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Europe :: Hungary
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  • Introduction :: HUNGARY

  • Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.
  • Geography :: HUNGARY

  • Central Europe, northwest of Romania
    47 00 N, 20 00 E
    total: 93,028 sq km
    land: 89,608 sq km
    water: 3,420 sq km
    slightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana
    total: 2,106 km
    border countries (7): Austria 321 km, Croatia 348 km, Romania 424 km, Serbia 164 km, Slovakia 627 km, Slovenia 94 km, Ukraine 128 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
    mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
    lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
    highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
    bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
    agricultural land: 58.9%
    arable land 48.5%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 8.4%
    forest: 22.5%
    other: 18.6% (2011 est.)
    1,409 sq km (2007)
    104 cu km (2011)
    total: 5.58 cu km/yr (12%/83%/5%)
    per capita: 555.9 cu m/yr (2007)
    the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
  • People and Society :: HUNGARY

  • noun: Hungarian(s)
    adjective: Hungarian
    Hungarian 85.6%, Roma 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1%
    note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group (2011 est.)
    Hungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%
    note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)
    Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, unspecified 27.2% (2011 est.)
    9,919,128 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 14.8% (male 757,868/female 712,908)
    15-24 years: 11.7% (male 596,005/female 561,606)
    25-54 years: 41.6% (male 2,071,845/female 2,056,611)
    55-64 years: 14% (male 639,298/female 754,129)
    65 years and over: 17.8% (male 661,256/female 1,107,602) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 47.4%
    youth dependency ratio: 21.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 25.6%
    potential support ratio: 3.9% (2014 est.)
    total: 41.1 years
    male: 39.1 years
    female: 43.5 years (2014 est.)
    -0.21% (2014 est.)
    9.26 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    12.72 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    1.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 70.8% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BUDAPEST (capital) 1.717 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    28.3 (2011 est.)
    14 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 5.09 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 75.46 years
    male: 71.73 years
    female: 79.41 years (2014 est.)
    1.42 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    8% of GDP (2013)
    3.1 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    7.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    100 (2013 est.)
    degree of risk: intermediate
    vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2013)
    26% (2014)
    4.7% of GDP (2011)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.1%
    male: 99.1%
    female: 99% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2012)
    total: 28.1%
    male: 28.8%
    female: 27.3% (2012 est.)
  • Government :: HUNGARY

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Hungary
    local long form: none
    local short form: Magyarorszag
    parliamentary democracy
    name: Budapest
    geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
    counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
    cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
    capital city: Budapest
    16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
    Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August; note - commemorates the date when his remains were transferred to Buda (now Budapest)
    previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012; amended several times, last in 2013 (2015)
    civil legal system influenced by the German model
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age, 16 if married; universal
    chief of state: Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers and prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; other ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed and relieved of their duties by the president
    elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 May 2012 (next to be held by May 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election following the formation of a new government held on 10 May 2014
    election results: Janos ADER elected president, National Assembly vote - 262 to 40; Viktor ORBAN elected prime minister, National Assembly vote - 130 to 57
    note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first round or a simple majority in the second round
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 6 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Fidesz-KDNP 44.9%, Unity 25.6%, Jobbik 20.5%, LMP 5.3%; seats by party - Fidesz-KDNP 133, Unity 38, Jobbik 23, LMP 5
    highest court(s): Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the Curia president, vice president, and approximately 76 judges organized into 16 civil chambers, 3 criminal chambers, and 4 administrative chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges including the court president and 2 vice-presidents)
    judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected from among its members for 9 years by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement age; Constitutional Court judges elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly; members serve single renewable 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: regional courts of appeal (5); regional or county courts (19 including Budapest Metropolitan Court); administrative and labor courts (20); district or local courts (111)
    Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
    Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
    Dialogue for Hungary or PM [Gergely KARACSONY, Timea SZABO, co-chairs]
    Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
    Hungarian Liberal Party or MLP [Gabor FODOR]
    Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Jozsef TOBIAS]
    Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA]
    Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Andras SCHIFFER, Bernadett SZEL]
    Together 2014 or Egyutt [Viktor SZIGETVARI]
    Unity [a coalition of MSZP, Egyutt, DK, PM, and MLP for the 2014 legislative elections, since dissolved]
    Civil Osszefogas Forum ("Civil Unity Forum," nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)
    Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
    Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
    MostMi ("Now Us," Facebook group led by Bori TAKACS and Zsolt VARADY, that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country, but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)
    Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)
    Energy Club (Energia Klub)
    Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)
    Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Reka SZEMERKENYI (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
    FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
    consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH), Denver (CO), Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, St. Louis (MO)
    consulate(s): Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu (HI), Miami, New Orleans, Sacramento (CA), Salt Lake City (UT), Seattle
    chief of mission: Ambassador Colleen Bradley BELL (since 21 January 2015)
    embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
    mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
    telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
    FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country
    Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green
    name: "Himnusz" (Hymn)
    lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL
    note: adopted 1844
  • Economy :: HUNGARY

  • Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-28 average. In late 2008, Hungary's impending inability to service its short-term debt - brought on by the global financial crisis - led Budapest to obtain an IMF/EU/World Bank-arranged financial assistance package worth over $25 billion. The global economic downturn, declining exports, and low domestic consumption and fixed asset accumulation, dampened by government austerity measures, resulted in a severe economic contraction in 2009. In 2010 the new government implemented a number of changes including cutting business and personal income taxes, but imposed "crisis taxes" on financial institutions, energy and telecom companies, and retailers. The IMF/EU bail-out program lapsed at the end of the year and was replaced by Post Program Monitoring and Article IV Consultations on overall economic and fiscal processes. At the end of 2011 the government turned to the IMF and the EU to obtain financial backstop to support its efforts to refinance foreign currency debt and bond obligations in 2012 and beyond, but Budapest's rejection of EU and IMF economic policy recommendations led to a breakdown in talks with the lenders in late 2012. Global demand for high yield has since helped Hungary to obtain funds on international markets. Hungary’s progress reducing its deficit to under 3% of GDP led the European Commission in 2013 to permit Hungary for the first time since joining the EU in 2004 to exit the Excessive Deficit Procedure.
    $239.9 billion (2014 est.)
    $233.4 billion (2013 est.)
    $230.9 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $129.7 billion (2014 est.)
    2.8% (2014 est.)
    1.1% (2013 est.)
    -1.7% (2012 est.)
    $24,300 (2014 est.)
    $23,600 (2013 est.)
    $23,200 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 74
    21.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    20.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    18.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 54.5%
    government consumption: 19.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 22%
    investment in inventories: 0.6%
    exports of goods and services: 90.1%
    imports of goods and services: -86.8%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 3.4%
    industry: 31.1%
    services: 65.5% (2014 est.)
    wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
    mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
    3.1% (2014 est.)
    4.388 million (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 7.1%
    industry: 29.7%
    services: 63.2% (2011 est.)
    7.1% (2014 est.)
    9.1% (2013 est.)
    14% (2012)
    lowest 10%: 3.1%
    highest 10%: 22.6% (2009)
    24.7 (2009)
    24.4 (1998)
    revenues: $66.28 billion
    expenditures: $70.15 billion (2014 est.)
    51.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -3% of GDP
    note: Hungary has been under the EU Excessive Deficit Procedure since it joined the EU in 2004; in March 2012 the EU elevated its Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary and proposed freezing 30% of the country's Cohesion Funds because 2011 deficit reductions were not achieved in a sustainable manner; in June 2012, the EU lifted the freeze, recognizing that steps had been taken to reduce the deficit; the latest EC forecasts project the Hungarian deficit to increase above 3% both in 2013 and in 2014 due to sluggish growth and the government's fiscal tightening (2014 est.)
    78.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    77.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and government, state government, local government, and social security funds.
    calendar year
    0% (2014 est.)
    1.7% (2013 est.)
    5.75% (19 December 2012)
    7% (31 December 2011)
    4.8% (31 December 2014 est.)
    6.33% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $41.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $41.25 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $69.77 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $73.47 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $78.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $89.53 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $22.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $22.8 billion (31 December 2011)
    $27.71 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $2.225 billion (2014 est.)
    $3.903 billion (2013 est.)
    $99.54 billion (2014 est.)
    $95.19 billion (2013 est.)
    machinery and equipment 53.5%, other manufactures 31.2%, food products 8.7%, raw materials 3.4%, fuels and electricity 3.9% (2012 est.)
    Germany 26.7%, Romania 5.8%, Austria 5.7%, Slovakia 5.5%, Italy 4.9%, France 4.6%, UK 4.1%, Poland 4% (2013)
    $96.83 billion (2014 est.)
    $91.39 billion (2013 est.)
    machinery and equipment 45.4%, other manufactures 34.3%, fuels and electricity 12.6%, food products 5.3%, raw materials 2.5% (2012)
    Germany 25.5%, Russia 8.6%, Austria 6.8%, China 6.7%, Slovakia 5.8%, Poland 5%, Italy 4.4%, Czech Republic 4.2% (2013)
    $44.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $46.51 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $164.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $167.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $115.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $110.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $46.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $44.34 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    forints (HUF) per US dollar -
    231.7 (2014 est.)
    223.7 (2013 est.)
    225.1 (2012 est.)
    201.05 (2011 est.)
    207.94 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: HUNGARY

  • 34.28 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    36.13 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    4.76 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    16.64 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    9.531 million kW (2011 est.)
    70.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    19.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    8.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    23,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    108,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    27.32 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    166,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    134,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    59,110 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    46,850 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    1.949 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    9.603 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    1.443 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    8.176 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    7.843 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    47.9 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: HUNGARY

  • 2.96 million (2012)
    11.58 million (2012)
    general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized; the system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996
    domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections
    international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals (2011)
    mixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 3 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 3 state-supported public-service radio networks and 2 major national commercial stations; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition postponed to the end of 2014 (2007)
    AM 5, FM 90, shortwave 1 (2008)
    95 (2008)
    3.145 million (2012)
    6.176 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: HUNGARY

  • 41 (2013)
    total: 20
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 21
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 8
    under 914 m:
    11 (2013)
    3 (2013)
    gas 19,028 km; oil 1,007 km; refined products 842 km (2013)
    total: 8,057 km
    broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
    standard gauge: 7,802 km 1.435-m gauge (2,911 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2009)
    total: 199,567 km
    paved: 76,075 km (includes 1,477 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 123,492 km (2010)
    1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2011)
    river port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)
  • Military :: HUNGARY

  • Hungarian Defense Forces: Land Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2011)
    18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation (2012)
    males age 16-49: 2,349,948
    females age 16-49: 2,290,568 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,902,639
    females age 16-49: 1,897,378 (2010 est.)
    male: 59,237
    female: 55,533 (2010 est.)
    0.83% of GDP (2012)
    0.99% of GDP (2011)
    0.83% of GDP (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: HUNGARY

  • bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
    refugees (countries of origin): 5,942 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
    stateless persons: 124 (2014)
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy