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Central Asia :: Kyrgyzstan
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Kyrgyzstan
  • Introduction :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to Russia in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV overwhelmingly won the presidential election in the summer of 2005. Over the next few years, he manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for the presidency. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won reelection in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, violent protests in Bishkek led to the collapse of the BAKIEV regime and his eventual flight to Minsk, Belarus. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011, marking the first peaceful transfer of presidential power in independent Kyrgyzstan's history. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, and terrorism.
  • Geography :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
    41 00 N, 75 00 E
    Asia
    total: 199,951 sq km
    land: 191,801 sq km
    water: 8,150 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 87
    slightly smaller than South Dakota
    total: 4,573 km
    border countries (4): China 1,063 km, Kazakhstan 1,212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,314 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
    peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country
    lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
    highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
    abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
    agricultural land: 55.4%
    arable land 6.7%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 48.3%
    forest: 5.1%
    other: 39.5% (2011 est.)
    10,210 sq km (2005)
    23.62 cu km (2011)
    total: 8.01 cu km/yr (3%/4%/93%)
    per capita: 1,558 cu m/yr (2006)
    NA
    water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
  • People and Society :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
    adjective: Kyrgyzstani
    Kyrgyz 70.9%, Uzbek 14.3%, Russian 7.7%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.9% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2009 est.)
    Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)
    Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
    5,664,939 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    0-14 years: 29.92% (male 867,668/female 827,235)
    15-24 years: 18.18% (male 523,347/female 506,453)
    25-54 years: 39.55% (male 1,096,430/female 1,144,265)
    55-64 years: 7.34% (male 180,874/female 234,733)
    65 years and over: 5.01% (male 108,776/female 175,158) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 53.2%
    youth dependency ratio: 46.9%
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.3%
    potential support ratio: 15.8% (2014 est.)
    total: 25.7 years
    male: 24.7 years
    female: 26.7 years (2014 est.)
    1.11% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    22.98 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    6.65 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    -5.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    urban population: 35.7% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 1.58% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BISHKEK (capital) 858,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 27.73 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 31.94 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 23.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    total population: 70.36 years
    male: 66.19 years
    female: 74.8 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    2.66 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    36.3% (2012)
    6.7% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    1.97 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    4.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 97.1% of population
    rural: 82.3% of population
    total: 87.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.9% of population
    rural: 17.7% of population
    total: 12.4% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 91.9% of population
    rural: 91.7% of population
    total: 91.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 8.1% of population
    rural: 8.3% of population
    total: 8.2% of population (2012 est.)
    0.24% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    8,000 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    300 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    13.3% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    2.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    6.8% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.5%
    male: 99.6%
    female: 99.4% (2015 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 13 years (2011)
    total number: 563,920
    percentage: 40.3%
    note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
    total: 14.6%
    male: 13.6%
    female: 16.2% (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
  • Government :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
    conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
    local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
    local short form: Kyrgyzstan
    former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
    republic
    name: Bishkek
    geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
    time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
    31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
    previous 1993; latest adopted 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010 (2010)
    civil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister Temir SARIYEV (since 1 May 2015); First Deputy Prime Minister Tayyrbek SARPASHEV (since 2 April 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers Valeriy DIL (since 2 April 2014), Abdyrakhman MAMATALIEV (since 2 April 2014), Damira NIYAZALIEVA (since 26 December 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; ministers in charge of defense and security are appointed solely by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for one six-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will form a coalition majority and government
    election results: Almazbek ATAMBAEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAEV 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIEV 14.3%, other 7.8%; Temir SARIYEV elected prime minister; parliamentary vote - 97-2
    description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 10 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
    election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ata-Jurt 28, SDPK 26, Ar-Namys 25, Respublika 23, Ata-Meken 18
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
    subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
    Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Feliks KULOV]
    Ata-Jurt (Homeland) [Kamchybek TASHIEV, Akhmat KELDIBEKOV, Sadyr JAPAROV]
    Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]
    Butun Kyrgyzstan (All Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV]
    Respublika [Omurbek BABANOV]
    Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (SDPK) [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]
    Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
    Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
    Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
    Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA]
    Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
    Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
    Union of True Muslims [Nurlan MOTUEV]
    ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kadyr TOKTOGULOV (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822-23
    FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550
    consulate(s): New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Richard MILES
    embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
    FAX: [996] (312) 551-264
    red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
    gyrfalcon; national colors: red, yellow
    name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
    lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV
    note: adopted 1992
  • Economy :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by agriculture and minerals extraction. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and—in some years—electricity. Bishkek remains embroiled in a legal battle with Canadian investors in the Kumtor gold mine, the nation’s largest. Kyrgyzstan has sought foreign investment to develop hydroelectric potential as a source of export revenue. The economy also depends heavily on remittances from Kyrgyzstani migrant workers, primarily in Russia. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly carried out market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has sold much of its ownership shares in enterprises. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995, production began to recover and exports began to increase. The overthrow of President BAKIEV in April 2010 and subsequent ethnic clashes left hundreds dead and damaged infrastructure. Under President ATAMBAEV, Kyrgyzstan has developed a plan for economic development in coordination with international donors. In December 2014 Kyrgyzstan agreed to join the Eurasian Economic Union in early 2015. The keys to future growth include progress in fighting corruption, improving administrative transparency, restructuring domestic industry, and attracting foreign aid and investment.
    $19.16 billion (2014 est.)
    $18.49 billion (2013 est.)
    $16.73 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $7.402 billion (2014 est.)
    3.6% (2014 est.)
    10.5% (2013 est.)
    -0.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $3,400 (2014 est.)
    $3,200 (2013 est.)
    $2,900 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 181
    13.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    11.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    10.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    household consumption: 103.2%
    government consumption: 16.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 29.1%
    investment in inventories: 1.8%
    exports of goods and services: 48.1%
    imports of goods and services: -98.8%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 19.3%
    industry: 31.1%
    services: 49.6% (2014 est.)
    tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
    small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
    6.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    2.615 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    agriculture: 48%
    industry: 12.5%
    services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
    7.6% (2014 est.)
    18% (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    33.7% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 27.8% (2009 est.)
    33.4 (2007)
    29 (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    revenues: $2.036 billion
    expenditures: $2.214 billion (2014 est.)
    26.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    -2.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    calendar year
    7.5% (2014 est.)
    6.6% (2013 est.)
    13.73% (22 December 2011)
    2.5% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    24% (31 December 2014 est.)
    20.93% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    $1.563 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.474 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $2.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.847 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    $1.152 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.052 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    $165 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $165 million (31 December 2011)
    $79 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    -$1.013 billion (2014 est.)
    -$1.771 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $2.009 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.048 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat, tobacco; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
    Kazakhstan 28.2%, Uzbekistan 28%, Russia 11.1%, UAE 6.9%, Afghanistan 5.6%, China 5% (2013)
    $5.537 billion (2014 est.)
    $5.614 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
    China 51.9%, Russia 21.2%, Kazakhstan 7.8% (2013)
    $2.184 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.238 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    $6.819 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.376 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    $3.337 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.017 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    $748.4 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $748.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    soms (KGS) per US dollar -
    52.66 (2014 est.)
    48.438 (2013 est.)
    47.01 (2012 est.)
    46.144 (2011 est.)
    45.964 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • 14.96 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    8.851 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    2.795 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    0 kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    3.766 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    21.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    78.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    1,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    40 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    35,090 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    2,433 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    35,040 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    8.666 million cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    428.7 million cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    420 million cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    9.278 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
  • Communications :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • 489,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    6.8 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links
    domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership was about 115 per 100 persons in 2011
    international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2011)
    state-run TV broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations (2007)
    AM 3 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 23, shortwave 2 (2009)
    8 (2 countrywide and 6 regional stations; state-owned); note - there are about 20 private TV stations, most of which rebroadcast other channels (2007)
    .kg
    115,573 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    2.195 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 72
  • Transportation :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • 28 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    total: 18
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 10
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m:
    8 (2013)
    gas 480 km; oil 16 km (2013)
    total: 470 km
    broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    total: 34,000 km (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    600 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    lake port(s): Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)(Lake Ysyk-Kol)
  • Military :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • Ground Forces, Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces) (2013)
    18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the callup mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2013)
    males age 16-49: 1,456,881
    females age 16-49: 1,470,317 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,119,224
    females age 16-49: 1,257,263 (2010 est.)
    male: 56,606
    female: 54,056 (2010 est.)
    NA% (2012)
    3.74% of GDP (2011)
    NA% (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: KYRGYZSTAN

  • Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas
    stateless persons: 12,133 (2014); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgystan, have lived there many years, or are married to a Kyrgyz citizen; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates
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