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Honduras
  • Introduction :: HONDURAS

  • Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage. Since then, the economy has slowly rebounded.
  • Geography :: HONDURAS

  • Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua
    15 00 N, 86 30 W
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 112,090 sq km
    land: 111,890 sq km
    water: 200 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 103
    slightly larger than Tennessee
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,575 km
    border countries: Guatemala 244 km, El Salvador 391 km, Nicaragua 940 km
    Caribbean Sea 669 km; Gulf of Fonseca 163 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
    subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
    mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m
    timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower
    arable land: 9.12%
    permanent crops: 4.07%
    other: 86.82% (2012 est.)
    878.5 sq km (2007)
    95.93 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.12 cu km/yr (16%/23%/61%)
    per capita: 295.6 cu m/yr (2006)
    frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast
    urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
  • People and Society :: HONDURAS

  • noun: Honduran(s)
    adjective: Honduran
    mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
    Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects
    Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3%
    Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and has the world's highest murder rate. More than half of the population lives in poverty and per capita income is one of the lowest in the region. Poverty rates are higher among rural and indigenous people and in the south, west, and along the eastern border than in the north and central areas where most of Honduras' industries and infrastructure are concentrated. The increased productivity needed to break Honduras' persistent high poverty rate depends, in part, on further improvements in educational attainment. Although primary-school enrollment is near 100%, educational quality is poor, the drop-out rate and grade repetition remain high, and teacher and school accountability is low.
    Honduras' population growth rate has slowed since the 1990s, but it remains high at nearly 2% annually because the birth rate averages approximately three children per woman and more among rural, indigenous, and poor women. Consequently, Honduras' young adult population - ages 15 to 29 - is projected to continue growing rapidly for the next three decades and then stabilize or slowly shrink. Population growth and limited job prospects outside of agriculture will continue to drive emigration. Remittances represent about a fifth of GDP.
    8,598,561
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    0-14 years: 34.8% (male 1,529,578/female 1,465,188)
    15-24 years: 21.2% (male 928,756/female 892,629)
    25-54 years: 35.3% (male 1,530,429/female 1,502,916)
    55-64 years: 4.7% (male 187,771/female 217,093)
    65 years and over: 4% (male 150,681/female 193,520) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 64.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 57.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.4%
    potential support ratio: 13.5% (2014 est.)
    total: 21.9 years
    male: 21.6 years
    female: 22.3 years (2014 est.)
    1.74% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    23.66 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    5.13 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    -1.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    urban population: 54.1% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 3.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    TEGUCIGALPA (capital) 1.101 million; San Pedro Sula 823,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    20.4
    note: median age a first birth among women 25-29 (2011-12 est.)
    100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    total: 18.72 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 16.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    total population: 70.91 years
    male: 69.24 years
    female: 72.65 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    2.86 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    73.2% (2011/12)
    8.6% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 96.8% of population
    rural: 81.5% of population
    total: 89.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3.2% of population
    rural: 18.5% of population
    total: 10.4% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 85.3% of population
    rural: 74% of population
    total: 80% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 14.7% of population
    rural: 26% of population
    total: 20% of population (2012 est.)
    0.47% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    24,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    1,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2013)
    18.4% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    7.1% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 85.4%
    male: 85.7%
    female: 85.1% (2012 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 12 years (2012)
    total number: 280,809
    percentage: 16% (2002 est.)
    total: 8%
    male: 5.5%
    female: 13.8% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
  • Government :: HONDURAS

