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Central Asia :: Kazakhstan
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  • Introduction :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70 percent Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; managing Islamic revivalism; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness; developing a multiparty parliament and advancing political and social reform; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.
  • Geography :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural (Zhayyq) River in eastern-most Europe
    48 00 N, 68 00 E
    total: 2,724,900 sq km
    land: 2,699,700 sq km
    water: 25,200 sq km
    slightly less than four times the size of Texas
    total: 13,364 km
    border countries (5): China 1,765 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,212 km, Russia 7,644 km, Turkmenistan 413 km, Uzbekistan 2,330 km
    0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
    none (landlocked)
    continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
    vast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south
    lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
    highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
    major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
    agricultural land: 77.4%
    arable land 8.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5%
    forest: 1.2%
    other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
    20,660 sq km (2010)
    107.5 cu km (2011)
    total: 21.14 cu km/yr (4%/30%/66%)
    per capita: 1,304 cu m/yr (2010)
    earthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty
    radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
    world's largest landlocked country; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050
  • People and Society :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • noun: Kazakhstani(s)
    adjective: Kazakhstani
    Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.9%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.4% (2009 est.)
    Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)
    Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)
    17,948,816 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 25.1% (male 2,247,628/female 2,254,744)
    15-24 years: 16.1% (male 1,469,275/female 1,418,175)
    25-54 years: 42.6% (male 3,720,498/female 3,927,626)
    55-64 years: 9.2% (male 724,683/female 935,416)
    65 years and over: 7% (male 429,565/female 821,206) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 48.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 38.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 10%
    potential support ratio: 10% (2014 est.)
    total: 29.7 years
    male: 28.4 years
    female: 31.1 years (2014 est.)
    1.17% (2014 est.)
    19.61 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    8.31 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 53.3% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Almaty 1.51 million; ASTANA (capital) 741,000 (2014)
    at birth: 0.94 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    25 (2011 est.)
    26 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 21.61 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 24.34 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 19.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 70.24 years
    male: 64.98 years
    female: 75.17 years (2014 est.)
    2.34 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    51% (2010/11)
    4.3% of GDP (2013)
    3.62 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    7.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    urban: 99.2% of population
    rural: 86% of population
    total: 93.1% of population
    urban: 0.8% of population
    rural: 14% of population
    total: 6.9% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 97% of population
    rural: 98% of population
    total: 97.5% of population
    urban: 3% of population
    rural: 2% of population
    total: 2.5% of population (2012 est.)
    23.5% (2014)
    3.7% (2011)
    3.1% of GDP (2009)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 15 years (2012)
    total number: 59,254
    percentage: 2% (2006 est.)
    total: 3.9%
    male: 2.9%
    female: 5.1% (2012 est.)
  • Government :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
    conventional short form: Kazakhstan
    local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
    local short form: Qazaqstan
    former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
    republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
    name: Astana
    geographic coordinates: 51 10 N, 71 25 E
    time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    note: Kazakhstan has two time zones
    14 provinces (oblystar, singular - oblys) and 3 cities* (qalalar, singular - qala); Almaty, Almaty*, Aqmola (Astana), Aqtobe, Astana*, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan [West Kazakhstan] (Oral), Bayqongyr [Baykonur]*, Mangghystau (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan [South Kazakhstan] (Shymkent), Pavlodar, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Shyghys Qazaqstan [East Kazakhstan] (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan [North Kazakhstan] (Petropavlovsk), Zhambyl (Taraz)
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995, the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonur, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050
    16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 16 December (1991)
    previous 1937, 1978 (preindependence); latest adopted 28 January 1993, approved by referendum 30 August 1995, effective 5 September 1995; amended 1998, 2007, 2011 (2012)
    civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and by the theory and practice of the Russian Federation
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)
    head of government: Prime Minister Karim MASIMOV (since 2 April 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Bakytzhan SAGINTAYEV (since 16 January 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Berdibek SAPARBAYEV (since November 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 26 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president, with Mazhilis approval; note - constitutional amendments of May 2007 shortened the presidential term from seven years to five years and established a two-consecutive-term limit; NAZARBAYEV has official status as the "First President of Kazakhstan" and is allowed unlimited terms
    note: constitutional amendments of February 2011 moved election date from 2012 to April 2011 but kept five-year term; the subsequent election due to take place in 2016 was moved up to April 2015
    election results: Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV 97.7%, other 2.3%
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 32 members indirectly elected by majority two-round vote by the oblast-level assemblies and 15 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms, with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 98 members directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 9 indirectly elected by the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan, a 350-member, presidentially appointed advisory body designed to represent the country's ethnic minorities)
    elections: Senate - (indirect) last held in 2014 (next to be held in 2017); Mazhilis - last held on 15 January 2012 (next to be held by November 2016)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nur Otan 16; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Nur-Otan 81%, Ak Zhol 7.5%, Communist People's Party 7.2%, other 4.3%; seats by party - Nur-Otan 83, Ak Zhol 8, Communist People's Party 7
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Republic (consists of 44 members); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the president of the republic on recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, and confirmed by the Senate; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council - the president of the republic, the Senate chairperson, the Majilis chairperson each appoints one member for a 3-year term and each appoints one member for a 6-year term; chairperson of the Constitutional Council appointed by the president of the republic for a 6-year term
    subordinate courts: regional and local courts
    Ak Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Azat PERUASHEV]
    Alga [Vladimir KOZLOV] (unregistered and banned as extremist in November 2012)
    Auyl (Village) [Gani KALIYEV]
    Azat (Freedom) Party [Bolat ABILOV] (formerly True Ak Zhol Party)
    Birlik (Unity) [Seril SULTANGALI] (Birlik is an April 2013 merger of Adilet (Justice; formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan) and Rukhaniyat (Spirituality))
    NSDP [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]
    Communist Party of Kazakhstan or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN] (suspended by court decision)
    Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]
    National Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]
    Nur Otan (Fatherland's Ray of Light) [Nursultan NAZARBAYEV, Nurlan NIGMATULIN] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan)
    Patriots' Party [Gani KASYMOV]
    Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]
    Almaty Helsinki Committee [Ninel FOKINA]
    Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]
    For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]
    Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Chairman of Bureau's Council, Roza AKYLBEKOVA, director]
    Khalyk Maidany (Peoples' Front) - an informal union between the unregistered Alga Party, the unregistered Communist Party of Kazakhstan, and several opposition-oriented civil society groups, banned in November 2012 [no formal leader]
    Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazakhstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]
    Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]
    Republican Network of International Monitors [Daniyar LIVAZOV]
    Transparency International [Sergey ZLOTNIKOV]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kayrat UMAROV (since 14 January 2013)
    chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador George KROL (since 18 March 2015)
    embassy: Rakhymzhan Koshkarbayev Ave. No 3, Astana 010010
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [7] (7172) 70-21-00
    FAX: [7] (7172) 54-09-14
    Consulate(s) General: Almaty
    a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future; blue and yellow are the national colors
    golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow
    name: "Menin Qazaqstanim" (My Kazakhstan)
    lyrics/music: Zhumeken NAZHIMEDENOV and Nursultan NAZARBAYEV/Shamshi KALDAYAKOV
    note: adopted 2006; President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV played a role in revising the lyrics
  • Economy :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses substantial fossil fuel reserves and other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit rating. Extractive industries have been and will continue to be the engine of Kazakhstan's growth, although the country is seriously pursuing diversification strategies. Kazakhstan is landlocked, with restricted access to the high seas, Although its Caspian Sea ports, pipelines, and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded, civil aviation and roadways continue to need attention. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic because of regional dependencies, but the country is moving forward with plans to improve reliability of electricity and gas supply to its population. The government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries. Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification program, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing. In 2010 Kazakhstan joined the Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade relationships. The Customs Union evolved into the Eurasian Economic Union in January 2015. During 2014, Kazakhstan’s economy was hampered by Russia’s slowing economy, the weakening ruble, falling oil prices, and problems at its Kashagan oil field. Kazakhstan devalued its currency, the tenge, by 19% in February and in November the government announced a stimulus package to cope with the economic challenges.
    $420.6 billion (2014 est.)
    $402.1 billion (2013 est.)
    $379.3 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $225.6 billion (2014 est.)
    4.6% (2014 est.)
    6% (2013 est.)
    5% (2012 est.)
    $24,100 (2014 est.)
    $23,400 (2013 est.)
    $22,400 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 75
    28.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    27% of GDP (2013 est.)
