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East & Southeast Asia :: Indonesia
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Indonesia
  • Introduction :: INDONESIA

  • The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1988, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After rioting toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.
  • Geography :: INDONESIA

  • Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
    5 00 S, 120 00 E
    Southeast Asia
    total: 1,904,569 sq km
    land: 1,811,569 sq km
    water: 93,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 15
    slightly less than three times the size of Texas
    Area comparison map:
    total: 2,958 km
    border countries (3): Timor-Leste 253 km, Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km
    54,716 km
    measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
    mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
    petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
    agricultural land: 31.2%
    arable land 13%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 6.1%
    forest: 51.7%
    other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
    67,220 sq km (2005)
    2,019 cu km (2011)
    total: 113.3 cu km/yr (11%/19%/71%)
    per capita: 517.3 cu m/yr (2005)
    occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
    volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
    deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    archipelago of 17,508 islands, some 6,000 of which are inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
  • People and Society :: INDONESIA

  • noun: Indonesian(s)
    adjective: Indonesian
    Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
    Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
    note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia
    Muslim 87.2%, Christian 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
    255,993,674 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    0-14 years: 25.82% (male 33,651,533/female 32,442,996)
    15-24 years: 17.07% (male 22,238,735/female 21,454,563)
    25-54 years: 42.31% (male 55,196,144/female 53,124,591)
    55-64 years: 8.18% (male 9,608,548/female 11,328,421)
    65 years and over: 6.62% (male 7,368,764/female 9,579,379) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 49%
    youth dependency ratio: 41.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.7%
    potential support ratio: 13% (2015 est.)
    total: 29.2 years
    male: 28.7 years
    female: 29.8 years (2014 est.)
    0.92% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    16.72 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    6.37 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    -1.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    urban population: 53.7% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 2.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    JAKARTA (capital) 10.323 million; Surabaya 2.853 million; Bandung 2.544 million; Medan 2.204 million; Semarang 1.63 million; Makassar 1.489 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 24.29 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 28.46 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 19.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    total population: 72.45 years
    male: 69.85 years
    female: 75.17 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    2.15 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    61.9% (2012)
    3.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 93% of population
    rural: 76.4% of population
    total: 84.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 7% of population
    rural: 23.6% of population
    total: 15.1% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 71.4% of population
    rural: 45.5% of population
    total: 58.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 28.6% of population
    rural: 54.5% of population
    total: 41.2% of population (2012 est.)
    0.46% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    641,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    29,100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    5.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    19.9% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    3.6% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 93.9%
    male: 96.3%
    female: 91.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2012)
    total number: 4,026,285
    percentage: 7%
    note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2009 est.)
    total: 22.2%
    male: 21.6%
    female: 23% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
  • Government :: INDONESIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
    conventional short form: Indonesia
    local long form: Republik Indonesia
    local short form: Indonesia
    former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
    republic
    name: Jakarta
    geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
    time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    note: Indonesia has three time zones
    31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
    note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
    17 August 1945 (declared)
    Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
    drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002 (2013)
    civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
    chief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote; presidential election last held on 9 July 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO 53.2%, PRABOWO Subianto 46.8%
    description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of the Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (132 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (560 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms)
    note: 29 other parties received less than the 2.5% vote threshold and failed to win so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
    elections: last held on 9 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19%, Golkar 15%, Gerindra 12%, PD 10%, PKB 9%, PAN 8%, PKS 7%, NasDem 7%, PPP 7%, Hanura 5%; seats by party - PDI-P 109, Golkar 91, Gerindra 73, PD 61, PKB 47, PAN 49, PKS 40, NasDem 35, PPP 39, Hanura 16
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
    Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
    Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]
    Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
    Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
    National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
    National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]
    People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
    Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]
    United Development Party or PPP [NA]
    Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
    Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
    Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
    ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Budi BOWOLEKSONO (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
    FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert O. BLAKE, Jr. (since 30 January 2014)
    embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
    mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
    telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
    FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
    consulate general: Surabaya
    consulate: Medan
    consular agency: Bali
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
    note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
    garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white
    name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
    lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
    note: adopted 1945
  • Economy :: INDONESIA

