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Europe :: ITALY
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ITALY
  • Introduction :: ITALY

  • Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.
  • Geography :: ITALY

  • Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
    42 50 N, 12 50 E
    Europe
    total: 301,340 sq km
    land: 294,140 sq km
    water: 7,200 sq km
    note: includes Sardinia and Sicily
    country comparison to the world: 72
    almost twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,836.4 km
    border countries (6): Austria 404 km, France 476 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.4 km, San Marino 37 km, Slovenia 218 km, Switzerland 698 km
    7,600 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    predominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
    mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
    mean elevation: 538 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)
    coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
    agricultural land: 47.1%
    arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 8.6%; permanent pasture 15.7%
    forest: 31.4%
    other: 21.5% (2011 est.)
    39,500 sq km (2012)
    despite a distinctive pattern with an industrial north and an agrarian south, a fairly even population distribution exists throughout most of the country, with coastal areas, the Po River Valley, and urban centers (particularly Milan, Rome, and Naples), attracting larger and denser populations
    regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
    volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (elev. 3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini
    air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
  • People and Society :: ITALY

  • 62,007,540 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    noun: Italian(s)
    adjective: Italian
    Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
    Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
    Christian 80% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim (about 800,000 to 1 million), atheist and agnostic 20%
    0-14 years: 13.69% (male 4,337,792/female 4,151,901)
    15-24 years: 9.74% (male 3,026,359/female 3,012,882)
    25-54 years: 42.46% (male 13,003,171/female 13,326,901)
    55-64 years: 12.73% (male 3,826,630/female 4,069,855)
    65 years and over: 21.37% (male 5,696,612/female 7,555,437) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 56.5
    youth dependency ratio: 21.5
    elderly dependency ratio: 35.1
    potential support ratio: 2.9 (2015 est.)
    total: 45.1 years
    male: 44 years
    female: 46.2 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    0.23% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    8.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    despite a distinctive pattern with an industrial north and an agrarian south, a fairly even population distribution exists throughout most of the country, with coastal areas, the Po River Valley, and urban centers (particularly Milan, Rome, and Naples), attracting larger and denser populations
    urban population: 69% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.39% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ROME (capital) 3.718 million; Milan 3.099 million; Naples 2.202 million; Turin 1.765 million; Palermo 853,000; Bergamo 840,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    30.3 years (2011 est.)
    4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    total population: 82.2 years
    male: 79.6 years
    female: 85 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    9.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    3.95 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 99.5% of population
    rural: 99.6% of population
    total: 99.5% of population
    unimproved::
    urban: 0.5% of population
    rural: 0.4% of population
    total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
    0.37% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    136,800 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    700 (2015 est.)
    23.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    4.2% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.2%
    male: 99.4%
    female: 99% (2015 est.)
    total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2014)
    total: 42.7%
    male: 41.3%
    female: 44.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
  • Government :: ITALY

