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Africa :: Kenya
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Kenya
  • Introduction :: KENYA

  • Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over a constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister following the first presidential election under the new constitution, which occurred on 4 March 2013. Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, won the March elections in the first round by a close margin and was sworn into office on 9 April 2013.
  • Geography :: KENYA

  • Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
    1 00 N, 38 00 E
    Africa
    total: 580,367 sq km
    land: 569,140 sq km
    water: 11,227 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 49
    five times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
    Area comparison map:
    total: 3,457 km
    border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km
    536 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
    low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
    limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
    agricultural land: 48.1%
    arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 37.4%
    forest: 6.1%
    other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
    1,032 sq km (2003)
    30.7 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.74 cu km/yr (17%/4%/79%)
    per capita: 72.96 cu m/yr (2003)
    recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (elev. 1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
    water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
  • People and Society :: KENYA

  • noun: Kenyan(s)
    adjective: Kenyan
    Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
    English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
    Christian 82.5% (Protestant 47.4%, Catholic 23.3%, other 11.8%), Muslim 11.1%, Traditionalists 1.6%, other 1.7%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.7% (2009 census)
    45,925,301
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    0-14 years: 41.56% (male 9,572,641/female 9,512,607)
    15-24 years: 18.66% (male 4,280,499/female 4,289,960)
    25-54 years: 33.17% (male 7,700,801/female 7,530,526)
    55-64 years: 3.76% (male 784,775/female 944,041)
    65 years and over: 2.85% (male 568,784/female 740,667) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 80.9%
    youth dependency ratio: 75.8%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.1%
    potential support ratio: 19.7% (2015 est.)
    total: 19.1 years
    male: 18.9 years
    female: 19.2 years (2014 est.)
    1.93% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    26.4 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    6.89 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    -0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    urban population: 25.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 4.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    NAIROBI (capital) 3.915 million; Mombassa 1.104 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 39.38 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 43.92 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 34.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    total population: 63.77 years
    male: 62.3 years
    female: 65.26 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    3.31 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    45.5% (2008/09)
    4.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 82.3% of population
    rural: 55.1% of population
    total: 61.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 17.7% of population
    rural: 44.9% of population
    total: 38.3% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 31.3% of population
    rural: 29.1% of population
    total: 29.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 68.7% of population
    rural: 70.9% of population
    total: 70.4% of population (2012 est.)
    6.04% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    1,594,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    58,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    5.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    16.4% (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    6.6% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 78%
    male: 81.1%
    female: 74.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 11 years (2009)
    total number: 2,146,058
    percentage: 26% (2000 est.)
  • Government :: KENYA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
    conventional short form: Kenya
    local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
    local short form: Kenya
    former: British East Africa
    republic
    name: Nairobi
    geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
    12 December 1963 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 12 December (1963); Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963); Mashujaa Day (or Heroes' Day), 20 October (2010)
    previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010 (2013)
    mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - according to the 2008 power sharing agreement the position of prime minister was created though not well-defined; consistent with the new 2010 constitution, the position was abolished after the March 2013 elections
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the assent of the National Assembly
    elections: president and deputy president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving a simple majority of votes, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the votes cast in each of more than half of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017 or 2018)
    election results: President Uhuru KENYATTA elected in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA 50.1%, Raila ODINGA 43.7%, Musalia MUDAVADI 4.0%, other 2.2%
    description: bicameral parliament consists of the Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017 or 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance (TNA 17, URP 12, NARC 1); CORD Coalition (ODM 17, FORD-K 5, WDM-K 5, other 1); Amani Coalition (KANU 3, UDF 3); APK 3; National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee ALliance (TNA 89, URP 75, NARC 3), CORD Coalition (ODM 96, WDM-K 26, FORD-K 10, other 9), Amani Coalition (UDF 12, KANU 6, NFK 6), APK 5, FORD-P 4, independent 4, other 4
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves nonrenewable 10-year terms or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70
    subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; courts martial; magistrates' courts; religious courts
    Alliance Party of Kenya or AKP [Kiraitu MURUNGI]
    Amani Coalition (includes UDF, KANU, NFK) [Musalia MUDAVADI]
    Coalition for Reforms and Democracy or CORD (includes ODM, WDM-K, FORD-K) [Raila ODINGA]
    Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA]
    Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA]
    Jubilee Alliance (includes TNA, URP, NARC) [Uhuru KENYATTA]
    Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
    National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU]
    New Ford Kenya or NFK [Eugene WAMALWA]
    Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
    The National Alliance or TNA [Uhuru KENYATTA]
    United Democratic Forum Party or UDF [Musalia MUDAVADI]
    United Republican Party or URP [William RUTO]
    Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
    Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed DOR]
    Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya
    Kenya Association of Manufacturers
    Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [Professor Makau MUTUA]
    Kenya Private Sector Alliance
    Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)
    Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
    National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
    Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
    Roman Catholic church
    Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Hassan Ole NAADO, secretary general]
    other: labor unions, other Christian churches
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robinson GITHAE (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
    FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
    consulate(s): New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC (since 16 January 2013)
    embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P. O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
    mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
    telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
    FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
    three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
    lion; national colors: black, red, green, white
    name: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (Oh God of All Creation)
    lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
    note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song
  • Economy :: KENYA

