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Central America :: Haiti Print
Page last updated on October 15, 2020
  • Introduction :: Haiti
  • Background field listing
    The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Christopher COLUMBUS first landed on it in 1492 - were virtually wiped out by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but relied heavily on the forced labor of enslaved Africans and environmentally degrading practices. In the late 18th century, Toussaint L'OUVERTURE led a revolution of Haiti's nearly half a million slaves that ended France's rule on the island. After a prolonged struggle, and under the leadership of Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, Haiti became the first country in the world led by former slaves after declaring its independence in 1804, but it was forced to pay an indemnity to France for more than a century and was shunned by other countries for nearly 40 years. After the US occupied Haiti from 1915-1934, Francois "Papa Doc" DUVALIER and then his son Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” DUVALIER led repressive and corrupt regimes that ruled Haiti from 1957-1971 and 1971-1986, respectively. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years. On 4 October 2016, Hurricane Matthew made landfall in Haiti, resulting in over 500 deaths and causing extensive damage to crops, houses, livestock, and infrastructure. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti continues to experience bouts of political instability.



  • Geography :: Haiti
  • Location field listing
    Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    19 00 N, 72 25 W
    Map references field listing
    Central America and the Caribbean
    Area field listing
    total: 27,750 sq km
    land: 27,560 sq km
    water: 190 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 376 km
    border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km
    Coastline field listing
    1,771 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
    Climate field listing
    tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
    Terrain field listing
    mostly rough and mountainous
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 470 m
    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
    Natural resources field listing
    bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 66.4% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 38.5% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 10.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 17.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 3.6% (2011 est.)
    other: 30% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    970 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas
    Natural hazards field listing
    lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
    Environment - current issues field listing
    extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; overpopulation leads to inadequate supplies of potable water and and a lack of sanitation; natural disasters
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
    Geography - note field listing
    shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic); it is the most mountainous nation in the Caribbean
  • People and Society :: Haiti
  • Population field listing
    11,067,777 (July 2020 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 82
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Haitian(s)
    adjective: Haitian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    black 95%, mixed and white 5%
    Languages field listing
    French (official), Creole (official)
    Religions field listing
    Roman Catholic 54.7%, Protestant 28.5% (Baptist 15.4%, Pentecostal 7.9%, Adventist 3%, Methodist 1.5%, other 0.7%), Vodou 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10.2% (2003 est.)

    note: many Haitians practice elements of Vodou in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; Vodou was recognized as an official religion in 2003

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 31.21% (male 1,719,961/female 1,734,566)
    15-24 years: 20.71% (male 1,145,113/female 1,146,741)
    25-54 years: 38.45% (male 2,110,294/female 2,145,209)
    55-64 years: 5.3% (male 280,630/female 305,584)
    65 years and over: 4.33% (male 210,451/female 269,228) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 60.4
    youth dependency ratio: 52.1
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.3
    potential support ratio: 13.3 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 24.1 years
    male: 23.8 years
    female: 24.3 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Population growth rate field listing
    1.26% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Birth rate field listing
    21.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Death rate field listing
    7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Net migration rate field listing
    -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Population distribution field listing
    fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 57.1% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 2.9% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    2.774 million PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    22.8 years (2016/7 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    480 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 42.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 48.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 36.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 65.3 years
    male: 62.6 years
    female: 68 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Total fertility rate field listing
    2.52 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    34.3% (2016/17)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 91.5% of population
    rural: 55.4% of population
    total: 75% of population
    unimproved: urban: 8.5% of population
    rural: 44.6% of population
    total: 25% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    8% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 80.6% of population
    rural: 40% of population
    total: 62.1% of population
    unimproved: urban: 19.4% of population
    rural: 60% of population
    total: 37.9% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    2% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    160,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    2,700 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    22.7% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    9.5% (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Education expenditures field listing
    2.4% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 61.7%
    male: 65.3%
    female: 58.3% (2016)
  • Government :: Haiti
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
    conventional short form: Haiti
    local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d Ayiti
    local short form: Haiti/Ayiti
    etymology: the native Taino name means "Land of High Mountains" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola
    Government type field listing
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Port-au-Prince
    geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
    etymology: according to tradition, in 1706, a Captain de Saint-Andre named the bay and its surrounding area after his ship Le Prince; the name of the town that grew there means, "the Port of The Prince"
    Administrative divisions field listing
    10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
    Independence field listing
    1 January 1804 (from France)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
    Constitution field listing
    history: many previous; latest adopted 10 March 1987
    amendments: proposed by the executive branch or by either the Senate or the Chamber of Deputies; consideration of proposed amendments requires support by at least two-thirds majority of both houses; passage requires at least two-thirds majority of the membership present and at least two-thirds majority of the votes cast; approved amendments enter into force after installation of the next president of the republic; constitutional articles on the democratic and republican form of government cannot be amended; amended 2011, 2012
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Jovenel MOISE (since 7 February 2017)
    head of government: Prime Minister Joseph JOUTHE (since since 4 March 2020)
    cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); last election originally scheduled for 9 October 2016 but postponed until 20 November 2016 due to Hurricane Matthew
    election results: Jovenel MOISE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Jovenel MOISE (PHTK) 55.6%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.6%, Jean-Charles MOISE (PPD) 11%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9%; other 4.8%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral legislature or le Corps l'egislatif ou le Parlement consists of:
    le S'enat or Senate (30 seats, 29 filled as of June 2019; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
    la Chambre de deput'es or Chamber of Deputies (119 seats; 116 filled as of June 2019; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - when the 2 chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assembl'ee nationale or the National Assembly and is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution
    Senate - last held on 20 November 2016 with runoff on 29 January 2017 (next scheduled for 27 October 2019)
    Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with runoff on 25 October 2015 and 20 November 2016 (next scheduled for 27 October 2019)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 27, women 1, percent of women 3.6%
    Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 115, women 3, percent of women 2.5%; note - total legislature percent of women 2.7%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour de cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of Haiti's constitution states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for 10 years, whereas Article 177 states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for life
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrate's courts;  land, labor, and children's courts
    note: the Superior Council of the Judiciary or Conseil Superieur du Pouvoir Judiciaire is a 9-member body charged with the administration and oversight of the judicial branch of government
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Alternative League for Haitian Progress and Empowerment or LAPEH [Jude CELESTIN]
    Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH [Luc MESADIEU]
    Christian National Movement for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Chavannes JEUNE]
    Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
    Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
    December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
    Democratic Alliance Party or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition includes KID and PPRH)
    Democratic Centers' National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
    Dessalinian Patriotic and Popular Movement or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
    Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
    Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]
    For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]
    Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
    Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]
    Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]
    Haitian Tet Kale Party or PHTK [Ann Valerie Timothee MILFORT]
    Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
    Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
    Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT
    Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
    Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]
    Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT, Camille LEBLANC]
    Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]
    New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]
    Organization for the Advancement of Haiti and Haitians or OLAHH
    Party for the Integral Advancement of the Haitian People or PAIPH
    Patriotic Unity or IP [Marie Denise CLAUDE]
    Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]
    Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]
    Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE, Himmler REBU]
    Platform Pitit Desaline or PPD [Jean-Charles MOISE]
    Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]
    Rally of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]
    Renmen Ayiti or RA [Jean-Henry CEANT]
    Reseau National Bouclier or Bouclier
    Respect or RESPE
    Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]
    Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Jacques-Edouard ALEXIS]
    Truth (Verite)
    Union [Chavannes JEUNE]
    Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE]
    Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Charge d'Affaires Herve DENIS (since 7 March 2019)
    chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
    FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Michele SISON (since 21 February 2018)
    telephone: [509] 229-8000
    embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince
    mailing address: (in Haiti) P.O. Box 1634, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; (from abroad) 3400 Port-au-Prince, State Department, Washington, DC 20521-3400
    FAX: [509] 229-8028
    Flag description field listing
    two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes
    National symbol(s) field listing
    Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red
    National anthem field listing
    name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)
    lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD

    note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti

  • Economy :: Haiti
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Haiti is a free market economy with low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, which remains vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population represent some of the most serious impediments to Haiti’s economic growth. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equivalent to more than a quarter of GDP, and nearly double the combined value of Haitian exports and foreign direct investment.

    Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with close to 60% of the population living under the national poverty line, Haiti’s GDP growth rose to 5.5% in 2011 as the Haitian economy began recovering from the devastating January 2010 earthquake that destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. However, growth slowed to below 2% in 2015 and 2016 as political uncertainty, drought conditions, decreasing foreign aid, and the depreciation of the national currency took a toll on investment and economic growth. Hurricane Matthew, the fiercest Caribbean storm in nearly a decade, made landfall in Haiti on 4 October 2016, with 140 mile-per-hour winds, creating a new humanitarian emergency. An estimated 2.1 million people were affected by the category 4 storm, which caused extensive damage to crops, houses, livestock, and infrastructure across Haiti’s southern peninsula.

    US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act (HOPE II) have contributed to an increase in apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. The Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act of 2010 extended the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020, while the Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015 extended trade benefits provided to Haiti in the HOPE and HELP Acts through September 2025. Apparel sector exports in 2016 reached approximately $850 million and account for over 90% of Haitian exports and more than 10% of the GDP.

    Investment in Haiti is hampered by the difficulty of doing business and weak infrastructure, including access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to $2.6 billion as of December 2017, the majority of which is owed to Venezuela under the PetroCaribe program. Although the government has increased its revenue collection, it continues to rely on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over 20% of its annual budget coming from foreign aid or direct budget support.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $19.97 billion (2017 est.)
    $19.74 billion (2016 est.)
    $19.46 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 150
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $8.608 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    1.2% (2017 est.)
    1.5% (2016 est.)
    1.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $1,800 (2017 est.)
    $1,800 (2016 est.)
    $1,800 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 213
    Gross national saving field listing
    24.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    29.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    29.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 99.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 10% (2016 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 32.6% (2016 est.)
    investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 20% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -60.3% (2017 est.)

    note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption

    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 22.1% (2017 est.)
    industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 57.6% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    coffee, mangoes, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood, vetiver
    Industries field listing
    textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    0.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Labor force field listing
    4.594 million (2014 est.)

    note: shortage of skilled labor; unskilled labor abundant

    country comparison to the world: 88
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 38.1%
    industry: 11.5%
    services: 50.4% (2010)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    40.6% (2010 est.)

    note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs

    country comparison to the world: 215
    Population below poverty line field listing
    58.5% (2012 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 0.7%
    highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 1.567 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 1.65 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    18.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Public debt field listing
    31.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    33.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 October - 30 September
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    14.7% (2017 est.)
    13.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Current account balance field listing
    -$348 million (2017 est.)
    -$83 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Exports field listing
    $980.2 million (2017 est.)
    $995 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Exports - partners field listing
    US 80.6%, Dominican Republic 4.9% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee
    Imports field listing
    $3.618 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.183 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Imports - commodities field listing
    food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
    Imports - partners field listing
    US 20.7%, China 18.8%, Netherlands Antilles 15.7%, Indonesia 8.5% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $2.361 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Debt - external field listing
    $2.762 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Exchange rates field listing
    gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
    65.21 (2017 est.)
    63.34 (2016 est.)
    63.34 (2015 est.)
    50.71 (2014 est.)
    45.22 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Haiti
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 8 million (2017)
    electrification - total population: 38.7% (2016)
    electrification - urban areas: 65.4% (2016)
    electrification - rural areas: 0.5% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    1.023 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    406.2 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    332,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    82% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    18% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    21,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    20,030 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    3.595 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
  • Communications :: Haiti
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 5,922
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 6,399,044
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 59 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least-developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic cell service is functional; Hurricane Matthew in 2016 caused $35 million worth of damage to telecoms infrastructure; some expansion of LTE services (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line is less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular telephone services have expanded greatly in the last decade due to low-cost GSM (Global Systems for Mobile) phones and pay-as-you-go plans; mobile-cellular teledensity is 59 per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 509; landing points for the BDSNi and Fibralink submarine cables to 14 points in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing

    98 television stations throughout the country, including 1 government-owned; cable TV subscription service available; 850 radio stations (of them, only 346 are licensed), including 1 government-owned; more than 100 community radio stations; over 64 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone; VOA Creole Service broadcasts daily on 30 affiliate stations

    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 3,503,006
    percent of population: 32.47% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 31,100
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
  • Military and Security :: Haiti
  • Military and security forces field listing
    the Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH), disbanded in 1995, began to be reconstituted in 2017 to assist with natural disaster relief, border security, and combating transnational crime; it established an Army command in 2018; the small Coast Guard is not part of the military, but rather the Haitian National Police (2020)
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the country's army is planned to eventually number around 5,000 personnel (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
  • Transportation :: Haiti
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    HH (2016)
    Airports field listing
    14 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 4 (2019)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 10 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 4,266 km (2009)
    paved: 768 km (2009)
    unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 4
    by type: general cargo 3other 1 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince
  • Transnational Issues :: Haiti
  • Disputes - international field listing

    since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    IDPs: 34,508 (includes only IDPs from the 2010 earthquake living in camps or camp-like situations; information is lacking about IDPs living outside of camps or who have left camps) (2019)
    stateless persons: 2,992 (2018); note - individuals without a nationality who were born in the Dominican Republic prior to January 2010
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Haiti is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; most of Haiti’s trafficking cases involve children in domestic servitude vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse; dismissed and runaway child domestic servants often end up in prostitution, begging, or street crime; other exploited populations included low-income Haitians, child laborers, and women and children living in IDP camps dating to the 2010 earthquake; Haitian adults are vulnerable to fraudulent labor recruitment abroad and, along with children, may be subjected to forced labor in the Dominican Republic, elsewhere in the Caribbean, South America, and the US; Dominicans are exploited in sex trafficking and forced labor in Haiti
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Haiti does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Haiti was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in 2014, Haiti developed a national anti-trafficking action plan and enacted a law prohibiting all forms of human trafficking, although judicial corruption hampered its implementation; progress was made in investigating and prosecuting suspected traffickers, but no convictions were made; the government sustained limited efforts to identify and refer victims to protective services, which were provided mostly by NGOs without government support; campaigns to raise awareness about child labor and child trafficking continued (2015)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabis