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Europe :: Croatia
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Croatia
  • Introduction :: CROATIA

  • The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.
  • Geography :: CROATIA

  • Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
    45 10 N, 15 30 E
    Europe
    total: 56,594 sq km
    land: 55,974 sq km
    water: 620 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 127
    slightly smaller than West Virginia
    total: 2,237 km
    border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km
    5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
    geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Dinara 1,831 m
    oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
    arable land: 16.14%
    permanent crops: 1.41%
    other: 82.45% (2012 est.)
    36.27 sq km (2010)
    105.5 cu km (2011)
    destructive earthquakes
    air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks
  • People and Society :: CROATIA

  • noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
    adjective: Croatian
    Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)
    Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
    Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)
    4,470,534 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    0-14 years: 14.5% (male 332,079/female 314,842)
    15-24 years: 12.1% (male 275,957/female 263,796)
    25-54 years: 41.1% (male 910,591/female 928,434)
    55-64 years: 14.5% (male 315,791/female 334,017)
    65 years and over: 17.8% (male 320,898/female 474,129) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 50%
    youth dependency ratio: 22%
    elderly dependency ratio: 27.9%
    potential support ratio: 3.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 42.1 years
    male: 40.2 years
    female: 43.9 years (2014 est.)
    -0.12% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    9.49 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    12.13 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    urban population: 58.7% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ZAGREB (capital) 687,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    27.9 (2011 est.)
    13 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    total: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 5.99 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 5.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    total population: 76.41 years
    male: 72.81 years
    female: 80.2 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    1.45 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    7.3% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    2.84 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    5.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 99.8% of population
    rural: 96.8% of population
    total: 98.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.2% of population
    rural: 3.2% of population
    total: 1.4% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 98.6% of population
    rural: 97.6% of population
    total: 98.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1.4% of population
    rural: 2.4% of population
    total: 1.8% of population (2012 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    degree of risk: intermediate
    vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    25.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    4.2% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.3%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 98.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 15 years (2012)
    total: 43.1%
    male: 42.3%
    female: 44.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
  • Government :: CROATIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
    conventional short form: Croatia
    local long form: Republika Hrvatska
    local short form: Hrvatska
    former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
    parliamentary democracy
    name: Zagreb
    geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska(Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivinica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sislak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)
    25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
    Independence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
    several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990; amended several times, last in December 2013 by referendum
    civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
    chief of state: President Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (since 19 February 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister Zoran MILANOVIC (since 23 December 2011); First Deputy Prime Minister Vesna PUSIC (since 16 November 2012)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary assembly
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 December 2014 (first round) and 11 January 2015 (second round) (next to be held in December 2019); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the assembly
    election results: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC 49.3%
    description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; members directly elected by party-list proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold: 14 seats in each of 10 districts; 8 seats in a single nationwide district for minorities; 3 seats in a single special district for the Croatian diaspora, members elected for 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in late 2015)
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Kukuriku 40.0%, HDZ-led Coalition 23.8%, Croatian Laborists-Labor Party 5.1%, HSS 3.0%, HDSSB 2.9%, Independent list of Ivan Grubisic 2.8%, HCSP-HSP AS 2.8%, other 19.6%; number of seats by party/coalition - Kukuriku 80 (SDP 61, HNS 13, IDS 3, HSU 3), HDZ-led coalition 47 (HDZ 44, HGS 2, DC 1), Croatian Laborists-Labor Party 6, HDSSB 6, SDSS 3, Independent list of Ivan Grubisic 2, HSS 1, HCSP-HSP AS 1, other 5
    note: seats by party as of 3 April 2015 - SDP 56, HDZ 41, HNS 11, HDSSB 7, HSU 4, Croatian Laborists - Labor Party 3, Reformists 3, SDSS 3, HGS 2, IDS 2, BDSH 1, DC 1, HSS 1, HSP AS 1, ORaH 1, New Wave 1, independents 13
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)
    judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by president of Croatia and elected by Croatian Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside Croatia's judicial system
    Bosniak Democratic Party of Croatia or BDSH [Medzad HODZIC]
    Croatian Civic Party or HGS [Zeljko KERUM]
    Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Dragan VULIN]
    Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Tomislav KARAMARKO]
    Croatian Laborists - Labor Party [Nansi TIRELI]
    Croatian Party of Rights - dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP AS [Ivan TEPES]
    Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Branko HRG]
    Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]
    Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]
    Croatian Pure Party of Rights or HCSP [Josip MILJIC]
    Democratic Centre or DC [Vesna SKARE-OZBOLT]
    HDZ-led Coalition [Tomislav KARAMARKO] (includes HDZ, HGS, and DC)
    Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]
    Independent List of Ivan Grubisic [Ivan GRUBISIC]
    Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC]
    Kukuriku Coalition [Zoran MILANOVIC] (includes SDP, HNS, IDS, and HSU)
    New Wave [Liubo JURCIC]
    Reformists Party [Radimir CACIC]
    Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]
    Sustainable Development for Croatia or ORaH [Mirela HOLY]
    other: human rights groups
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EMU, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Josko PARO (since 20 April 2012)
    chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
    FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    consulate(s): Kansas City (MO), New Orleans, Pittsburgh (PA), St. Paul (MN), Seattle
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth MERTEN (since 3 October 2012)
    embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
    mailing address: use street address
    telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
    FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions, they are (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia
    note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
    red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue
    name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
    lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN
    note: adopted 1972; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891
  • Economy :: CROATIA

  • Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia's economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable. Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008 and has yet to recover; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year since 2009. Difficult problems still remain, including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, uneven regional development, and a challenging investment climate. Croatia continues to face reduced foreign investment. On 1 July 2013 Croatia joined the EU, following a decade-long application process. Croatia will be a member of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism until it meets the criteria for joining the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts the euro as its currency. EU accession has increased pressure on the government to reduce Croatia’s relatively high public debt, which triggered the EU’s excessive deficit procedure for fiscal consolidation. Zagreb has cut spending since 2012, and the government also raised additional revenues through more stringent tax collection and by raising the Value Added Tax. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets, with mixed success.
    $87.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $88.02 billion (2013 est.)
    $88.83 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 86
    $58.33 billion (2014 est.)
    -0.8% (2014 est.)
    -0.9% (2013 est.)
    -2.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    $20,400 (2014 est.)
    $20,600 (2013 est.)
    $20,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 81
    21.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    21.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    20.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    household consumption: 60.2%
    government consumption: 19.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.2%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 46.5%
    imports of goods and services: -44.4%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 4.5%
    industry: 26.6%
    services: 68.9% (2014 est.)
    arable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products
    chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
    0.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    1.714 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    agriculture: 2.1%
    industry: 29%
    services: 69% (2012)
    21% (2014 est.)
    20.3% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    21.1% (2011)
    lowest 10%: 3.3%
    highest 10%: 27.5% (2008 est.)
    32 (2010)
    29 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    revenues: $22.63 billion
    expenditures: $25.49 billion (2014 est.)
    38.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    -4.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    70.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    67.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    calendar year
    -0.2% (2014 est.)
    2.2% (2013 est.)
    7% (31 December 2013)
    7% (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    8.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    9.25% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    $10.86 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $10.55 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    $46.32 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $48.93 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $48.58 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $55.99 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    $21.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $23.24 billion (31 December 2012)
    $23.75 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    $624.5 million (2014 est.)
    $442.8 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $14.08 billion (2014 est.)
    $12.99 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
    Italy 14.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 13.2%, Germany 11%, Slovenia 10.1%, Austria 6.2%, Serbia 4.3% (2013)
    $22.44 billion (2014 est.)
    $21.43 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs
    Italy 14.3%, Germany 13.6%, Slovenia 7.5%, Russia 7.1%, Austria 6.4%, China 6%, Hungary 4.8% (2013)
    $18.15 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $17.77 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    $61.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $61.74 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $37.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $36.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $6.131 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.531 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    kuna (HRK) per US dollar -
    5.725 (2014 est.)
    5.7049 (2013 est.)
    5.85 (2012 est.)
    5.3439 (2011 est.)
    5.498 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: CROATIA

  • 14.24 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    16.7 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    3.294 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    6.844 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    4.171 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    48.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    47.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    3.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    16,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    71 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    65,410 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    84,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    30,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    26,670 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    1.863 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    3.253 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    392 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    1.137 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    20.18 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: CROATIA

  • 1.64 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    4.97 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity holding steady at about 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions exceed the population
    international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2011)
    the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; roughly 25 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 3 national radio networks and 9 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and more than 170 regional, county, city, and community radio stations (2012)
    AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)
    36 (plus 321 repeaters) (1995)
    .hr
    729,420 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    2.234 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 71
  • Transportation :: CROATIA

  • 69 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    total: 24
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 10 (2013)
    total: 45
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m:
    38 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 2,410 km; oil 610 km (2011)
    total: 2,722 km
    standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (984 km electrified) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    total: 29,410 km (includes 1,254 km of expressways) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    785 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    total: 77
    by type: bulk carrier 24, cargo 7, chemical tanker 8, passenger/cargo 27, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1
    foreign-owned: 2 (Norway 2)
    registered in other countries: 31 (Bahamas 1, Belize 1, Liberia 1, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 12, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    major seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibernik, Split
    river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)
    oil/gas terminal(s): Omisalj
  • Military :: CROATIA

  • Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM; includes coast guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2012)
    18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; 6-month service obligation (2012)
    males age 16-49: 1,016,234
    females age 16-49: 1,017,355 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 770,710
    females age 16-49: 839,732 (2010 est.)
    male: 28,334
    female: 27,015 (2010 est.)
    1.7% of GDP (2012)
    1.77% of GDP (2011)
    1.7% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 51
  • Transnational Issues :: CROATIA

  • dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
    stateless persons: 2,886 (2013)
    transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe (2008)
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