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Europe :: Isle of Man Print
Page last updated on October 09, 2020
  • Introduction :: Isle of Man
  • Background field listing
    Part of the Norwegian Kingdom of the Hebrides until the 13th century when it was ceded to Scotland, the isle came under the British crown in 1765. Current concerns include reviving the almost extinct Manx Gaelic language. The Isle of Man is a British Crown dependency, which makes it a self-governing possession of the British Crown that is not part of the UK. The UK Government, however, remains constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.
  • Geography :: Isle of Man
  • Location field listing
    Western Europe, island in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    54 15 N, 4 30 W
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 572 sq km
    land: 572 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly more than three times the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    160 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
    Climate field listing
    temperate; cool summers and mild winters; overcast about a third of the time
    Terrain field listing
    hills in north and south bisected by central valley
    Elevation field listing
    lowest point: Irish Sea 0 m
    highest point: Snaefell 621 m
    Natural resources field listing
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 74.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 43.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 30.9% (2011 est.)
    forest: 6.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 19.2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    0 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    most people concentrated in cities and large towns of which Douglas, in the southeast, is the largest
    Natural hazards field listing
    occasional high winds and rough seas
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution, marine pollution; waste disposal (both household and industrial)
    Geography - note field listing
    one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest and is a bird sanctuary
  • People and Society :: Isle of Man
  • Population field listing
    90,499 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Manxman(men), Manxwoman(women)
    adjective: Manx
    Ethnic groups field listing
    white 96.5%, Asian/Asian British 1.9%, other 1.5% (2011 est.)
    Languages field listing
    English, Manx Gaelic (about 2% of the population has some knowledge)
    Religions field listing
    Protestant (Anglican, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of Friends), Roman Catholic
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 16.28% (male 7,688/female 7,046)
    15-24 years: 11.02% (male 5,328/female 4,642)
    25-54 years: 37.8% (male 17,080/female 17,131)
    55-64 years: 13.82% (male 6,284/female 6,219)
    65 years and over: 21.08% (male 9,023/female 10,058) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Median age field listing
    total: 44.6 years
    male: 43.6 years
    female: 45.6 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.59% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Birth rate field listing
    10.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Death rate field listing
    10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Net migration rate field listing
    5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Population distribution field listing
    most people concentrated in cities and large towns of which Douglas, in the southeast, is the largest
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 52.9% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.89% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    27,000 DOUGLAS (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 81.6 years
    male: 79.8 years
    female: 83.6 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.9 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: total: 100% of population
    unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    Education expenditures field listing
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 10.1%
    male: 11.8%
    female: 8.2% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
  • Government :: Isle of Man
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Isle of Man
    abbreviation: I.O.M.
    etymology: the name "man" may be derived from the Celtic word for "mountain"
    Dependency status field listing
    British crown dependency
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary democracy (Tynwald)
    Capital field listing
    name: Douglas
    geographic coordinates: 54 09 N, 4 29 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: name derives from the Dhoo and Glass Rivers, which flow through the valley in which the town is located and which in Manx mean the "dark" and the "light" rivers respectively
    Administrative divisions field listing
    none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 24 local authorities each with its own elections
    Independence field listing
    none (British Crown dependency)
    National holiday field listing
    Tynwald Day, 5 July (1417); date Tynwald Day was first recorded
    Constitution field listing
    history: development of the Isle of Man constitution dates to at least the 14th century
    amendments: proposed as a bill in the House of Keys, by the "Government," by a "Member of the House," or through petition to the House or Legislative Council; passage normally requires three separate readings and approval of at least 13 House members; following both House and Council agreement, assent is required by the lieutenant governor on behalf of the Crown; the constitution has been expanded and amended many times, last in 2019
    Citizenship field listing
    see United Kingdom
    Suffrage field listing
    16 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Richard GOZNEY (since 27 May 2016)
    head of government: Chief Minister Howard QUAYLE (since 4 October 2016)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the lieutenant governor
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister indirectly elected by the Tynwald for a 5-year term (eligible for second term); election last held on 4 October 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: Howard QUAYLE (independent) elected chief minister; Tynwald vote - 21 of 33
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral Tynwald or the High Court of Tynwald consists of:
    Legislative Council (11 seats; includes the President of Tynwald, 2 ex-officio members - the Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man and the attorney general (non-voting) - and 8 members indirectly elected by the House of Keys with renewal of 4 members every 2 years; elected members serve 4-year terms)
    House of Keys (24 seats; 2 members directly elected by simple majority vote from 12 constituencies to serve 5-year terms)
    Legislative Council - last held 28 February 2018 (next to be held 12 March 2020)
    House of Keys - last held on 22 September 2016 (next to be held on 23 September 2021)
    election results:  
    Legislative Council - composition - men 6, women 5, percent of women 45.5%
    House of Keys - percent of vote by party - Liberal Vannin 6.4%, independent 92.3%, other 1.3%; seats by party - Liberal Vannin 3, independent 21; composition - men 19, women 5, percent of women 20.8%; note - total Tynwald percent of women 28.6%
    note: as of January 2019, seats by party - Liberal Vannin 2, independent 22
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Isle of Man High Court of Justice (consists of 3 permanent judges or "deemsters" and 1 judge of appeal; organized into the Staff of Government Division or Court of Appeal and the Civil Division); the Court of General Gaol Delivery is not formally part of the High Court but is administered as though part of the High Court and deals with serious criminal cases; note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
    judge selection and term of office: deemsters appointed by the Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant governor; deemsters can serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Summary Gaol Delivery; Summary Courts; Magistrate's Court; specialized courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Liberal Vannin Party [Kate BEECROFT]
    Manx Labor Party
    Mec Vannin [Mark KERMODE] (sometimes referred to as the Manx Nationalist Party)

    note: most members sit as independents

    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    none (British crown dependency)
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    none (British crown dependency)
    Flag description field listing
    red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (triskelion), in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided emblem is used; the flag is based on the coat of arms of the last recognized Norse King of Mann, Magnus III (r. 1252-65); the triskelion has its roots in an early Celtic sun symbol
    National symbol(s) field listing
    triskelion (a motif of three legs); national colors: red, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Arrane Ashoonagh dy Vannin" (O Land of Our Birth)
    lyrics/music: William Henry GILL [English], John J. KNEEN [Manx]/traditional

    note: adopted 2003, in use since 1907; serves as a local anthem; as a British Crown dependency, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom) and is played when the sovereign, members of the royal family, or the lieutenant governor are present

  • Economy :: Isle of Man
  • Economy - overview field listing
    Financial services, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of the economy. The government offers low taxes and other incentives to high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the island; this has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in their contributions to GDP. The Isle of Man also attracts online gambling sites and the film industry. Online gambling sites provided about 10% of the islands income in 2014. The Isle of Man currently enjoys free access to EU markets and trade is mostly with the UK. The Isle of Man’s trade relationship with the EU derives from the United Kingdom’s EU membership and will need to be renegotiated in light of the United Kingdom’s decision to withdraw from the bloc. A transition period is expected to allow the free movement of goods and agricultural products to the EU until the end of 2020 or until a new settlement is negotiated.
    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $6.792 billion (2015 est.)
    $7.428 billion (2014 est.)
    $6.298 billion (2013 est.)

    note: data are in 2014 US dollars

    country comparison to the world: 169
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $6.792 billion (2015 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    -8.6% (2015 est.)
    17.9% (2014 est.)
    2.1% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $84,600 (2014 est.)
    $86,200 (2013 est.)
    $73,700 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 1% (FY12/13 est.)
    industry: 13% (FY12/13 est.)
    services: 86% (FY12/13 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    cereals, vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry
    Industries field listing
    financial services, light manufacturing, tourism
    Labor force field listing
    41,790 (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    manufacturing: 5% (2006 est.)
    construction: 8% (2006 est.)
    tourism: 1% (2006 est.)
    transport and communications: 9% (2006 est.)
    agriculture, forestry, and fishing: 2% (2006 est.)
    gas, electricity, and water: 1% (2006 est.)
    wholesale and retail distribution: 11% (2006 est.)
    professional and scientific services: 20% (2006 est.)
    public administration: 7% (2006 est.)
    banking and finance: 23% (2006 est.)
    entertainment and catering: 5% (2006 est.)
    miscellaneous services: 8% (2006 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    1.1% (2017 est.)
    2% (April 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Population below poverty line field listing
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 965 million (FY05/06 est.)
    expenditures: 943 million (FY05/06 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    14.2% (of GDP) (FY05/06 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    0.3% (of GDP) (FY05/06 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    4.1% (2017 est.)
    1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Exports field listing


    Exports - commodities field listing
    tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, beef, lamb
    Imports field listing


    Imports - commodities field listing
    timber, fertilizers, fish
    Debt - external field listing


    Exchange rates field listing
    Manx pounds (IMP) per US dollar -
    0.7836 (2017 est.)
    0.738 (2016 est.)
    0.738 (2015)
    0.6542 (2014)
    0.6472 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Isle of Man
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
  • Communications :: Isle of Man
  • Telecommunication systems field listing
    domestic: landline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone system
    international: country code - 44; fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    national public radio broadcasts over 3 FM stations and 1 AM station; 2 commercial broadcasters operating with 1 having multiple FM stations; receives radio and TV services via relays from British TV and radio broadcasters
    Internet country code field listing
  • Military and Security :: Isle of Man
  • Military - note field listing
    defense is the responsibility of the UK
  • Transportation :: Isle of Man
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    M (2016)
    Airports field listing
    1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 1 (2019)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    Railways field listing
    total: 63 km (2008)
    narrow gauge: 6 km 1.076-m gauge (6 km electrified) (2008)
    57 0.914-m gauge (29 km electrified)

    note: primarily summer tourist attractions

    country comparison to the world: 130
    Roadways field listing
    total: 500 km (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Douglas, Ramsey
  • Transnational Issues :: Isle of Man
  • Disputes - international field listing