  • Indonesia has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25% and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, a current account deficit, and unequal resource distribution among regions. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 - has emphasized maritime and other infrastructure development, and especially increased electric power capacity, since taking office. Fuel subsidies were almost completely removed in early 2015, a move which could help the government increase spending on its development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration will not be completed by the previously-set deadline of year-end 2015.
    $2.676 trillion (2014 est.)
    $2.548 trillion (2013 est.)
    $2.413 trillion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 10
    $888.6 billion (2014 est.)
    5% (2014 est.)
    5.6% (2013 est.)
    6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $10,600 (2014 est.)
    $10,100 (2013 est.)
    $9,600 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 133
    30.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    30.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    32.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    household consumption: 56.2%
    government consumption: 9%
    investment in fixed capital: 33.6%
    investment in inventories: 1.9%
    exports of goods and services: 23.5%
    imports of goods and services: -24.4%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 14.2%
    industry: 45.5%
    services: 40.3% (2014 est.)
    rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
    petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
    4.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    124.3 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    agriculture: 38.9%
    industry: 13.2%
    services: 47.9% (2012 est.)
    6.1% (2014 est.)
    6.3% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    11.3% (2014 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)
    36.8 (2009)
    39.4 (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    revenues: $134.7 billion
    expenditures: $155.2 billion (2014 est.)
    15.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    -2.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    23.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    23.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    calendar year
    6.4% (2014 est.)
    6.4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    6.37% (31 December 2010)
    6.46% (31 December 2009)
    note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
    country comparison to the world: 59
    12.6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    11.7% (31 December 2013 est.)
    note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
    country comparison to the world: 66
    $78.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $72.78 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    $348.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $305.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    $388.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $329.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    $396.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $390.1 billion (31 December 2011)
    $360.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    -$26.23 billion (2014 est.)
    -$29.13 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    $175.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $182.1 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    palm oil, oil and gas, ores and slags, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
    Japan 15%, China 12%, Singapore 9.1%, United States 8.4%, South Korea 7.2% (2014 est.)
    $168.4 billion (2014 est.)
    $176.3 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    machinery and equipment, electronic equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
    China 16%, Singapore 14%, Japan 11%, South Korea 6.9%, Malaysia 6.1% (2014 est.)
    $111.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $99.39 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    $278.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $259.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    $255 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $230.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    $23.27 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $16.07 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
    12,388 (2014 est.)
    12,210 (2013 est.)
    9,386.63 (2012 est.)
    8,770.43 (2011 est.)
    9,090.4 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: INDONESIA

  • 182.4 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    156 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    2.542 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    41.01 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    84.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    12.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    929,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    338,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    388,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    3.591 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    935,300 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    1.66 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    142,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    473,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    72.47 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    37.63 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    34.84 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    2.955 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    456.2 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
  • Communications :: INDONESIA

  • total subscriptions: 29.64 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    total: 319 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
    domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
    international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
    mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)
    AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
    54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each with its group of local transmitters) (2006)
    .id
    total: 42.4 million
    percent of population: 16.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
  • Transportation :: INDONESIA

  • 673 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    total: 186
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
    914 to 1,523 m: 72
    under 914 m: 37 (2013)
    total: 487
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
    914 to 1,523 m: 23
    under 914 m:
    460 (2013)
    76 (2013)
    condensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)
    total: 8,159 km
    narrow gauge: 8,159 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified)
    note: 4,816 km operational (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    total: 496,607 km
    paved: 283,102 km
    unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    21,579 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    total: 1,340
    by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11
    foreign-owned: 69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)
    registered in other countries: 95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
    container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Priok (5,617,562)
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java
    the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; attacks have increased yearly since 2009; in 2012, 73 commercial vessels were boarded and 47 crew members taken hostage; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
  • Military :: INDONESIA

  • Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)
    18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)
    males age 16-49: 65,847,171
    females age 16-49: 63,228,017 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 54,264,299
    females age 16-49: 53,274,361 (2010 est.)
    male: 2,263,892
    female: 2,191,267 (2010 est.)
    0.78% of GDP (2012)
    0.67% of GDP (2011)
    0.78% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 116
  • Transnational Issues :: INDONESIA

  • Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
    IDPs: at least 31,440 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2012 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2015) (2011)
    illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers (2015)
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