  • conventional long form: Republic of Honduras
    conventional short form: Honduras
    local long form: Republica de Honduras
    local short form: Honduras
    democratic constitutional republic
    name: Tegucigalpa
    geographic coordinates: 14 06 N, 87 13 W
    time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2013
    18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
    15 September 1821 (from Spain)
    Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
    several previous; latest approved 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times, last in 2012 (2013)
    civil law system
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    chief of state: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Rossana GUEVARA, and Lorena HERRERA (since 27 January 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Rossana GUEVARA, and Lorena HERRERA (since 27 January 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held on 24 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2017)
    election results: Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado elected president; percent of vote - Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado 36.9%, Xiomara CASTRO 28.8%, Mauricio VILLEDA 20.3%, Salvador NASRALLA 13.4%
    description: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 24 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2017)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PNH 48, LIBRE 37, PL 27, PAC 13, DC 1, UD 1, PINU 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 principal judges - including the court president - and 7 alternates; court organized into civil, criminal, and labor chambers); note - the court has both judicial and constitutional jurisdiction
    judge selection and term of office: court president elected by his peers; judges elected by the National Congress from candidates proposed by the Nominating Board, a diverse 7-member group of judicial officials, other government and non-government officials selected by each of their organizations; judges elected by Congress for renewable, 7-year terms
    subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; peace courts
    Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Salvador NASRALLA]
    Christian Democratic Party or DC [Felicito AVILA Ordonez]
    Democratic Unification Party or UD [Cesar HAM]
    Freedom and Refounding Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales]
    Liberal Party or PL [Mauricio VILLEDA Bermudez]
    National Party of Honduras or PNH [Gladys Aurora LOPEZ]
    Social Democratic Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge Rafael AGUILAR Paredes]
    Beverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS
    Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH
    Commiittee of the Relatives of the Disappeared in Honduras or COFADEH
    Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH
    Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP
    General Workers Confederation or CGT
    Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP
    National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH
    National Union of Campesinos or UNC
    Popular Bloc or BP
    United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
    United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan OR MUCA
    BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC (suspended), IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO (suspended), WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge Alberto MILLA Reyes (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: Suite 4-M, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 966-2604
    FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, McAllen (TX), Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador James D. NEALON (since 21 August 2014)
    embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa
    mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
    telephone: [504] 2236-9320, 2238-5114
    FAX: [504] 2236-9037
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue, with five blue, five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water and the peace and prosperity of its people
    note: similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band
    scarlet macaw, white-tailed deer; national colors: blue, white
    name: "Himno Nacional de Honduras" (National Anthem of Honduras)
    lyrics/music: Augusto Constancio COELLO/Carlos HARTLING
    note: adopted 1915; the anthem's seven verses chronicle Honduran history; on official occasions, only the chorus and last verse are sung
  • Economy :: HONDURAS

  • Honduras, the second poorest country in Central America, suffers from extraordinarily unequal distribution of income, as well as high underemployment. While historically dependent on the export of bananas and coffee, Honduras has diversified its export base to include apparel and automobile wire harnessing. Honduras’s economy depends heavily on US trade and remittances. The US-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) came into force in 2006 and has helped foster foreign direct investment, but physical and political insecurity, as well as crime and perceptions of corruption, may deter potential investors; about 70% of FDI is from US firms. The economy registered modest economic growth of 2.6%-4.0% from 2010 to 2014, insufficient to improve living standards for the nearly 65% of the population in poverty. Honduras signed an three-year IMF stand-by arrangement in December 2014 that will help ease its poor fiscal position.
    $38.95 billion (2014 est.)
    $37.81 billion (2013 est.)
    $36.87 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $19.37 billion (2014 est.)
    3% (2014 est.)
    2.6% (2013 est.)
    3.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $4,700 (2014 est.)
    $4,700 (2013 est.)
    $4,600 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 173
    16.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    15.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    17.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    household consumption: 80.8%
    government consumption: 16.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
    investment in inventories: 0.7%
    exports of goods and services: 48.2%
    imports of goods and services: -71.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 14%
    industry: 27.4%
    services: 58.7% (2014 est.)
    bananas, coffee, citrus, corn, African palm; beef; timber; shrimp, tilapia, lobster
    sugar, coffee, woven and knit apparel, wood products, cigars
    2.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    3.579 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    agriculture: 39.2%
    industry: 20.9%
    services: 39.8% (2005 est.)
    4.3% (2014 est.)
    4.5% (2013 est.)
    note: about one-third of the people are underemployed
    country comparison to the world: 40
    60% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 0.4%
    highest 10%: 42.4% (2009 est.)
    57.7 (2007)
    53.8 (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    revenues: $3.354 billion
    expenditures: $4.335 billion (2014 est.)
    17.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    -5.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    44.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    43.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    calendar year
    6.2% (2014 est.)
    5.2% (2013 est.)
    6.25% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    17.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    20.08% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    $1.633 billion (31 December 2008)
    $1.6 billion (31 December 2007)
    $5.574 billion (31 December 2008)
    $5.239 billion (31 December 2007)
    $2.006 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.934 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $7.623 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.11 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    $11.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $10.81 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    $NA
    -$1.703 billion (2014 est.)
    -$1.655 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    $8.52 billion (2014 est.)
    $7.833 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    apparel, coffee, shrimp, automobile wire harnesses, cigars, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber
    US 54.1%, El Salvador 5.8%, Mexico 5.4%, Germany 4.3% (2013)
    $11.79 billion (2014 est.)
    $11.03 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    machinery and transport equipment, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs
    US 49.8%, Guatemala 7.4%, El Salvador 6.1%, China 5.8%, Mexico 5.2% (2013)
    $2.934 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.009 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $7.111 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.636 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    lempiras (HNL) per US dollar -
    21.1 (2014 est.)
    20.494 (2013 est.)
    19.64 (2012 est.)
    18.895 (2011 est.)
    18.9 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: HONDURAS

  • 6.713 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    5.091 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    237 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    76 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    1.815 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    60% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    29.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    10.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    20 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    58,220 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    46,370 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    10.33 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: HONDURAS

  • 610,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    7.37 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    general assessment: fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in subscribership
    domestic: beginning in 2003, private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed-lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to a small increase in fixed-line teledensity; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 100 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 504; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2011)
    multiple privately owned terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by multiple cable TV networks; Radio Honduras is the lone government-owned radio network; roughly 300 privately owned radio stations (2007)
    AM 241, FM 53, shortwave 12 (1998)
    11 (plus 17 repeaters) (1997)
    .hn
    30,955 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    731,700 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 106
  • Transportation :: HONDURAS

  • 103 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    total: 13
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 90
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 16
    under 914 m:
    73 (2013)
    total: 44 km
    narrow gauge: 44 km 1.067-m gauge
    note: (4 km are in use) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    total: 14,742 km
    paved: 3,367 km
    unpaved: 11,375 km (1,543 km summer only)
    note: there are another 8,951 km of non-offical roads used by the coffee industry (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    465 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    total: 88
    by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 39, carrier 2, chemical tanker 5, container 1, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 3
    foreign-owned: 47 (Bahrain 5, Canada 1, Chile 1, China 2, Egypt 2, Greece 4, Israel 1, Japan 4, Lebanon 2, Montenegro 1, Panama 1, Singapore 11, South Korea 6, Taiwan 1, Thailand 2, UAE 1, UK 1, US 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    major seaport(s): La Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela
  • Military :: HONDURAS

  • Honduran Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Honduras, FFAA): Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Honduran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Hondurena, FAH) (2012)
    18 years of age for voluntary 2- to 3-year military service; no conscription (2012)
    males age 16-49: 2,045,914
    females age 16-49: 1,991,418 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,525,578
    females age 16-49: 1,539,688 (2010 est.)
    male: 95,895
    female: 92,087 (2010 est.)
    1.05% of GDP (2012)
    1.13% of GDP (2011)
    1.05% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 96
  • Transnational Issues :: HONDURAS

  • International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Guatemala consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Guatemala Differendum
    IDPs: 17,000 (violence, extortion, threats, forced recruitment by urban gangs) (2013)
    transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; some money-laundering activity
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