    26.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 47.7%
    government consumption: 10.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.3%
    investment in inventories: 3.7%
    exports of goods and services: 40.8%
    imports of goods and services: -27%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 4.9%
    industry: 29.5%
    services: 65.6% (2014 est.)
    grain (mostly spring wheat and barley), potatoes, vegetables, melons; livestock
    oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
    0.3% (2014 est.)
    9.103 million (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 25.8%
    industry: 11.9%
    services: 62.3% (2012 est.)
    5.1% (2014 est.)
    5.2% (2013 est.)
    5.3% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.9%
    highest 10%: 23.7% (2011 est.)
    28.9 (2011)
    31.5 (2003)
    revenues: $42.02 billion
    expenditures: $45.7 billion (2014 est.)
    18.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -1.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    12.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    13.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    calendar year
    6.7% (2014 est.)
    5.8% (2013 est.)
    5.5% (31 December 2012)
    7.5% (31 December 2011)
    6.9% (31 December 2014 est.)
    6.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $20.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $22.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $52.89 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $56.49 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $88.98 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $89.74 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $23.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $43.3 billion (31 December 2011)
    $60.74 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $7.12 billion (2014 est.)
    $1.122 billion (2013 est.)
    $87.25 billion (2014 est.)
    $85.6 billion (2013 est.)
    oil and oil products, natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat, coal
    China 22.7%, France 9.7%, Russia 8%, Germany 7.9%, Italy 6.9%, Ukraine 4.2% (2013)
    $47.56 billion (2014 est.)
    $50.8 billion (2013 est.)
    machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
    China 30.6%, Russia 20.5%, Ukraine 6.8%, Germany 6.2% (2013)
    $27.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $24.68 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $163.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $150.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $141.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $129.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $32.12 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $29.12 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    tenge (KZT) per US dollar -
    179.3 (2014 est.)
    152.13 (2013 est.)
    149.11 (2012 est.)
    146.62 (2011 est.)
    147.36 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • 90.53 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    76.21 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    1.809 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    2.6 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    18.75 million kW (2011 est.)
    88.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    11.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    1.655 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    1.406 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
    119,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    30 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    288,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    258,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    149,800 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    94,430 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    11.79 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    10.95 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    11.37 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    10.53 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    2.407 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    224.2 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • 4.34 million (2012)
    28.731 million (2012)
    general assessment: inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization
    domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is gradually increasing and fixed-line teledensity now roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage has increased rapidly and the subscriber base now exceeds 140 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (2008)
    state owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; nearly all nationwide TV networks are wholly or partly owned by the government; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operate along with state-run radio stations; recent legislation requires all media outlets to register with the government and all TV providers to broadcast in digital format by 2018 (2015)
    AM 60, FM 18, shortwave 9 (2008)
    12 (plus 9 repeaters) (1998)
    67,464 (2012)
    5.299 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • 96 (2013)
    total: 63
    over 3,047 m: 10
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    total: 33
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m:
    13 (2013)
    3 (2013)
    condensate 658 km; gas 12,432 km; oil 11,313 km; refined products 1,095 km; water 1,465 km (2013)
    total: 15,333 km
    broad gauge: 15,333 km 1.520-m gauge (4,000 km electrified) (2012)
    total: 97,418 km
    paved: 87,140 km
    unpaved: 10,278 km (2012)
    4,000 km (on the Ertis (Irtysh) River (80%) and Syr Darya (Syrdariya) River) (2010)
    total: 11
    by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 3 (Austria 1, Ireland 1, Turkey 1) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Caspian Sea - Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    river port(s): Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk) (Irtysh River)
  • Military :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Kazakhstan Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Mobile Forces, Air Defense Forces (2013)
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 2 years, but Kazakhstan may be transitioning to a contract force; 19 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; military cadets in intermediate (ages 15-17) and higher (ages 17-21) education institutes are classified as military service personnel (2012)
    males age 16-49: 4,163,629
    females age 16-49: 4,179,051 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 2,909,999
    females age 16-49: 3,528,169 (2010 est.)
    male: 125,322
    female: 119,541 (2010 est.)
    1.21% of GDP (2012)
    0.97% of GDP (2011)
    1.21% of GDP (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries commenced with Uzbekistan in 2004 and with Turkmenistan in 2005; ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea
    stateless persons: 7,038 (2014)
    significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates