    Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]
    Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]
    Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE and Himmler REBU]
    Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]
    Rally or RASAMBLE
    Respect or RESPE
    Socialist Action Movement or MAS
    Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]
    Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Sauveur PIERRE-ETIENNE]
    Union [Chavannes JEUNE]
    Union of Haitian Citizens for Democracy, Development, and Education or UCADDE [Jeantel JOSEPH]
    Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNPH [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
    Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE] (coalition that includes Front for Hope or L'ESPWA)
    Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]
    Youth for People's Power or JPP [Rene CIVIL]
    Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]
    Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
    Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]
    Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
    General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]
    Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA
    The Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]
    National Popular Assembly or APN
    Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]
    Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
    Protestant Federation of Haiti
    Roman Catholic Church
    chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Getty ALTIDOR (since 17 April 2012)
    chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
    FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela A. WHITE (since 18 July 2012)
    embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince
    mailing address: (in Haiti) P.O. Box 1634, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; (from abroad) 3400 Port-au-Prince, State Department, Washington, DC 20521-3400
    telephone: [509] 2229-8000
    FAX: [509] 229-8028
    two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes
    Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red
    name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)
    lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD
    note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti
  • Economy :: HAITI

  • Haiti is a free market economy that enjoys the advantages of low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population are among Haiti's most serious impediments to economic growth. Haiti's economy suffered a severe setback in January 2010 when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty, the earthquake further inflicted $7.8 billion in damage and caused the country's GDP to contract. In 2011, the Haitian economy began recovering from the earthquake. However, two hurricanes adversely affected agricultural output and the low public capital spending slowed the recovery in 2012. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the country's widespread deforestation. US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Preference Agreement (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement (HOPE II) Act helped increase apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. Congress voted in 2010 to extend the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020 under the Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act; the apparel sector accounts for about 90% of Haitian exports and nearly one-twentieth of GDP. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equaling one-fifth of GDP and representing more than five times the earnings from exports in 2012. Haiti suffers from a lack of investment, partly because of weak infrastructure such as access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to $1.43 billion as of December 2014. The government relies on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over half of its annual budget coming from outside sources.
    $18.54 billion (2014 est.)
    $17.87 billion (2013 est.)
    $17.13 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $8.919 billion (2014 est.)
    3.8% (2014 est.)
    4.3% (2013 est.)
    2.9% (2012 est.)
    $1,800 (2014 est.)
    $1,700 (2013 est.)
    $1,700 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 209
    20.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    23.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    23.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 104.3%
    government consumption: 0%
    investment in fixed capital: 30.9%
    investment in inventories: -0.9%
    exports of goods and services: 18.4%
    imports of goods and services: -52.7%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 24.7%
    industry: 20%
    services: 55.3% (2014 est.)
    coffee, mangoes, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood, vetiver
    textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts
    6% (2014 est.)
    4.81 million
    note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (2010 est.)
    agriculture: 38.1%
    industry: 11.5%
    services: 50.4% (2010)
    40.6% (2010 est.)
    note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs
    58.5% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 0.7%
    highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)
    59.2 (2001)
    revenues: $1.786 billion
    expenditures: $2.373 billion (2014 est.)
    20% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -6.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    1 October - 30 September
    4.3% (2014 est.)
    5.9% (2013 est.)
    8.6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    8.72% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $1.125 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.132 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $3.509 billion (31 October 2012 est.)
    $3.43 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.239 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.699 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $-1.282 billion (2014 est.)
    $-1.293 billion (2013 est.)
    $903.1 million (2014 est.)
    $883.7 million (2013 est.)
    apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee
    US 83.5% (2013)
    $3.458 billion (2014 est.)
    $3.329 billion (2013 est.)
    food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
    Dominican Republic 35%, US 26.8%, Netherlands Antilles 8.7%, China 7% (2013)
    $1.355 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.818 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $1.687 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.431 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $1.286 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.086 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
    45.25 (2014 est.)
    43.46 (2013 est.)
    41.95 (2012 est.)
    40.52 (2011 est.)
    39.8 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: HAITI

  • 726 million kWh (2012 est.)
    208.5 million kWh (2012 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    130,000 kW (2012 est.)
    77.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    22.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    13,990 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    15,130 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    2.094 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: HAITI

  • 50,000 (2012)
    6.095 million (2012)
    general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better
    domestic: mobile-cellular telephone services are expanding rapidly due, in part, to the introduction of low-cost GSM phones; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 40 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
    several TV stations, including 1 government-owned; cable TV subscription service available; government-owned radio network; more than 250 private and community radio stations with about 50 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone (2007)
    AM 41, FM 53, shortwave 0 (2009)
    2 (plus a cable TV service) (1997)
    555 (2012)
    1 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: HAITI

  • 14 (2013)
    total: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 10
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m:
    8 (2013)
    total: 4,266 km
    paved: 768 km
    unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)
    major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince
  • Military :: HAITI

  • no regular military forces - small Coast Guard; a Ministry of National Defense established May 2012; the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper until or unless they are constitutionally abolished (2011)
    males age 16-49: 2,398,804
    females age 16-49: 2,415,039 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,666,324
    females age 16-49: 1,704,364 (2010 est.)
    male: 115,246
    female: 115,282 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: HAITI

  • since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island
    IDPs: 64,680 (includes only IDPs from the 2010 earthquake living in camps or camp-like situations; information is lacking about IDPs living outside camps or who have left camps) (2015)
    current situation: Haiti is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; many of Haiti’s trafficking cases involve children recruited to live with families in other towns in the hope of going to school but who instead become forced domestic servants known as restaveks; restaveks are vulnerable to abuse and make up a large proportion of Haiti’s population of street children, who are forced into prostitution, begging, and street crime by violent gangs; Haitians are exploited in forced labor in the Dominican Republic, elsewhere in the Caribbean, South America, and the US, and some Dominican women are forced into prostitution in Haiti; women and children living in camps for internally displaced people since the 2010 earthquake are at increased risk of sex trafficking and forced labor
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Haiti does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government passed a law in 2014 criminalizing human trafficking but did not prosecute or convict any trafficking offenders, despite large numbers of identified victims; a national plan to combat human trafficking was also passed in 2014; authorities did not provide direct or specialized services for trafficking victims and referred suspected victims to donor-funded NGOs; the government managed a hotline for trafficking victims and conducted a campaign to raise awareness about child labor and child trafficking (2014)
    Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabis