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Europe :: Italy
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Italy
  • Introduction :: ITALY

  • Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.
  • Geography :: ITALY

  • Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
    42 50 N, 12 50 E
    Europe
    total: 301,340 sq km
    land: 294,140 sq km
    water: 7,200 sq km
    note: includes Sardinia and Sicily
    country comparison to the world: 72
    almost twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,836.4 km
    border countries (6): Austria 404 km, France 476 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.4 km, San Marino 37 km, Slovenia 218 km, Switzerland 698 km
    7,600 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    predominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
    mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)
    coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
    agricultural land: 47.1%
    arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 8.6%; permanent pasture 15.7%
    forest: 31.4%
    other: 21.5% (2011 est.)
    39,510 sq km (2007)
    191.3 cu km (2011)
    total: 45.41 cu km/yr (24%/43%/34%)
    per capita: 789.8 cu m/yr (2008)
    regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
    volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (elev. 3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini
    air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
  • People and Society :: ITALY

  • noun: Italian(s)
    adjective: Italian
    Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
    Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German-speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
    Christian 80% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim (about 800,000 to 1 million), Atheist and Agnostic 20%
    61,855,120 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    0-14 years: 13.73% (male 4,340,380/female 4,154,737)
    15-24 years: 9.79% (male 3,035,586/female 3,020,584)
    25-54 years: 42.74% (male 13,063,733/female 13,375,975)
    55-64 years: 12.54% (male 3,756,546/female 3,997,190)
    65 years and over: 21.2% (male 5,626,752/female 7,483,637) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 55%
    youth dependency ratio: 21.8%
    elderly dependency ratio: 33.3%
    potential support ratio: 3% (2014 est.)
    total: 44.5 years
    male: 43.3 years
    female: 45.6 years (2014 est.)
    0.27% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    8.74 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    10.19 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    4.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    urban population: 69% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.39% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ROME (capital) 3.697 million; Milan 3.094 million; Naples 2.207 million; Turin 1.761 million; Palermo 855,000; Bergamo 830,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 3.29 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.49 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    total population: 82.12 years
    male: 79.48 years
    female: 84.92 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    1.43 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    9.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    3.76 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    0.28% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    122,000 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    NA
    23.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    4.3% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.2%
    male: 99.4%
    female: 99% (2015 est.)
    total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2012)
    total: 35.3%
    male: 33.7%
    female: 37.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
  • Government :: ITALY

  • conventional long form: Italian Republic
    conventional short form: Italy
    local long form: Repubblica Italiana
    local short form: Italia
    former: Kingdom of Italy
    republic
    name: Rome
    geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)
    regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia)
    autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)
    17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)
    Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
    previous 1848 (originally for Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948; amended many times, last in 2012 (2013)
    civil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25
    chief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (3 February 2015); Giorgio NAPOLITANO resigned 14 January 2015
    head of government: Prime Minister Matteo RENZI (since 22 February 2014); note - the prime minister is referred to as the President of the Council of Ministers
    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and nominated by the President of the Republic
    elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18-20 April 2013 (next scheduled for 2020); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament; national parliamentary elections were last held on 24-25 February 2013
    election results: Giorgio NAPOLITANO resigned on 14 January 2015, and Senate president Pietro GRASSO became acting president; after 4 rounds of voting the members of parliament and regional delegates elected Sergio MATTARELLA with 665 votes on 31 January 2015
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (322 seats; 315 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 7 ex-officio members appointed by the president of the Republic to serve for life) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 629 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member from Valle d'Aosta elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition [Pier Luigi BERSANI] 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), center-right coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI] 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, centrist coalition [Mario MONTI] 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition [Pier Luigi BERSANI] 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), center-right coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI] 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, centrist coalition [Mario MONTI] 47, other 4; note - President NAPOLITANO dissolved Parliament on 22 December 2012
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation consists of the first president (chief justice), deputy president, 54 justices presiding over 6 civil and 7 criminal divisions, and 288 judges; an additional 30 judges of lower courts serve as supporting judges; cases normally heard by 5-judge panels; more complex cases heard by 9-judge panels
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president of the republic, to serve NA terms; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years)
    subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)
    Center-right parties::
    Brothers of Italy or FdI [Giorgia MELONI, Ignazio LA RUSSA, and Guido CROSETTO]
    Forza Italia [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly PdL)
    The New Center-Right or NCD [Angelino ALFANO]
    Northern League or LN [Roberto MARONI]
    The Right or LD [Francesco STORACE]
    other minor parties
    Center-left parties::
    Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI and Massimo DONADI]
    Democratic Party or PD [Matteo RENZI]
    Italian Socialist Party or PSI [Riccardo NENCINI]
    Left Ecology Freedom or SEL [Nichi VENDOLA]
    South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Arno KOMPATSCHER]
    Centrist parties::
    Civic Choice or SC [Alberto BOMBASSEI]
    Future and Freedom for Italy or FLI [vacant]
    Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]
    other coalitions and parties::
    Act to Stop the Decline or FiD [Michele BOLDRIN]
    Civil Revolution or RC [Antonio INGROIA]
    Five Star Movment or M5S [Beppe GRILLO]
    manufacturers and merchants associations:
    Confcommercio
    Confindustria
    organized farm groups:
    Confcoltivatori
    Confagricoltura
    Roman Catholic Church
    three major trade union confederations:
    Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] which is left wing
    Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI], which is Roman Catholic centrist
    Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Claudio BISOGNIERO (since 13 January 2012)
    chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400
    FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
    consulate(s): Charlotte (NC), Cleveland (OH), Detroit (MI), Hattiesburg (MS), Honolulu (HI), New Orleans, Newark (NJ), Norfolk (VA), Pittsburgh (PA), Portland (OR), Seattle
    consular agency(ies): Anchorage (AL), Charleston (SC), Worcester (MA)
    chief of mission: Ambassador John R. PHILLIPS (since 3 October 2013); note - also accredited to San Marino
    embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
    mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
    telephone: [39] (06) 46741
    FAX: [39] (06) 4674-2244
    consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
    consular agency(ies): Anchorage (AL), Charleston (SC), Worcester (MA)
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard
    note: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green
    white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia); national colors: red, white, green
    name: "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)
    lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO
    note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as "L'Inno di Mameli" (Mameli's Hymn), and "Fratelli D'Italia" (Brothers of Italy)
  • Economy :: ITALY

  • Italy has a diversified economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, where unemployment is higher. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors. Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro-zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, topping 132% of GDP in 2014, but investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's long-standing structural impediments to growth, such as labor market inefficiencies and tax evasion. In 2014 economic growth and labor market conditions continued to deteriorate, with overall unemployment rising to 12.2% and youth unemployment around 40%. Italy's GDP is now nearly 10% below its 2007 pre-crisis level.
    $2.128 trillion (2014 est.)
    $2.137 trillion (2013 est.)
    $2.174 trillion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 13
    $2.148 trillion (2014 est.)
    -0.4% (2014 est.)
    -1.7% (2013 est.)
    -2.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    $35,500 (2014 est.)
    $35,600 (2013 est.)
    $36,300 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 49
    18.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    18.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    17.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    household consumption: 60.2%
    government consumption: 20%
    investment in fixed capital: 16.9%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 30.1%
    imports of goods and services: -27.2%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 2.2%
    industry: 23.9%
    services: 73.9% (2014 est.)
    fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
    tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
    -0.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    25.51 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    agriculture: 3.9%
    industry: 28.3%
    services: 67.8% (2011)
    12.8% (2014 est.)
    12.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    29.9% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.3%
    highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)
    31.9 (2012 est.)
    27.3 (1995)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    revenues: $990.7 billion
    expenditures: $1.055 trillion (2014 est.)
    46.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    -3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    134.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    132.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the central government, state government, local government and social security funds
    country comparison to the world: 5
    calendar year
    0.2% (2014 est.)
    1.3% (2013 est.)
    0.25% (31 December 2013)
    0.75% (31 December 2012)
    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
    country comparison to the world: 149
    5.1% (31 December 2014 est.)
    5.14% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    $1.185 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.264 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    country comparison to the world: 6
    $2.134 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.284 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $3.319 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.613 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $431.5 billion (31 December 2011)
    $318.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    $38.94 billion (2014 est.)
    $20.88 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    $500.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $501.7 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals
    Germany 12.6%, France 11%, US 6.7%, Switzerland 5.2%, UK 5.1%, Spain 4.5% (2013)
    $448.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $453.6 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, tobacco
    Germany 15.5%, France 8.9%, China 6.7%, Netherlands 6.1%, Spain 4.8%, Belgium 4.4% (2013)
    $145.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $145.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    $2.604 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $2.516 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $552.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $538.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    $763.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $733.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7489 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: ITALY

  • 286.2 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    307.2 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    2.181 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    44.34 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    124.2 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    66.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    12.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    20.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    112,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    14,640 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    1.387 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    560.5 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    1.692 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    1.315 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    628,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    347,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    7.735 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    70.07 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    228 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    61.96 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    59.43 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    385.8 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
  • Communications :: ITALY

  • 21.656 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    97.225 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    general assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
    domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
    international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat (2011)
    two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; some 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)
    AM about 100, FM about 4,600, shortwave 9 (1998)
    358 (plus 4,728 repeaters) (1995)
    .it
    25.662 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    29.235 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 12
  • Transportation :: ITALY

  • 129 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    total: 98
    over 3,047 m: 9
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 31
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
    914 to 1,523 m: 29
    under 914 m: 11 (2013)
    total: 31
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 10
    under 914 m:
    20 (2013)
    5 (2013)
    gas 20,223 km; oil 1,393 km; refined products 1,574 km (2013)
    total: 20,255 km
    standard gauge: 18,611 km 1.435-m gauge (12,662 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 123 km 1.000-m gauge (123 km electrified); 1,290 km 0.950-m gauge (151 km electrified); 231 km 0.850-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    total: 487,700 km
    paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    total: 681
    by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 42, carrier 1, chemical tanker 164, container 21, liquefied gas 28, passenger 25, passenger/cargo 154, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 39, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 30
    foreign-owned: 90 (Denmark 4, France 2, Greece 7, Luxembourg 14, Netherlands 2, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 13, Taiwan 10, Turkey 4, UK 2, US 23)
    registered in other countries: 201 (Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 7, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Liberia 47, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 1, Morocco 1, Netherlands 6, Panama 25, Portugal 12, Russia 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 5, Slovakia 2, Spain 1, Sweden 5, Turkey 1, UK 3, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    major seaport(s): Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
    oil terminals: Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal
    container port(s) (TEUs): Genoa (1,847,648), Gioia Tauro (2,264,798), La Spezia (1,307,274)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): La Spezia, Panigaglia, Porto Levante
  • Military :: ITALY

  • Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC) (2011)
    18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation (2013)
    males age 16-49: 13,865,688
    females age 16-49: 14,003,755 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 11,247,446
    females age 16-49: 11,348,695 (2010 est.)
    male: 288,188
    female: 281,671 (2010 est.)
    1.69% of GDP (2012)
    1.72% of GDP (2011)
    1.69% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 52
  • Transnational Issues :: ITALY

  • Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
    refugees (country of origin): 13,357 (Eritrea); 12,213 (Somalia); 8,991 (Afghanistan); 6,293 (Nigeria); 5,764 (Pakistan); 5,552 (Mali) (2014)
    stateless persons: 813 (2014)
    important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling
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