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Europe :: Croatia
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Croatia
  • Introduction :: CROATIA

  • The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.
  • Geography :: CROATIA

  • Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
    45 10 N, 15 30 E
    Europe
    total: 56,594 sq km
    land: 55,974 sq km
    water: 620 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 127
    slightly smaller than West Virginia
    total: 2,237 km
    border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km
    5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
    geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
    mean elevation: 331 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Dinara 1,831 m
    oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
    agricultural land: 23.7%
    arable land 16%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 6.2%
    forest: 34.4%
    other: 41.9% (2011 est.)
    240 sq km (2012)
    105.5 cu km (2011)
    destructive earthquakes
    air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks
  • People and Society :: CROATIA

  • noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
    adjective: Croatian
    Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)
    Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
    Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)
    4,464,844 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    0-14 years: 14.42% (male 330,355/female 313,312)
    15-24 years: 11.92% (male 272,249/female 259,935)
    25-54 years: 40.88% (male 903,896/female 921,337)
    55-64 years: 14.55% (male 314,697/female 335,007)
    65 years and over: 18.23% (male 331,889/female 482,167) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 51.1%
    youth dependency ratio: 22.5%
    elderly dependency ratio: 28.6%
    potential support ratio: 3.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 42.63 years
    male: 40.5 years
    female: 44.1 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    -0.13% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    9.45 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    12.18 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    urban population: 59% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ZAGREB (capital) 687,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    27.9 (2011 est.)
    8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    total: 5.77 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 5.91 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 5.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    total population: 76.61 years
    male: 73.02 years
    female: 80.4 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    1.46 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    7.3% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    2.84 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    5.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    improved:
    urban: 99.6% of population
    rural: 99.7% of population
    total: 99.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.4% of population
    rural: 0.3% of population
    total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 97.8% of population
    rural: 95.8% of population
    total: 97% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.2% of population
    rural: 4.2% of population
    total: 3% of population (2015 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    degree of risk: intermediate
    vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    25.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    4.2% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.3%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 98.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2014)
    total: 50%
    male: 49.9%
    female: 50.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
  • Government :: CROATIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
    conventional short form: Croatia
    local long form: Republika Hrvatska
    local short form: Hrvatska
    former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
    etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.
    parliamentary republic
    name: Zagreb
    geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska(Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivinica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sislak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)
    25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
    Independence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
    several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990; amended several times, last in 2014 (2016)
    civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
    chief of state: President Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (since 19 February 2015)
    head of government: Interim Prime Minister Tihomir ORESKOVIC (since 16 June 2016); Deputy Prime Minister Bozo PETROV (since 22 January 2016); note - Deputy Prime Minister Tomislav Karamarko (since 22 January 2016) resigned 15 June 2016; Prime Minister Tihomir ORESKOVIC (since 22 January 2016) was ousted in a no-confidence vote on 16 June 2016 but remains as the interim prime minister; there is a 30-day deadline to form a new government
    cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 December 2014 and 11 January 2015 (next to be held in 2019); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly
    election results: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%
    description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; members directly elected by party-list proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold: 14 seats in each of 10 districts; 8 seats in a single nationwide district for minorities; 3 seats in a single special district for the Croatian diaspora, members elected for 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 8 November 2015 (next likely to be held in mid-September) - Assembly voted on 20 June 2016 to dissolve on 15 July 2016, resulting in snap elections
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; number of seats by party/coalition - Patriotic Coalition (included HDZ, HSP AS, HSS) 59, Croatia is Growing (included SDP, HNS, Croatian Laborists - Labor Party, HSU) 56, Most-NL 19, Our Own Right (included IDS) 3, Labor and Solidarity Coalition (included New Wave) 2, HDSSB 2, Human Blockade 1, Successful Croatia (included People's Party - Reformists Party, Forward Croatia!, Progressive Alliance) 1, minorities 8 (included SDSS 3)
    note: seats by party as of 8 March 2016 - HDZ 51, SDP 42, Most-NL 16, HNS 9, minorities 8 (includes SDSS 3), IDS 3, HSP AS 3, Croatian Laborists - Labor Party 3, HDSSB 2, HSLS 2, HSU 2, BM365-SRS 2, HRID 2, People's Party - Reformists Party 1, BUZ 1, HDS 1, HRAST 1 Human Blockade 1, Independent List Petrina 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)
    judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by president of Croatia and elected by Croatian Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside Croatia's judicial system
    Bloc of Pensioners Together or BUZ [Milivoj SPIKA]
    Bridge of Independent Lists or Most-NL [Bozo PETROV]
    Croatia is Growing [Zoran MILANOVIC] (coalition including SDP, HNS, Croatian Laborists - Labor Party, HSU)
    Croatian Christian Democratic Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
    Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Dragan VULIN]
    Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ (vacant)
    Croatian Initiative for Dialogue or HRID [Drago PRGOMET]
    Croatian Laborists - Labor Party [Nansi TIRELI]
    Croatian Party of Rights - dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP AS [Ivan TEPES]
    Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Branko HRG]
    Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]
    Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]
    Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Darinko KOSOR]
    Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance [Ivo JOSIPOVIC]
    Human Blockade [Ivan SINCIC]
    Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]
    Independent List Petrina [Stipe PETRINA]
    Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC]
    Istrian Democrats [Damir KAJIN]
    Milan Bandic 365 - Party of Labor and Solidarity or BM365-SRS [Milan BANDIC]
    Movement for Successful Croatia or HRAST [Ladislav ILCIC]
    Patriotic Coalition [Tomislav KARAMARKO] (including HDZ, HSP AS, HSS, BUZ, HDS, HSLS, HRAST)
    People's Party - Reformists Party [Radimir CACIC]
    Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]
    other: human rights groups
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EMU, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Josip "Josko" PARO (since 20 April 2012)
    chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
    FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Julieta Valls NOYES (since 5 October 2015)
    embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
    FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia
    note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
    red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue
    name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
    lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN
    note: adopted 1972; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891
  • Economy :: CROATIA

  • Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia's economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable.
    Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008 and has yet to recover; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year since 2009. Difficult problems still remain including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, uneven regional development, and a challenging investment climate. Croatia continues to face reduced foreign investment.
    On 1 July 2013, Croatia joined the EU, following a decade-long application process. Croatia will be a member of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism until it meets the criteria for joining the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts the euro as its currency. EU accession has increased pressure on the government to reduce Croatia’s relatively high public debt, which triggered the EU’s excessive deficit procedure for fiscal consolidation. Zagreb has cut spending since 2012, and the government also raised additional revenues through more stringent tax collection and by raising the value-added tax. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets, with mixed success.
    $91.1 billion (2015 est.)
    $89.62 billion (2014 est.)
    $89.95 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 85
    $48.85 billion (2015 est.)
    1.6% (2015 est.)
    -0.4% (2014 est.)
    -1.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    $21,600 (2015 est.)
    $21,100 (2014 est.)
    $21,100 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 83
    22.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    18.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    19.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    household consumption: 59.6%
    government consumption: 19.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.7%
    investment in inventories: -0.3%
    exports of goods and services: 49%
    imports of goods and services: -46.8% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 4.3%
    industry: 26.7%
    services: 69.1% (2015 est.)
    arable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products
    chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
    2.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    1.708 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    agriculture: 1.9%
    industry: 27.6%
    services: 70.4% (2014)
    19.3% (2015 est.)
    20.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    19.5% (2014 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.3%
    highest 10%: 27.5% (2008 est.)
    32 (2010)
    29 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    revenues: $20.49 billion
    expenditures: $22.91 billion (2015 est.)
    41.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    -5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    89.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    85.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    calendar year
    -0.5% (2015 est.)
    -0.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    7% (31 December 2013)
    7% (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    7.8% (31 December 2015 est.)
    7.8% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $8.822 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $10.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    $49.38 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $49.24 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    $38.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $47.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $36.29 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $33.75 billion (31 December 2013)
    $33.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    $2.143 billion (2015 est.)
    $380 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    $12.23 billion (2015 est.)
    $12.95 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
    Italy 13.4%, Slovenia 12.5%, Germany 11.4%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.9%, Austria 6.6%, Serbia 4.9% (2015)
    $19.28 billion (2015 est.)
    $21.39 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs
    Germany 15.5%, Italy 13.1%, Slovenia 10.7%, Austria 9.2%, Hungary 7.8% (2015)
    $13.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $15.42 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $62.09 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $61.04 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    $42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $40.19 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    $7.712 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $7.792 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    kuna (HRK) per US dollar -
    6.927 (2015 est.)
    5.7482 (2014 est.)
    5.7482 (2013 est.)
    5.85 (2012 est.)
    5.3439 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: CROATIA

  • 13.38 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    16.97 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    2.866 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    6.592 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    4.22 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    37.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    7.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    48.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    6.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    10,070 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    37,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    71 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    56,650 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    75,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    29,060 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    32,890 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    1.805 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    2.81 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    422 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    1.079 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    5.598 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
  • Communications :: CROATIA

  • total subscriptions: 1.57 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    total: 4.5 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity holding steady at about 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions exceed the population
    international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2011)
    the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; roughly 25 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 3 national radio networks and 9 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and more than 170 regional, county, city, and community radio stations (2012)
    AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)
    36 (plus 321 repeaters) (1995)
    .hr
    729,420 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    total: 2.9 million
    percent of population: 65.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
  • Transportation :: CROATIA

  • 69 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    total: 24
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 10 (2013)
    total: 45
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 38 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 2,410 km; oil 610 km (2011)
    total: 2,722 km
    standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (985 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    total: 26,958 km (includes 1,416 km of expressways) (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    785 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    total: 77
    by type: bulk carrier 24, cargo 7, chemical tanker 8, passenger/cargo 27, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1
    foreign-owned: 2 (Norway 2)
    registered in other countries: 31 (Bahamas 1, Belize 1, Liberia 1, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 12, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    major seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibernik, Split
    river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)
    oil terminal(s): Omisalj
  • Military and Security :: CROATIA

  • Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM; includes coast guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2012)
    18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; 6-month service obligation (2012)
    1.38% of GDP (2015)
    1.41% of GDP (2014)
    1.47% of GDP (2013)
    1.7% of GDP (2012)
    1.77% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 51
  • Transnational Issues :: CROATIA

  • dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
    stateless persons: 2,873 (2015)
    note: 658,036 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (2015 - March 2016)
    transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe (2008)
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