  • conventional long form: Italian Republic
    conventional short form: Italy
    local long form: Repubblica Italiana
    local short form: Italia
    former: Kingdom of Italy
    etymology: derivation is unclear, but the Latin "Italia" may come from the Oscan "Viteliu" meaning "[Land] of Young Cattle" (the bull was a symbol of southern Italic tribes)
    parliamentary republic
    name: Rome
    geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)
    regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia)
    autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)
    17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1871)
    Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
    history: previous 1848 (originally for the Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by the Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948
    amendments: proposed by both houses of Parliament; passage requires two successive debates and approval by absolute majority of each house on the second vote; a referendum is only required when requested by one-fifth of the members of either house, by voter petition, or by five Regional Councils (elected legislative assemblies of the 15 first-level administrative regions and 5 autonomous regions of Italy); referendum not required if an amendment has been approved by a two-thirds majority in each house in the second vote; amended many times, last in 2012; note - a referendum held on 4 December 2016 on constitutional amendments was defeated (2017)
    civil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Italy
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years for EU nationals, 5 years for refugees and specified exceptions, 10 years for all others
    18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25
    chief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister Paolo GENTILONI (since 12 December 2016); note - Prime Minister Matteo RENZI (since 22 February 2014) resigned 12 December 2016; the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers
    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, known officially as the President of the Council of Ministers and locally as the Premier; nominated by the president
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 January 2015 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by parliament
    election results: Sergio MATTARELLA (PD) elected president; electoral college vote count in fourth round - 665 out of 1,009 (505-vote threshold)
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (322 seats; 315 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 7 ex-officio members appointed by the president of the Republic to serve for life) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 629 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member from Valle d'Aosta elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), center-right coalition 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, centrist coalition 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), center-right coalition 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, centrist coalition 47, other 3
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione consists of the first president (chief justice), deputy president, 54 justices presiding over 6 civil and 7 criminal divisions, and 288 judges; an additional 30 judges of lower courts serve as supporting judges; cases normally heard by 5-judge panels; more complex cases heard by 9-judge panels; Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of the court president and 14 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president of the republic; judges may serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years
    subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)
    Ruling left-center-right coalition:
    Civic Choice or SC [Enrico ZANETTI]
    Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI]
    Democratic Party or PD [Matteo RENZI]
    The New Center-Right or NCD [Angelino ALFANO]
    Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Fernando CASSINI]
    Center-right opposition:
    Brothers of Italy-National Alliance or FdI-AN [Giorgia MELONI, Ignazio LA RUSSA, and Guido CROSETTO]
    Forza Italia [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly PdL)
    Northern League or LN [Matteo SALVINI]
    other minor parties
    Other parties and parliamentary groups:
    Five Star Movment or M5S (populist, anti-establishment) [Beppe GRILLO]
    Liberal Popular Alliance [Denis VERDINI]
    Movement of Democrats and Progressives (left; external support of governing coalition) [Pierluigi BERSANI]
    Sinistra Italiani (left opposition) [Nicola FRATOIANNI]
    South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Philipp ACHAMMER]
    manufacturers and merchants associations: Confcommercio
    Confindustria
    organized farm groups: Confcoltivatori
    Confagricoltura
    major trade union confederations: Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] (left wing)
    Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI] (Roman Catholic centrist)
    Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] (lay centrist)
    other: Roman Catholic Church
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Armando VARRICCHIO (since 2 March 2016)
    chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400
    FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
    consulate(s): Charlotte (NC), Cleveland (OH), Detroit (MI), Hattiesburg (MS), Honolulu (HI), New Orleans, Newark (NJ), Norfolk (VA), Pittsburgh (PA), Portland (OR), Seattle
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kelly C. DEGNAN (since 20 January 2017); note - also accredited to San Marino
    embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
    mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
    telephone: [39] (06) 46741
    FAX: [39] (06) 4674-2244
    consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard
    note: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green
    white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia); national colors: red, white, green
    name: "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)
    lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO
    note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as "L'Inno di Mameli" (Mameli's Hymn), and "Fratelli D'Italia" (Brothers of Italy)
  • Economy :: ITALY