  • Kenya is the economic and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged around 5% for the past several years. According to recently rebased national statistics, Kenya’s GDP for 2013 was $55.3 billion, placing Kenya among the low middle income countries with per capita income of $1,300. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing 25% of GDP. About 80% of Kenya’s population of roughly 42 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class, faster growth and poverty reduction is hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. Inadequate infrastructure threatens Kenya's long-term position as the largest East African economy, although the KENYATTA administration has prioritized infrastructure development. International financial lenders and donors remain important to Kenya's economic growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market. Kenya issued its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014, generating $2 billion at 6% interest; the funds are slated to be used for infrastructure projects. Nairobi has contracted with a Chinese company to begin construction of a new standard gauge railway, but the project allegedly has been beset by corruption and fraud. Unemployment is high at around 40%. The country has chronic budget deficits and is in the process of devolving some state revenues and responsibilities to the counties. Inflationary pressures and sharp currency depreciation peaked in early 2012 but have since abated following low global food and fuel prices and monetary interventions by the Central Bank. Recent terrorism in Kenya and the surrounding region threatens Kenya's important tourism industry.
    $132.4 billion (2014 est.)
    $125.8 billion (2013 est.)
    $118.9 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 75
    $60.77 billion (2014 est.)
    5.3% (2014 est.)
    5.7% (2013 est.)
    4.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $3,100 (2014 est.)
    $2,900 (2013 est.)
    $2,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 187
    13.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    11.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    13.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    household consumption: 81.1%
    government consumption: 14%
    investment in fixed capital: 20.5%
    investment in inventories: -0.5%
    exports of goods and services: 16.9%
    imports of goods and services: -32.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 29.3%
    industry: 17.7%
    services: 53% (2014 est.)
    tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
    small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
    4.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    17.7 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    agriculture: 75%
    industry and services: 25% (2007 est.)
    40% (2013 est.)
    40% (2001 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    43.4% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.8%
    highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
    42.5 (2008 est.)
    44.9 (1997)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    revenues: $11.78 billion
    expenditures: $15.05 billion (2014 est.)
    18.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    -5.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    58.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    55.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    1 July - 30 June
    6.9% (2014 est.)
    5.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    7% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    16.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    17.31% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    $11.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $9.134 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    $24.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $18.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    $34 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $23.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    $14.79 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $10.2 billion (31 December 2011)
    $14.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    -$5.01 billion (2014 est.)
    -$4.788 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    $6.271 billion (2014 est.)
    $5.796 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
    Uganda 13%, Tanzania 8.9%, Netherlands 7.1%, US 6.6%, UK 6.3%, UAE 5.9%, Pakistan 4.6%, Egypt 4.1% (2013)
    $16.47 billion (2014 est.)
    $15.53 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
    India 19.9%, China 17.8%, UAE 8.8%, Japan 5% (2013)
    $9.259 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.599 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $16.77 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $13.18 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    $4.171 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.39 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    $350.5 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $335.5 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
    87.63 (2014 est.)
    86.123 (2013 est.)
    84.53 (2012 est.)
    88.811 (2011 est.)
    79.233 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: KENYA

  • 7.618 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    6.284 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    42 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    37 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    1.816 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    43.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    44.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    12.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    31,040 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    32,240 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    83,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    1,266 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    52,160 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    13.45 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
  • Communications :: KENYA

  • total subscriptions: 180,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    total: 33.6 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
    domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, privatized and as of 2013 is 70% owned by France Telecom; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 65 per 100 persons in 2011
    international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2011)
    about a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2014)
    AM 24, FM 82, shortwave 6 (2008)
    8 (2008)
    .ke
    total: 16.5 million
    percent of population: 36.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
  • Transportation :: KENYA

  • 197 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    total: 16
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 181
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
    914 to 1,523 m: 107
    under 914 m:
    60 (2013)
    oil 4 km; refined products 928 km (2013)
    total: 3,334 km
    narrow gauge: 3,334 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    total: 160,878 km
    paved: 11,189 km
    unpaved: 149,689 km
    note: includes 99 km of urban and other roads (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    none specifically; the only significant inland waterway is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)
    registered in other countries: 5 (Comoros 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    major seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Mombasa
  • Military :: KENYA

  • Kenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2012)
    18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2012)
    males age 16-49: 9,768,140
    females age 16-49: 9,466,257 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 6,361,268
    females age 16-49: 6,106,870 (2010 est.)
    male: 422,104
    female: 416,927 (2010 est.)
    1.96% of GDP (2012)
    1.88% of GDP (2011)
    1.96% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 41
  • Transnational Issues :: KENYA

  • Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to an estimated 580 thousand refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times
    refugees (country of origin): 421,789 (Somalia - includes registered asylum seekers); 91,805 (South Sudan); 31,023 (Ethiopia - includes registered asylum seekers); 22,049 (Democratic Republic of Congo - includes registered asylum seekers); 10,443 (Sudan - includes registered asylum seekers); 7,292 (Burundi - includes registered asylum seekers) (2015)
    IDPs: 309,200 (represents people displaced since the 1990s by ethnic and political violence and land disputes and who sought refuge mostly in camps; persons who took refuge in host communities or were evicted in urban areas are not included in the data; data is not available on pastoralists displaced by cattle rustling, violence, natural disasters, and development projects; the largest displacement resulted from 2007-08 post-election violence (2014)
    stateless persons: 20,000 (2014); note - the stateless population is composed of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; they did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are lumped in with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards
    current situation: Kenya is a source, transit, and destination country for adults and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Kenyan children are forced to work in domestic service, agriculture, fishing, cattle herding, street vending, begging, and prostitution; Kenyan economic migrants to other East African countries, South Sudan, Europe, the US, and the Middle East are at times exploited in domestic servitude, massage parlors or brothels, or forced manual labor; children from Burundi, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda are subjected to forced labor and prostitution in Kenya; children, often Somalis, living in the Dadaab refugee camp complex may be forced into prostitution or forced to work on tobacco farms
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Kenya does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has written but not implemented a plan to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for eliminating trafficking; corruption among officials and inadequate police training and resources continued to hamper efforts to bring traffickers to justice in 2013; efforts to assist and care for child trafficking victims remained strong, but relatively few services were provided to adults trafficked domestically or identified in situations of forced labor or prostitution abroad; the Department of Children’s Services and an NGO continued to operate a hotline for reporting child trafficking, labor, and abuse; almost 400 recruitment agencies were inspected in conjunction with the lifting of the ban on sending domestic workers to the Middle East in 2013 (2014)
    widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities
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