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Middle East :: Lebanon
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Lebanon
  • Introduction :: LEBANON

  • Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French demarcated the region of Lebanon in 1920 and granted this area independence in 1943. Since independence the country has been marked by periods of political turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on its position as a regional center for finance and trade. The country's 1975-90 civil war that resulted in an estimated 120,000 fatalities, was followed by years of social and political instability. Sectarianism is a key element of Lebanese political life. Neighboring Syria has historically influenced Lebanon's foreign policy and internal policies, and its military occupied Lebanon from 1976 until 2005. The Lebanon-based Hizballah militia and Israel continued attacks and counterattacks against each other after Syria's withdrawal, and fought a brief war in 2006. Lebanon's borders with Syria and Israel remain unresolved.
  • Geography :: LEBANON

  • Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
    33 50 N, 35 50 E
    Middle East
    total: 10,400 sq km
    land: 10,230 sq km
    water: 170 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 170
    about one-third the size of Maryland
    Area comparison map:
    total: 484 km
    border countries (2): Israel 81 km, Syria 403 km
    225 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
    narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Qornet es Saouda 3,088 m
    limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
    arable land: 20.23%
    permanent crops: 12.32%
    other: 67.45% (2012 est.)
    1,040 sq km (2003)
    4.5 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.31 cu km/yr (29%/11%/60%)
    per capita: 316.8 cu m/yr (2005)
    dust storms, sandstorms
    deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
    smallest country in continental Asia; Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
  • People and Society :: LEBANON

  • noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Lebanese
    Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
    note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
    Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
    Muslim 54% (27% Sunni, 27% Shia), Christian 40.5% (includes 21% Maronite Catholic, 8% Greek Orthodox, 5% Greek Catholic, 6.5% other Christian), Druze 5.6%, very small numbers of Jews, Baha'is, Buddhists, Hindus, and Mormons
    note: 18 religious sects recognized (2012 est.)
    5,882,562 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0-14 years: 25.2% (male 758,153/female 723,619)
    15-24 years: 17.2% (male 515,591/female 493,879)
    25-54 years: 44.1% (male 1,309,544/female 1,283,074)
    55-64 years: 6.9% (male 185,503/female 219,242)
    65 years and over: 6.7% (male 175,911/female 218,046) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 40.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 28.3%
    elderly dependency ratio: 12.3%
    potential support ratio: 8.1% (2014 est.)
    total: 29.3 years
    male: 28.7 years
    female: 29.8 years (2014 est.)
    9.37% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    14.8 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    4.95 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    83.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    urban population: 87.7% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 3.18% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BEIRUT (capital) 2.179 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    25 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    total: 7.98 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 7.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    total population: 77.22 years
    male: 76.03 years
    female: 78.46 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    1.74 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    7.3% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    3.2 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    3.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 87% of population
    total: 98.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 13% of population
    total: 1.7% of population (2005 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    27.4% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    4.2% (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    2.2% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 89.6%
    male: 93.4%
    female: 86% (2007 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2012)
    total number: 54,387
    percentage: 7% (2000 est.)
    total: 16.8%
    male: 14.6%
    female: 22.3% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
  • Government :: LEBANON

