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Central America and Caribbean :: HAITI
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HAITI
  • Introduction :: HAITI

  • The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first post-colonial black-led nation in the world, declaring its independence in 1804. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has experienced political instability for most of its history. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years. President Michel MARTELLY resigned in February 2016 and was replaced by Interim President Jocelerme PRIVERT who will lead until new elections take place later in the year.
  • Geography :: HAITI

  • Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
    19 00 N, 72 25 W
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 27,750 sq km
    land: 27,560 sq km
    water: 190 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 148
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    total: 376 km
    border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km
    1,771 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
    tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
    mostly rough and mountainous
    mean elevation: 470 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
    bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land
    agricultural land: 66.4%
    arable land 38.5%; permanent crops 10.2%; permanent pasture 17.7%
    forest: 3.6%
    other: 30% (2011 est.)
    970 sq km (2012)
    fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas
    14.03 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.2 cu km/yr (17%/3%/80%)
    per capita: 134.3 cu m/yr (2009)
    lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
    extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
    shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)
  • People and Society :: HAITI

  • 10,485,800
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    noun: Haitian(s)
    adjective: Haitian
    black 95%, mulatto and white 5%
    French (official), Creole (official)
    Roman Catholic (official) 54.7%, Protestant 28.5% (Baptist 15.4%, Pentecostal 7.9%, Adventist 3%, Methodist 1.5%, other 0.7%), voodoo (official) 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10.2%
    note: many Haitians practice elements of voodoo in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; voodoo was recognized as an official religion in 2003
    0-14 years: 33.39% (male 1,744,599/female 1,756,155)
    15-24 years: 21.35% (male 1,120,532/female 1,118,278)
    25-54 years: 36.24% (male 1,885,478/female 1,914,078)
    55-64 years: 4.94% (male 246,453/female 271,455)
    65 years and over: 4.09% (male 189,098/female 239,674) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 62.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 54.8%
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.5%
    potential support ratio: 13.3% (2015 est.)
    total: 22.6 years
    male: 22.4 years
    female: 22.8 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    1.71% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    23.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas
    urban population: 58.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.44 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.79 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    22.7
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012)
    359 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    total: 48.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    total population: 63.8 years
    male: 61.2 years
    female: 66.4 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    2.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    34.5% (2012)
    7.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)
    improved:
    urban: 64.9% of population
    rural: 47.6% of population
    total: 57.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 35.1% of population
    rural: 52.4% of population
    total: 42.3% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 33.6% of population
    rural: 19.2% of population
    total: 27.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 66.4% of population
    rural: 80.8% of population
    total: 72.4% of population (2015 est.)
    1.71% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    133,500 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    8,000 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
    10.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    11.6% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 60.7%
    male: 64.3%
    female: 57.3% (2015 est.)
    total number: 2,587,205
    percentage: 21% (2006 est.)
  • Government :: HAITI

  • conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
    conventional short form: Haiti
    local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d Ayiti
    local short form: Haiti/Ayiti
    etymology: the native Taino name means "land of high mountains" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Port-au-Prince
    geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: none in 2016
    10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
    1 January 1804 (from France)
    Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
    many previous (23 total); latest adopted 10 March 1987; amended 2012 (2016)
    civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Interim President Jocelerme PRIVERT (since 14 February 2016); note - parliament elected Interim President PRIVERT after President Michel MARTELLY stepped down from office 7 February 2016
    head of government: Prime Minister Enex JEAN-CHARLES (since 25 March 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); election last held on 25 October 2015, but a runoff scheduled for 24 April 2016 was postponed; on 6 June 2016, the Provisional Electoral Council announced that it had accepted a recommendation by an independent commission, which had found that fraud had marred the October 2015 vote, to formally annul the results; a repeat of the first round of the presidential election will now take place 9 October 2016, with a second round to be held on 8 January 2017
    election results: 2010 election - Michel MARTELLY elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Michel MARTELLY (Peasant's Response) 68%, Mirlande MANIGAT (RDNP) 32%
    description: bicameral legislature or "le Corps Legislatif ou parlement" consists of le Senat or Senate (30 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years) and la Chambre de deputes or Chamber of Deputies (118 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - when the two chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assemblee Nationale or the National Assembly that is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution
    elections: Senate - last held on 9 August 2015 with run-off election on 25 October 2015 (next possible election in 2017); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with run-off election on 25 October 2015 (next regular election may be held in 2017)
    election results: 2015 Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; 2015 Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - official results pending
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of the Haiti Constitution states "Judges of the Supreme Court.... are appointed for 10 years." whereas Article 177 states "Judges of the Supreme Court..... are appointed for life."
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrates' courts; special courts
    Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]
    Christian and Citizen For Haiti's Reconstruction or ACCRHA [Chavannes JEUNE]
    Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH [Luc MESADIEU]
    Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
    Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
    December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
    Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH)
    Democratic Centers's National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
    Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti-Revolutionary Party of Haiti or MODELH-PRDH
    Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
    Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]
    For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]
    Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
    Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]
    Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
    Haitian Tet Kale Party or PHTK [Ann Valerie Timothee MILFORT]
    Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]
    Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
    Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT
    Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
    Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]
    Liberation Platform or PLATFORME LIBERATION
    Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT and Camille LEBLANC]
    Merging of Haitian Social Democratics or FUSION [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements)
    Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]
    National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]
    New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]
    Patriotic Movement of the Democratic Opposition or MOPOD
    Patriotic Unity or IP [Marie Denise CLAUDE]
    Peasant Platform or PP
    Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]
    Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]
    Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE and Himmler REBU]
    Platform Pitit Dessalines or PPD [Moise JEAN-CHARLES]
    Pont
    Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]
    PPG18
    Rally or RASAMBLE
    Renmen Ayiti or RA [Jean-Henry CEANT]
    Respect or RESPE
    Socialist Action Movement or MAS
    Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]
    Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Sauveur PIERRE-ETIENNE]
    Truth (Verite)
    Union [Chavannes JEUNE]
    Union of Haitian Citizens for Democracy, Development, and Education or UCADDE [Jeantel JOSEPH]
    Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNPH [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
    Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE] (coalition that includes Front for Hope or L'ESPWA)
    Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]
    Youth for People's Power or JPP [Rene CIVIL]
    Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]
    Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
    Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]
    Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
    General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]
    Grand-Anse Resistance Committee or KOREGA
    Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]
    National Popular Assembly or APN
    Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]
    Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
    Protestant Federation of Haiti
    Roman Catholic Church
    ACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Getty ALTIDOR (since 17 April 2012)
    chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
    FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Peter MULREAN (since 6 October 2015)
    embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince
    mailing address: (in Haiti) P.O. Box 1634, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; (from abroad) 3400 Port-au-Prince, State Department, Washington, DC 20521-3400
    telephone: [509] 2229-8000
    FAX: [509] 229-8028
    two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes
    Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red
    name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)
    lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD
    note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti
  • Economy :: HAITI