  • Italy has a diversified economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, where unemployment is higher. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors.
    Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, reaching 133% of GDP in 2016. Investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural impediments to growth, such as labor market inefficiencies, a sluggish judicial system, and a weak banking sector. Italy’s economy returned to modest growth in late 2014 for the first time since late 2011. In 2015-16, Italy’s economy grew 0.7% each year. In 2016, overall unemployment was 11.7%, but youth unemployment remains high at 37.1%.
    $2.221 trillion (2016 est.)
    $2.204 trillion (2015 est.)
    $2.187 trillion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 13
    $1.852 trillion (2016 est.)
    0.8% (2016 est.)
    0.8% (2015 est.)
    -0.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    $36,300 (2016 est.)
    $36,300 (2015 est.)
    $36,000 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 52
    18.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    19% of GDP (2015 est.)
    18.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    household consumption: 60.9%
    government consumption: 18.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 16.5%
    investment in inventories: 0.2%
    exports of goods and services: 29.7%
    imports of goods and services: -26.1% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 2.2%
    industry: 23.9%
    services: 73.8% (2016 est.)
    fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
    tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
    0.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    25.6 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    agriculture: 3.9%
    industry: 28.3%
    services: 67.8% (2011)
    11.4% (2016 est.)
    11.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    29.9% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.3%
    highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)
    31.9 (2012 est.)
    27.3 (1995)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    revenues: $842.5 billion
    expenditures: $889.8 billion (2016 est.)
    45.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    -2.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    132.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    132.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the central government, state government, local government and social security funds
    country comparison to the world: 4
    calendar year
    -0.2% (2016 est.)
    0.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    0.25% (31 December 2013)
    0.75% (31 December 2012)
    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
    country comparison to the world: 138
    3.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
    4.13% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    $1.069 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.026 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    country comparison to the world: 7
    $2.134 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.284 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $2.97 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $3.053 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    $587.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $615.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $50.76 billion (2016 est.)
    $29.57 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    $436.3 billion (2016 est.)
    $450.1 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals
    Germany 12.3%, France 10.3%, US 8.7%, UK 5.4%, Spain 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2015)
    $372.2 billion (2016 est.)
    $391.2 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, tobacco
    Germany 15.4%, France 8.7%, China 7.7%, Netherlands 5.6%, Spain 5%, Belgium 4.7% (2015)
    $130.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $142.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    $2.444 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
    $2.3 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    $472.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $463.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    $610.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $594.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.9214 (2016 est.)
    0.885 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.7752 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: ITALY

  • electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    283 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    297 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    4.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    50.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    120 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    57.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    18.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    24% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    100,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    24,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    1.395 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    544.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    1.578 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    1.266 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    533,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    261,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    5.785 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    70.91 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    21.2 million cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    65.28 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    53.72 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    362 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
  • Communications :: ITALY

  • total subscriptions: 20,236,305
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    total: 92.52 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 150 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    general assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
    domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
    international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat (2015)
    two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; about 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)
    .it
    total: 40.559 million
    percent of population: 65.6% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
  • Transportation :: ITALY

  • number of registered air carriers: 9
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 382
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 26,036,010
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 945,433,732 mt-km (2015)
    I (2016)
    129 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    total: 98
    over 3,047 m: 9
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 31
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
    914 to 1,523 m: 29
    under 914 m: 11 (2013)
    total: 31
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 10
    under 914 m: 20 (2013)
    5 (2013)
    gas 20,223 km; oil 1,393 km; refined products 1,574 km (2013)
    total: 20,181.7 km
    standard gauge: 18,770.1 km 1.435-m gauge (12,893.6 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 122.3 km 1.000-m gauge (122.3 km electrified); 1,289.3 km 0.950-m gauge (151.3 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    total: 487,700 km
    paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    total: 681
    by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 42, carrier 1, chemical tanker 164, container 21, liquefied gas 28, passenger 25, passenger/cargo 154, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 39, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 30
    foreign-owned: 90 (Denmark 4, France 2, Greece 7, Luxembourg 14, Netherlands 2, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 13, Taiwan 10, Turkey 4, UK 2, US 23)
    registered in other countries: 201 (Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 7, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Liberia 47, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 1, Morocco 1, Netherlands 6, Panama 25, Portugal 12, Russia 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 5, Slovakia 2, Spain 1, Sweden 5, Turkey 1, UK 3, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    major seaport(s): Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
    oil terminal(s): Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal
    container port(s) (TEUs): Genoa (1,847,648), Gioia Tauro (2,264,798), La Spezia (1,307,274)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): La Spezia, Panigaglia, Porto Levante
  • Military and Security :: ITALY

  • 1.31% of GDP (2015)
    1.47% of GDP (2014)
    1.59% of GDP (2013)
    1.63% of GDP (2012)
    1.68% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC), Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza) (2015)
    18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: ITALY

  • Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
    refugees (country of origin): 16,033 (Afghanistan); 14,336 (Somalia); 14,247 (Nigeria); 13,412 (Pakistan); 11,327 (Mali); 10,049 (Eritrea); 7,723 (Gambia); 5,805 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2016)
    stateless persons: 701 (2016)
    note: 428,635 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals by sea (January 2015 - July 2017)
    important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling