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Central Asia :: Kazakhstan
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Kazakhstan
  • Introduction :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70 percent Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; managing Islamic revivalism; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness; developing a multiparty parliament and advancing political and social reform; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.
  • Geography :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural (Zhayyq) River in easternmost Europe
    48 00 N, 68 00 E
    Asia
    total: 2,724,900 sq km
    land: 2,699,700 sq km
    water: 25,200 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 9
    slightly less than four times the size of Texas
    Area comparison map:
    total: 13,364 km
    border countries (5): China 1,765 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,212 km, Russia 7,644 km, Turkmenistan 413 km, Uzbekistan 2,330 km
    0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
    none (landlocked)
    continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
    vast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south
    mean elevation: 387 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
    highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
    major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
    agricultural land: 77.4%
    arable land 8.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5%
    forest: 1.2%
    other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
    20,660 sq km (2012)
    107.5 cu km (2011)
    total: 21.14 cu km/yr (4%/30%/66%)
    per capita: 1,304 cu m/yr (2010)
    earthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty
    radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
    world's largest landlocked country; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050
  • People and Society :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • noun: Kazakhstani(s)
    adjective: Kazakhstani
    Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.9%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.4% (2009 est.)
    Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 74% (understand spoken language), Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
    Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)
    18,157,122 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    0-14 years: 25.41% (male 2,294,513/female 2,319,233)
    15-24 years: 15.33% (male 1,417,344/female 1,366,655)
    25-54 years: 42.59% (male 3,768,418/female 3,965,188)
    55-64 years: 9.49% (male 753,011/female 970,569)
    65 years and over: 7.17% (male 448,857/female 853,334) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 50.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 40.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.1%
    potential support ratio: 9.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 30 years
    male: 28.7 years
    female: 31.3 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    1.14% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    19.15 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    8.21 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    urban population: 53.2% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Almaty 1.523 million; ASTANA (capital) 759,000 (2015)
    at birth: 0.94 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    25 (2011 est.)
    12 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    total: 20.92 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 23.63 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 18.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    total population: 70.55 years
    male: 65.3 years
    female: 75.46 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    2.31 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    51% (2010/11)
    4.3% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    3.62 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    7.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 99.4% of population
    rural: 85.6% of population
    total: 92.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.6% of population
    rural: 14.4% of population
    total: 7.1% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 97% of population
    rural: 98.1% of population
    total: 97.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3% of population
    rural: 1.9% of population
    total: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
    0.19% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    20,300 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    500 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    23.5% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    3.7% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    3.1% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 15 years (2012)
    total number: 59,254
    percentage: 2% (2006 est.)
    total: 3.9%
    male: 2.9%
    female: 5.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
  • Government :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
    conventional short form: Kazakhstan
    local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
    local short form: Qazaqstan
    former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: the name "Kazakh" derives from the Turkic word "kaz" meaning "to wander," recalling the Kazakh's nomadic lifestyle; the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Kazakhstan literally means "Land of the wanderers"
    presidential republic
    name: Astana
    geographic coordinates: 51 10 N, 71 25 E
    time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    note: Kazakhstan has two time zones
    14 provinces (oblystar, singular - oblys) and 3 cities* (qalalar, singular - qala); Almaty (Taldyqorghan), Almaty*, Aqmola (Kokshetau), Aqtobe, Astana*, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan [West Kazakhstan] (Oral), Bayqongyr [Baykonur]*, Mangghystau (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan [South Kazakhstan] (Shymkent), Pavlodar, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Shyghys Qazaqstan [East Kazakhstan] (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan [North Kazakhstan] (Petropavl), Zhambyl (Taraz)
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995, the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonur, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050
    16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 16 December (1991)
    previous 1937, 1978 (preindependence); latest adopted 28 January 1993, approved by referendum 30 August 1995, effective 5 September 1995; amended several times, last in 2011 (2016)
    civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and by the theory and practice of the Russian Federation
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kazakhstan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)
    head of government: Prime Minister Karim MASIMOV (since 2 April 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Bakytzhan SAGINTAYEV (since 16 January 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Dariga NAZARBAYEVA (since September 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the Mazhilis; note - constitutional amendments in May 2007 shortened the presidential term from 7 to 5 years and established a 2-consecutive-term limit; NAZARBAYEV has official status as the "First President of Kazakhstan" and is allowed unlimited terms
    election results: Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV (Nur Otan) 97.8%, other 2.2%
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 32 members indirectly elected by majority two-round vote by the oblast-level assemblies and 15 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms, with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 98 members directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 9 indirectly elected by the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan, a 350-member, presidentially appointed advisory body designed to represent the country's ethnic minorities)
    elections: Senate - last held on 1 October 2014 (next to be held in 2017); Mazhilis - last held on 20 March 2016 (next to be held by 2021)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nur Otan 16; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Nur Otan 82.2%, Ak Zhol 7.2%, Communist People's Party 7.1%, other 3.5%; seats by party - Nur Otan 84, Ak Zhol 7, Communist People's Party 7
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Republic (consists of 44 members); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the president of the republic on recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, and confirmed by the Senate; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council - the president of the republic, the Senate chairperson, the Majilis chairperson each appoints 1 member for a 3-year term and each appoints 1 member for a 6-year term; chairperson of the Constitutional Council appointed by the president of the republic for a 6-year term
    subordinate courts: regional and local courts
    Ak Zhol (Bright Path) Party or Democratic Party of Kazakhstan Ak Zhol [Azat PERUASHEV]
    Auyl National Patriotic Party [Ali BEKTAYEV] (Auyl is a September 2015 merger of the Patriots’ Party and the Auyl Social Democratic Party)
    Birlik (Unity) [Seril SULTANGALI] (Birlik is an April 2013 merger of Adilet (Justice; formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan) and Rukhaniyat (Spirituality))
    Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]
    National Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]
    Nur Otan (Radiant Fatherland) Democratic People's Party [Nursultan NAZARBAYEV] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan)
    Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]
    Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Larissa KHARKOVA]
    Foundation for Support of Civil Initiatives [Nurul RAKHIMBEK]
    International Legal Initiative [Aina SHORMANBAYEVA]
    Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Chairman of Bureau's Council, Roza AKYLBEKOVA, director]
    Legal Media Centre (sometimes known as the North Kazakhstan Legal Media Centre) [Diana OKREMOVA]
    Public Foundation for Parliamentary Development [Zauresh BATTALOVA]
    Republican Network of International Monitors [Daniyar LIVAZOV]
    Transparency International [Sergey ZLOTNIKOV]
    ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kayrat UMAROV (since 14 January 2013)
    chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador George KROL (since 18 March 2015)
    embassy: Rakhymzhan Koshkarbayev Ave. No 3, Astana 010010
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [7] (7172) 70-21-00
    FAX: [7] (7172) 54-09-14
    Consulate(s) General: Almaty
    a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future; blue and yellow are the national colors
    golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow
    name: "Menin Qazaqstanim" (My Kazakhstan)
    lyrics/music: Zhumeken NAZHIMEDENOV and Nursultan NAZARBAYEV/Shamshi KALDAYAKOV
    note: adopted 2006; President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV played a role in revising the lyrics
  • Economy :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses substantial fossil fuel reserves and other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. The government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries and has embarked on an ambitious diversification program, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing.
    Kazakhstan's vast hydrocarbon and mineral reserves form the backbone of its economy. Kazakhstan is landlocked and depends on Russia to export its oil to Europe. In 2010, Kazakhstan joined Russia and Belarus to establish a Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade. The Customs Union evolved into a Single Economic Space in 2012 and the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) in January 2015.
    The economic downturn of its EEU partner, Russia, and the decline in global commodity prices have contributed to an economic slowdown in Kazakhstan, which is experiencing its slowest economic growth since the financial crises of 2008-09. Kazakhstan devalued its currency, the tenge, by 19% in February 2014, and in November 2014, the government announced a stimulus package to cope with its economic challenges. In spring 2015, Kazakhstan embarked on an ambitious reform agenda to modernize its economy and improve its institutions. In the face of further decline in the ruble, oil prices, and the regional economic slowdown, Kazakhstan announced in August 2015 that it would cancel its currency band in favor of a floating exchange rate that sparked further devaluation of the tenge. In 2015, Kazakhstan's president signed into law a new Entrepreneurial Code and a new Labor Code, both aimed at improving the business environment. Despite some positive institutional and legislative changes, investors remain concerned about corruption, bureaucracy, and arbitrary law enforcement, especially at the regional and municipal levels.
    $429.1 billion (2015 est.)
    $424.2 billion (2014 est.)
    $406.7 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 43
    $173.2 billion (2015 est.)
    1.2% (2015 est.)
    4.3% (2014 est.)
    6% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    $24,300 (2015 est.)
    $24,300 (2014 est.)
    $23,700 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 78
    24.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    27% of GDP (2014 est.)
    24.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    household consumption: 56.1%
    government consumption: 13.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 24%
    investment in inventories: 1.2%
    exports of goods and services: 30.9%
    imports of goods and services: -25.9% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 4.8%
    industry: 35.3%
    services: 59.9% (2015 est.)
    grain (mostly spring wheat and barley), potatoes, vegetables, melons; livestock
    oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
    0.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    8.965 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    agriculture: 25.8%
    industry: 11.9%
    services: 62.3% (2012 est.)
    5% (2015 est.)
    5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    5.3% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.9%
    highest 10%: 23.7% (2011 est.)
    28.9 (2011)
    31.5 (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    revenues: $34.1 billion
    expenditures: $38.08 billion (2015 est.)
    17.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    -2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    17.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    15.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    calendar year
    6.5% (2015 est.)
    6.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    16% (31 December 2015)
    5.5% (31 December 2014)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    10.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
    7.24% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    $9.802 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $16.35 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    $52.89 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $56.49 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $50.51 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $78.46 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $23.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $43.3 billion (31 December 2011)
    $60.74 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    -$4.5 billion (2015 est.)
    $5.994 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    $45.37 billion (2015 est.)
    $80.28 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    oil and oil products, natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat, coal
    China 15.9%, Russia 12.1%, Germany 9.5%, France 8.5%, Italy 5.3%, Greece 5.3%, Romania 5% (2014)
    $31.64 billion (2015 est.)
    $43.58 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
    Russia 32.2%, China 29%, Germany 5% (2014)
    $29.31 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $28.92 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    $157.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $149.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    $142.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $136.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    $33.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $31.46 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    tenge (KZT) per US dollar -
    214.1 (2015 est.)
    179.19 (2014 est.)
    179.19 (2013 est.)
    149.11 (2012 est.)
    146.62 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • 90.53 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    80.29 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    2.933 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    4.252 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    17.84 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    87.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    12.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    1.632 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    1.365 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    118,400 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    30 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    294,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    248,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    142,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    51,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    20.4 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    15.7 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    11.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    6.5 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    2.407 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    224.2 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
  • Communications :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • total subscriptions: 4.34 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    total: 28 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    general assessment: inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization
    domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is gradually increasing and fixed-line teledensity now roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage has increased rapidly and the subscriber base now exceeds 140 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (2008)
    state owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; nearly all nationwide TV networks are wholly or partly owned by the government; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operate along with state-run radio stations; recent legislation requires all media outlets to register with the government and all TV providers to broadcast in digital format by 2018 (2015)
    AM 60, FM 18, shortwave 9 (2008)
    12 (plus 9 repeaters) (1998)
    .kz
    67,464 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    total: 10.6 million
    percent of population: 59.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
  • Transportation :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • 96 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    total: 63
    over 3,047 m: 10
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    total: 33
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 13 (2013)
    3 (2013)
    condensate 658 km; gas 12,432 km; oil 11,313 km; refined products 1,095 km; water 1,465 km (2013)
    total: 14,184 km
    broad gauge: 14,184 km 1.520-m gauge (4,056 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    total: 97,418 km
    paved: 87,140 km
    unpaved: 10,278 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    4,000 km (on the Ertis (Irtysh) River (80%) and Syr Darya (Syrdariya) River) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    total: 11
    by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 3 (Austria 1, Ireland 1, Turkey 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    major seaport(s): Caspian Sea - Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    river port(s): Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk) (Irtysh River)
  • Military and Security :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Kazakhstan Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Mobile Forces, Air Defense Forces (2013)
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 2 years, but Kazakhstan may be transitioning to a contract force; 19 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; military cadets in intermediate (ages 15-17) and higher (ages 17-21) education institutes are classified as military service personnel (2012)
    1.21% of GDP (2012)
    0.97% of GDP (2011)
    1.21% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 81
  • Transnational Issues :: KAZAKHSTAN

  • Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries commenced with Uzbekistan in 2004 and with Turkmenistan in 2005; ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea
    stateless persons: 7,038 (2014)
    significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates
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