  • Haiti's economy suffered a severe setback in January 2010 when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty, the earthquake further inflicted $7.8 billion in damage and caused the country's GDP to contract. In 2011, GDP growth rose to 5.5% as the Haitian economy began recovering from the earthquake. However, growth slowed in 2015 to 2% as political uncertainty, drought conditions, and the depreciation of the national currency took a toll on investment and economic growth.
    Haiti is a free market economy with low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, which remains vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the country's widespread deforestation. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population are among Haiti's most serious impediments to economic growth. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, in 2015 equaling over one-fifth of GDP, and nearly double the combined value of Haitian exports and foreign direct investment.
    US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act (HOPE II) helped increase apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. The Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act of 2010 extended the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020, while the Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015 extended trade benefits provided to Haiti in the HOPE and HELP Acts through September 2025. Apparel sector exports in 2015 reached $904 million and account for about 90% of Haitian exports and more than 10% of the GDP.
    Investment in Haiti is hampered by the difficulty of doing business and weak infrastructure, including access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to nearly $2 billion as of December 2015, the majority of which is owed to Venezuela under the PetroCaribe program. Although the government has increased its revenue collection, it continues to rely on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over 20% of its annual budget coming from foreign aid or direct budget support.
    $18.75 billion (2015 est.)
    $18.56 billion (2014 est.)
    $18.06 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 148
    $8.618 billion (2015 est.)
    1% (2015 est.)
    2.8% (2014 est.)
    4.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    $1,800 (2015 est.)
    $1,800 (2014 est.)
    $1,700 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 211
    26.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    23.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    household consumption: 103.9%
    government consumption: 0%
    investment in fixed capital: 29.5%
    investment in inventories: -5.3%
    exports of goods and services: 14%
    imports of goods and services: -42.1%
    note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 23.6%
    industry: 20.1%
    services: 56.3% (2015 est.)
    coffee, mangoes, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood, vetiver
    textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts
    5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    4.594 million
    note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    agriculture: 38.1%
    industry: 11.5%
    services: 50.4% (2010)
    40.6% (2010 est.)
    note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs
    country comparison to the world: 197
    58.5% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 0.7%
    highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)
    60.8 (2012)
    59.2 (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    revenues: $1.814 billion
    expenditures: $2.185 billion (2015 est.)
    20.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    -4.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    26.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    26.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    1 October - 30 September
    7.5% (2015 est.)
    3.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    12.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
    10.8% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    $1.095 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.271 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $3.818 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $3.793 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $2.302 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.175 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    $NA
    -$206 million (2015 est.)
    -$551 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    $1.029 billion (2015 est.)
    $961 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee
    US 85.3% (2015)
    $3.436 billion (2015 est.)
    $3.666 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
    Dominican Republic 35.3%, US 24.5%, Netherlands Antilles 9.4%, China 9.4% (2015)
    $1.803 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.99 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    $1.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.366 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $1.299 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.185 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
    47.63 (2015 est.)
    45.22 (2014 est.)
    45.22 (2013 est.)
    41.95 (2012 est.)
    40.52 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: HAITI

  • population without electricity: 7.4 million
    electrification - total population: 38 %
    electrification - urban areas: 72 %
    electrification - rural areas: 15 % (2013)
    1.089 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    452 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    267,800 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    77.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    22.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    15,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    14,720 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    2.094 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
  • Communications :: HAITI

  • total subscriptions: 41,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    total: 7.412 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 73 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least-developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic cell service is functional
    domestic: mobile-cellular telephone services have expanded greatly in the last five years due to low-cost GSM phones and pay-as-you-go plans; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 70 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
    130 television stations throughout the country, including 1 government-owned; cable TV subscription service available; 495 radio stations (of them, only 135 are licensed), including 1 government-owned; more than 250 private and community radio stations; over 50 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone (2015)
    AM 41, FM 53, shortwave 0 (2009)
    2 (plus a cable TV service) (1997)
    .ht
    555 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    total: 1.233 million
    percent of population: 12.2% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
  • Transportation :: HAITI

  • 14 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    total: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 10
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    total: 4,266 km
    paved: 768 km
    unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince
  • Military and Security :: HAITI

  • no regular military forces - small Coast Guard; a Ministry of National Defense established May 2012; the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper until or unless they are constitutionally abolished (2011)
  • Transnational Issues :: HAITI

  • since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island
    IDPs: 62,590 (includes only IDPs from the 2010 earthquake living in camps or camp-like situations; information is lacking about IDPs living outside camps or who have left camps) (2016)
    stateless persons: 977 (2015)
    note: stateless persons are individuals without a nationality who were born in the Dominican Republic prior to January 2010
    current situation: Haiti is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; most of Haiti’s trafficking cases involve children in domestic servitude vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse; dismissed and runaway child domestic servants often end up in prostitution, begging, or street crime; other exploited populations included low-income Haitians, child laborers, and women and children living in IDP camps dating to the 2010 earthquake; Haitian adults are vulnerable to fraudulent labor recruitment abroad and, along with children, may be subjected to forced labor in the Dominican Republic, elsewhere in the Caribbean, South America, and the US; Dominicans are exploited in sex trafficking and forced labor in Haiti
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Haiti does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Haiti was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in 2014, Haiti developed a national anti-trafficking action plan and enacted a law prohibiting all forms of human trafficking, although judicial corruption hampered its implementation; progress was made in investigating and prosecuting suspected traffickers, but no convictions were made; the government sustained limited efforts to identify and refer victims to protective services, which were provided mostly by NGOs without government support; campaigns to raise awareness about child labor and child trafficking continued (2015)
    Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabis