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  • Introduction :: JAPAN

  • In 1603, after decades of civil warfare, the Tokugawa shogunate (a military-led, dynastic government) ushered in a long period of relative political stability and isolation from foreign influence. For more than two centuries this policy enabled Japan to enjoy a flowering of its indigenous culture. Japan opened its ports after signing the Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854 and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan became a regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia. It occupied Korea, Formosa (Taiwan), and southern Sakhalin Island. In 1931-32 Japan occupied Manchuria, and in 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of China. Japan attacked US forces in 1941 - triggering America's entry into World War II - and soon occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and an ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, elected politicians hold actual decision-making power. Following three decades of unprecedented growth, Japan's economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s, but the country remains an economic power. In March 2011, Japan's strongest-ever earthquake, and an accompanying tsunami, devastated the northeast part of Honshu island, killed thousands, and damaged several nuclear power plants. The catastrophe hobbled the country's economy and its energy infrastructure, and tested its ability to deal with humanitarian disasters. Prime Minister Shinzo ABE was reelected to office in December 2012, and has since embarked on ambitious economic and security reforms to improve Japan’s economy and increase the country’s international standing.
  • Geography :: JAPAN

  • Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula
    36 00 N, 138 00 E
    total: 377,915 sq km
    land: 364,485 sq km
    water: 13,430 sq km
    note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okino-tori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)
    slightly smaller than California
    Area comparison map:
    0 km
    29,751 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm; between 3 nm and 12 nm in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
    mostly rugged and mountainous
    lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m
    highest point: Mount Fuji 3,776 m
    negligible mineral resources, fish
    note: with virtually no energy natural resources, Japan is the world's largest importer of coal and liquefied natural gas, as well as the second largest importer of oil
    agricultural land: 12.5%
    arable land 11.7%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 0%
    forest: 68.5%
    other: 19% (2011 est.)
    25,000 sq km (2010)
    430 cu km (2011)
    total: 90.04 cu km/yr (20%/18%/62%)
    per capita: 714.3 cu m/yr (2007)
    many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors but occasional severe earthquakes) every year; tsunamis; typhoons
    volcanism: both Unzen (elev. 1,500 m) and Sakura-jima (elev. 1,117 m), which lies near the densely populated city of Kagoshima, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Asama, Honshu Island's most active volcano, Aso, Bandai, Fuji, Iwo-Jima, Kikai, Kirishima, Komaga-take, Oshima, Suwanosejima, Tokachi, Yake-dake, and Usu
    air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location in northeast Asia
  • People and Society :: JAPAN

  • noun: Japanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Japanese
    Japanese 98.5%, Koreans 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.6%
    note: up to 230,000 Brazilians of Japanese origin migrated to Japan in the 1990s to work in industries; some have returned to Brazil (2004)
    Shintoism 79.2%, Buddhism 66.8%, Christianity 1.5%, other 7.1%
    note: total adherents exceeds 100% because many people practice both Shintoism and Buddhism (2012 est.)
    127,103,388 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 13.2% (male 8,681,728/female 8,132,809)
    15-24 years: 9.7% (male 6,429,429/female 5,890,991)
    25-54 years: 38.1% (male 23,953,643/female 24,449,655)
    55-64 years: 13.2% (male 8,413,872/female 8,400,953)
    65 years and over: 25.8% (male 14,218,655/female 18,531,653) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 63.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 21.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 42.1%
    potential support ratio: 2.4% (2014 est.)
    total: 46.1 years
    male: 44.8 years
    female: 47.5 years (2014 est.)
    -0.13% (2014 est.)
    8.07 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    9.38 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 93% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.56% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    TOKYO (capital) 37.833 million; Osaka-Kobe 20.123 million; Nagoya 9.373 million; Kitakyushu-Fukuoka 5.528 million; Shizuoka-Hamamatsu 3.239 million; Sapporo 2.579 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    30.3 (2012 est.)
    6 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 2.13 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.35 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 1.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 84.46 years
    male: 81.13 years
    female: 87.99 years (2014 est.)
    1.4 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    note: percent of women aged 20-49 (2005)
    10.3% of GDP (2013)
    2.3 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    13.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    3.5% (2014)
    3.8% of GDP (2012)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 15 years (2012)
    total: 7.9%
    male: 8.7%
    female: 7.1% (2012 est.)
  • Government :: JAPAN

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Japan
    local long form: Nihon-koku/Nippon-koku
    local short form: Nihon/Nippon
    a parliamentary government with a constitutional monarchy
    name: Tokyo
    geographic coordinates: 35 41 N, 139 45 E
    time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gunma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
    3 May 1947 (current constitution adopted as amendment to Meiji Constitution); notable earlier dates: 660 B.C. (traditional date of the founding of the nation by Emperor JIMMU); 29 November 1890 (Meiji Constitution provides for constitutional monarchy)
    Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23 December (1933)
    previous 1890; latest approved 6 October 1946, adopted 3 November 1946, effective 3 May 1947 (2013)
    civil law system based on German model; system also reflects Anglo-American influence and Japanese traditions; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    20 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
    head of government: Prime Minister Shinzo ABE (since 26 December 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Taro ASO (since 26 December 2012)
    cabinet: Cabinet is appointed by the prime minister
    elections: Diet, the bicameral legislature, designates the prime minister; constitution requires that the prime minister commands parliamentary majority; following legislative elections, the leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition in House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister; the monarchy is hereditary; note - ABE dissolved parliament on 21 November 2014, snap elections will be held 14 December 2014
    description: bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of the House of Councillors or Sangi-in (242 seats; 146 members directly elected by majority vote and 96 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the House of Representatives or Shugi-in (475 seats; 295 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 180 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve maximum 4-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 2 years)
    elections: House of Councillors - last held on 21 July 2013 (next to be held in July 2016); House of Representatives - last held on 14 December 2014 (next to be held by 15 December 2016)
    election results: House of Councillors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LPD 115, DPJ 59, New Komeito 20, Your Party 18, JCP 11, JRP 9, SDP 3, others 4, independents 3
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - LDP 61.26%, DPJ 15.37%, JIP 8.63%, New Komeito 7.37%, JCP 4.42%, PFG .42%, SDP .42%, PLP .42%, independents 1.68%; seats by party - LDP 291, DPJ 73, JIP 41, New Komeito 35, JCP 21, PFG 2, SDP 2, PLP 2, independents 8
    note: the 2013 amended electoral law - effective for the December 2016 election - reduced to 475 the number of seats in the House of Representatives
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Saiko saibansho (consists of the chief justice and 14 associate justices); note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in constitutional issues
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice designated by the Cabinet and appointed by the monarch; associate justices appointed by the Cabinet and confirmed by the monarch; all justices are reviewed in a popular referendum at the first general election of the House of Representatives following each judge's appointment and every 10 years afterward
    subordinate courts: 8 High Courts (Koto-saiban-sho), each with a Family Court (Katei-saiban-sho); 50 District Courts (Chiho saibansho), with 203 additional branches; 438 Summary Courts (Kani saibansho)
    Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ [Banri KAIEDA]
    Japan Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII]
    Japan Innovation Party or JIP [Kenji EDA]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Shinzo ABE]
    New Komeito or NK [Natsuo YAMAGUCHI]
    Party for Future Generations or PFG [Shintaro ISHIHARA]
    People's Life Party or PLP [Ichiro OZAWA]
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Tadatomo YOSHIDA]
    other: business groups; trade unions
    ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, CPLP (associate), EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kenichiro SASAE (since 19 November 2012)
    chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 238-6700
    FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187
    consulate(s) general: Anchorage (AK), Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver (CO), Detroit (MI), Honolulu (HI), Houston, Las Vegas (NV), Los Angeles, Miami, Nashville (TN), New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City (OK), Orlando (FL), Philadelphia (PA), Phoenix (AZ), Portland (OR), San Francisco, Seattle, Saipan (Puerto Rico), Tamuning (Guam)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Caroline Bouvier KENNEDY (since 19 November 2013)
    embassy: 1-10-5 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8420
    mailing address: Unit 9800, Box 300, APO AP 96303-0300
    telephone: [81] (03) 3224-5000
    FAX: [81] (03) 3505-1862
    consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
    consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya
    white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center
    red sun disc, chrysanthemum; national colors: red, white
    name: "Kimigayo" (The Emperor"s Reign)
    lyrics/music: unknown/Hiromori HAYASHI
    note: adopted 1999; unofficial national anthem since 1883; oldest anthem lyrics in the world, dating to the 10th century or earlier; there is some opposition to the anthem because of its association with militarism and worship of the emperor
  • Economy :: JAPAN

  • In the years following World War II, government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of GDP) helped Japan develop an advanced economy. Two notable characteristics of the post-war economy were the close interlocking structures of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors, known as keiretsu, and the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features are now eroding under the dual pressures of global competition and domestic demographic change. Scarce in many natural resources, Japan has long been dependent on imported raw materials. Since the complete shutdown of Japan’s nuclear reactors after the earthquake and tsunami disaster in 2011, Japan's industrial sector has become even more dependent than it was previously on imported fossil fuels. A small agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. While self-sufficient in rice production, Japan imports about 60% of its food on a caloric basis. For three decades, overall real economic growth had been impressive - a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s, and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, averaging just 1.7%, largely because of the aftereffects of inefficient investment and an asset price bubble in the late 1980s that required a protracted period of time for firms to reduce excess debt, capital, and labor. Modest economic growth continued after 2000, but the economy has fallen into recession four times since 2008. Government stimulus spending helped the economy recover in late 2009 and 2010, but the economy contracted again in 2011 as the massive 9.0 magnitude earthquake and the ensuing tsunami in March of that year disrupted manufacturing. The economy has largely recovered in the four years since the disaster, although reconstruction in the affected Tohoku region has lagged, in part due to a shortage of labor in the construction sector. Japan enjoyed a sharp uptick in growth in 2013 on the basis of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s “Three Arrows” economic revitalization agenda - dubbed “Abenomics” - of monetary easing, “flexible” fiscal policy, and structural reform. Abe’s government has replaced the preceding administration’s plan to phase out nuclear power with a new policy of seeking to restart nuclear power plants that meet strict new safety standards, and emphasizing nuclear energy’s importance as a base-load electricity source. Japan joined the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations in 2013, a pact that would open Japan's economy to increased foreign competition and create new export opportunities for Japanese businesses. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, Japan in 2014 stood as the fourth-largest economy in the world after second-place China, which surpassed Japan in 2001, and third-place India, which edged out Japan in 2012. While seeking to stimulate and reform the economy, the government must also devise a strategy for reining in Japan's huge government debt, which amounts to more than 230% of GDP. To help raise government revenue, Japan adopted legislation in 2012 to gradually raise the consumption tax rate to 10% by 2015, beginning with a hike from 5% to 8% implemented in April 2014. That increase had a contractionary effect on GDP, however, so PM Abe in late 2014 decided to postpone the final phase of the increase until April 2017 to give the economy more time to recover. Led by the Bank of Japan’s aggressive monetary easing, Japan is making progress in ending deflation, but demographics - low birthrate and an aging, shrinking population - pose major long-term challenges for the economy.
    $4.75 trillion (2014 est.)
    $4.75 trillion (2013 est.)
    $4.675 trillion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $4.77 trillion (2014 est.)
    0% (2014 est.)
    1.6% (2013 est.)
    1.8% (2012 est.)
    $37,700 (2014 est.)
    $36,700 (2013 est.)
    $35,500 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 44
    23.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    21.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    21.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 60.8%
    government consumption: 20.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 22.2%
    investment in inventories: -0.5%
    exports of goods and services: 17.3%
    imports of goods and services: -20.4%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 1.2%
    industry: 24.5%
    services: 74.3% (2013 est.)
    vegetables, rice, fish, poultry, fruit, dairy products, pork, beef, flowers, potatoes/taros/yams, sugar cane, tea, legumes, wheat and barley
    among world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods
    2% (2014 est.)
    65.48 million (2015 February est.)
    agriculture: 2.9%
    industry: 26.2%
    services: 70.9% (2015 February est.)
    3.6% (2014 est.)
    4% (2013 est.)
    16.1% (2013)
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 24.8% (2008)
    37.9 (2011)
    24.9 (1993)
    revenues: $1.512 trillion
    expenditures: $1.84 trillion (2014 est.)
    31.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    -6.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    231.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    227.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    1 April - 31 March
    2.7% (2014 est.)
    0.4% (2013 est.)
    0.3% (31 December 2014)
    0.3% (31 December 2013)
    1.48% (31 December 2014 est.)
    1.48% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $5.403 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.817 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $8.073 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $8.035 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $11.88 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $11.92 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $4.782 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.584 trillion (31 December 2013)
    $3.715 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $45.42 billion (2014 est.)
    $33.63 billion (2013 est.)
    $710.5 billion (2014 est.)
    $714.9 billion (2013 est.)
    motor vehicles 14.9%; iron and steel products 5.4%; semiconductors 5%; auto parts 4.8%; power generating machinery 3.5%; plastic materials 3.3% (2014 est.)
    US 18.8%, China 18.1%, South Korea 7.9%, Hong Kong 5.2%, Thailand 5% (2013)
    $811.9 billion (2014 est.)
    $832.6 billion (2013 est.)
    petroleum 16.1%; liquid natural gas 9.1%; clothing 3.8%; semiconductors 3.3%; coal 2.4%; audio and visual apparatus 1.4% (2014 est.)
    China 21.7%, US 8.6%, Australia 6.1%, Saudi Arabia 6%, UAE 5.1%, Qatar 4.4%, South Korea 4.3% (2013)
    $1.267 trillion (2013 est.)
    $1.268 trillion (2012 est.)
    $5.18 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $4.026 trillion (31 December 2012)
    $205.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $185.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $1.284 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.117 trillion (2013 est.)
    yen (JPY) per US dollar -
    105.8 (2014 est.)
    97.6 (2013 est.)
    79.79 (2012 est.)
    79.81 (2011 est.)
    87.78 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: JAPAN

  • 799.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    965.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    0 kWh (2014 est.)
    0 kWh (2014 est.)
    287.3 million kW (2012 est.)
    71% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    16.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    8.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    3.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    11,010 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    3.441 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    541.6 million bbl (March, 2015 est.)
    3.294 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    4.3 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    309,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    951,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    2.822 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    127.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    116.9 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    20.9 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    1.276 billion Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: JAPAN

  • 64.273 million (2012)
    138.363 million (2011)
    general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
    domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind
    international: country code - 81; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 7 Intelsat (Pacific and Indian Oceans), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), 2 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions), and 8 SkyPerfect JSAT (2012)
    a mixture of public and commercial broadcast TV and radio stations; 6 national terrestrial TV networks including 1 public broadcaster; the large number of radio and TV stations available provide a wide range of choices; satellite and cable services provide access to international channels (2012)
    AM 215 (plus 370 repeaters), FM 89 (plus 485 repeaters), shortwave 21 (2001)
    211; note - in addition, US Forces are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable services (1999)
    64.453 million (2012)
    99.182 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: JAPAN

  • 175 (2013)
    total: 142
    over 3,047 m: 6
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 45
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 38
    914 to 1,523 m: 28
    under 914 m: 25 (2013)
    total: 33
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m:
    28 (2013)
    16 (2013)
    gas 4,456 km; oil 174 km; oil/gas/water 104 km (2013)
    total: 27,182 km
    standard gauge: 4,251 km 1.435-m gauge (4,251 km electrified)
    dual gauge: 486 km 1.435-1.067-m gauge (486 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 96 km 1.372-m gauge (96 km electrified); 22,301 km 1.067-m gauge (15,222 km electrified); 48 km 0.762-m gauge (48 km electrified) (2009)
    total: 1,210,251 km
    paved: 973,234 km (includes 7,803 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 237,017 km (2010)
    1,770 km (seagoing vessels use inland seas) (2010)
    total: 684
    by type: bulk carrier 168, cargo 34, carrier 3, chemical tanker 29, container 2, liquefied gas 58, passenger 11, passenger/cargo 117, petroleum tanker 152, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 52, vehicle carrier 54
    registered in other countries: 3,122 (Bahamas 88, Bermuda 2, Burma 1, Cambodia 1, Cayman Islands 23, China 2, Cyprus 16, Honduras 4, Hong Kong 79, Indonesia 8, Isle of Man 19, Liberia 110, Luxembourg 3, Malaysia 2, Malta 5, Marshall Islands 59, Mongolia 2, Netherlands 1, Panama 2372, Philippines 77, Portugal 9, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Sierra Leone 4, Singapore 164, South Korea 14, Tanzania 1, UK 5, Vanuatu 39, unknown 7) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Chiba, Kawasaki, Kobe, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo, Tomakomai, Yokohama
    container port(s) (TEUs): Kobe (2,725,304), Nagoya (2,471,821), Osaka (2,172,797), Tokyo (4,416,119), Yokohama (2,992,517)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Chita, Fukwoke, Futtsu, Hachinone, Hakodate, Hatsukaichi, Higashi Ohgishima, Higashi Niigata, Himeiji, Joetsu, Kagoshima, Kawagoe, Kita Kyushu, Mizushima, Nagasaki, Naoetsu, Negishi, Ohgishima, Oita, Sakai, Sakaide, Senboku, Shimizu, Shin Minato, Sodegaura, Tobata, Yanai, Yokkaichi; Okinawa - Nakagusuku
  • Military :: JAPAN

  • Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD): Ground Self-Defense Force (Rikujou Jieitai, GSDF), Maritime Self-Defense Force (Kaijou Jieitai, MSDF), Air Self-Defense Force (Koukuu Jieitai, ASDF) (2011)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; mandatory retirement at age 53 for senior enlisted personnel and at 62 years for senior service officers (2012)
    males age 16-49: 27,301,443
    females age 16-49: 26,307,003 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 22,390,431
    females age 16-49: 21,540,322 (2010 est.)
    male: 623,365
    female: 591,253 (2010 est.)
    0.97% of GDP (2012)
    1.01% of GDP (2011)
    0.99% of GDP (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: JAPAN

  • the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kuril Islands," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Japan and South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do) occupied by South Korea since 1954; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan
    stateless persons: 635 (2014)