  • conventional long form: Lebanese Republic
    conventional short form: Lebanon
    local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
    local short form: Lubnan
    former: Greater Lebanon
    republic
    name: Beirut
    geographic coordinates: 33 52 N, 35 30 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    6 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Beqaa, Beyrouth (Beirut), Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye
    note: two new governorates - Aakkar and Baalbek-Hermel - have been legislated but not yet implemented
    22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
    Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
    drafted 15 May 1926, adopted 23 May 1926; amended several times, last in 2004 (2015)
    mixed legal system of civil law based on the French civil code, Ottoman legal tradition, and religious laws covering personal status, marriage, divorce, and other family relations of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian communities
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education; excludes military personnel
    chief of state: President (vacant); note - President Michel SULAYMAN's term expired on 25 May 2014; the prime minister and his cabinet are temporarily assuming the duties of the president; the National Assembly on 11 March 2015 failed - due to a non quorum - to elect a president; next vote scheduled for 2 April
    head of government: Prime Minister Tamam SALAM (since 6 April 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Samir MOQBIL (since 7 July 2011)
    cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and members of the National Assembly
    elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); first round of election held on 23 April 2014 (next to be held NA); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly
    election results: 23 April 2014 first round parliamentary vote - Samir GEAGEA 48, Henri HELOU 16, Amine GEMAYEL 1; note - 86 out of a possible 128 votes (absolute majority) required to win election; subsequent rounds have failed because there was no quorum; latest round scheduled for 22 April 2015
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Nuwab in Arabic or Assemblee Nationale in French (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - seats are apportioned among the Christian and Muslim denominations
    elections: last held on 7 June 2009 (next delayed until 16 November 2014)
    election results: percent of vote by group - March 8 Coalition 54.7%, March 14 Coalition 45.3%; seats by group - March 14 Coalition 71; March 8 Coalition 57; seats by party following 16 July 2012 byelection held to fill one seat - March 14 Coalition 72, March 8 Coalition 56
    highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (organized into 4 divisions, each with a presiding judge and 2 associate judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 10 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by Supreme Judicial Council, headed by the chief justice, and includes other judicial officials; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the Council of Ministers and 5 by parliament; members serve 5-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (6); Courts of First Instance; specialized tribunals, religious courts; military courts
    14 March Coalition:
    Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH]
    Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD]
    Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad al-HARIRI]
    Kataeb Party [Amine GEMAYEL]
    Lebanese Forces [Samir JA'JA]
    Tripoli Independent Bloc
    8 March Coalition:
    Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, leader of Amal Movement]
    Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN]
    Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc [Mohammad RA'AD] (includes Hizballah [Hassan NASRALLAH])
    Nasserite Popular Movement [Usama SAAD]
    Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF]
    Syrian Ba'th Party [Sayez SHUKR]
    Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO]
    Tashnaq [Hovig MEKHITIRIAN]
    Independent:
    Democratic Gathering Bloc [Walid JUNBLATT, leader of Progressive Socialist Party]
    Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]
    Maronite Church [Patriarch Bishara al-Ra'i]
    note: most sects retain militias and a number of militant groups operate in Palestinian refugee camps
    ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine CHEDID (since 4 June 2008)
    chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 939-6300
    FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324
    consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, Los Angeles
    chief of mission: Ambassador David HALE (since 6 September 2013)
    embassy: Awkar, Lebanon (Awkar facing the Municipality)
    mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Lebanon; from US: US Embassy Beirut, 6070 Beirut Place, Washington, DC 20521-6070
    telephone: [961] (4) 542600, 543600
    FAX: [961] (4) 544136
    three horizontal bands consisting of red (top), white (middle, double width), and red (bottom) with a green cedar tree centered in the white band; the red bands symbolize blood shed for liberation, the white band denotes peace, the snow of the mountains, and purity; the green cedar tree is the symbol of Lebanon and represents eternity, steadiness, happiness, and prosperity
    cedar tree; national colors: red, white, green
    name: "Kulluna lil-watan" (All Of Us, For Our Country!)
    lyrics/music: Rachid NAKHLE/Wadih SABRA
    note: adopted 1927; chosen following a nationwide competition
  • Economy :: LEBANON

  • Lebanon has a free-market economy and a strong laissez-faire commercial tradition. The government does not restrict foreign investment; however, the investment climate suffers from red tape, corruption, arbitrary licensing decisions, complex customs procedures, high taxes, tariffs, and fees, archaic legislation, and weak intellectual property rights. The Lebanese economy is service-oriented; main growth sectors include banking and tourism. The 1975-90 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and derailed Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Following the civil war, Lebanon rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure by borrowing heavily, mostly from domestic banks, which saddled the government with a huge debt burden. Pledges of economic and financial reforms made at separate international donor conferences during the 2000s have mostly gone unfulfilled, including those made during the Paris III Donor Conference in 2007, following the July 2006 war. Spillover from the Syrian conflict, including the influx of more than 1 million Syrian refugees, has increased internal tension and slowed economic growth to the 1-2% range in 2011-13, after four years of averaging 8% growth. Syrian refugees have increased the labor supply, but pushed more Lebanese into unemployment. Chronic fiscal deficits have made Lebanon’s debt-to-GDP ratio the third highest in the world; most of the debt is held internally by Lebanese banks. Weak economic growth limits tax revenues, while the largest government expenditures remain debt servicing and transfers to the electricity sector. These limitations constrain other government spending and limit the government’s ability to invest in necessary infrastructure improvements, such as water, electricity, and transportation.
    $80.51 billion (2014 est.)
    $78.7 billion (2013 est.)
    $77.54 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 88
    $47.5 billion (2014 est.)
    2.3% (2014 est.)
    1.5% (2013 est.)
    2.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    $17,900 (2014 est.)
    $17,600 (2013 est.)
    $17,500 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 90
    11.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    11.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    12.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    household consumption: 82.2%
    government consumption: 14.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 30.4%
    investment in inventories: 1%
    exports of goods and services: 15.5%
    imports of goods and services: -43.9%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 6.3%
    industry: 21.1%
    services: 72.6% (2014 est.)
    citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
    banking, tourism, food processing, wine, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating
    4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    1.481 million
    note: does not include as many as 1 million foreign workers (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    agriculture: NA%
    industry: NA%
    services: NA%
    NA%
    28.6% (1999 est.)
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $10.24 billion
    expenditures: $14.89 billion (2014 est.)
    21.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    -9.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    142.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    139.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment
    country comparison to the world: 4
    calendar year
    1.5% (2014 est.)
    5.6% (2013 est.)
    3.5% (31 December 2010)
    10% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    7.2% (31 December 2014 est.)
    7.35% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    $5.12 billion (11 December 2014 est.)
    $5.007 billion (11 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    $48.04 billion (11 December 2014 est.)
    $45.25 billion (11 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    $87.04 billion (30 December 2014 est.)
    $83.21 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $11.22 billion (30 December 2014 est.)
    $10.55 billion (30 December 2013)
    $10.42 billion (28 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    -$4.204 billion (2014 est.)
    -$5.05 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    $4.092 billion (2014 est.)
    $4.93 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    jewelry, base metals, chemicals, consumer goods, fruit and vegetables, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper
    United Arab Emerates 10.8%, Saudi Arabia 9.6%, Iraq 9.3%, South Africa 7.4%, Syria 5.8% (2013)
    $20.08 billion (2014 est.)
    $20.28 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals
    China 11.9%, Italy 8.1%, France 6.7%, United States 6.2%, Germany 5.7% (2013)
    $49.43 billion (30 December 2014 est.)
    $47.85 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    $31.61 billion (30 December 2014 est.)
    $31.56 billion (30 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    $NA
    $NA
    Lebanese pounds (LBP) per US dollar -
    1,507.5 (2014 est.)
    1,507.5 (2013 est.)
    1,507.5 (2012 est.)
    1,507.5 (2011 est.)
    1,507.5 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: LEBANON

  • 15.42 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    14.4 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    840 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    2.313 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    88.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    11.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    104,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    120,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    16.44 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: LEBANON

  • 878,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    4 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    general assessment: repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete
    domestic: two mobile-cellular networks provide good service; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership roughly 100 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 961; submarine cable links to Cyprus, Egypt, and Syria; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean); coaxial cable to Syria (2011)
    7 TV stations, 1 of which is state-owned; more than 30 radio stations, 1 of which is state-owned; satellite and cable TV services available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible through partner stations (2007)
    AM 20, FM 30 (plus about a dozen unlicensed stations operating), shortwave 4 (2009)
    12 (2009)
    .lb
    64,926 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    1 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 96
  • Transportation :: LEBANON

  • 8 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    total: 5
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m:
    1 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 88 km (2013)
    total: 401 km
    standard gauge: 319 km 1.435-m gauge
    narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050-m gauge
    note: rail system unusable because of the damage done during fighting in the 1980s and in 2006 (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    total: 6,970 km (includes 170 km of expressways) (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    total: 29
    by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 7, carrier 17, vehicle carrier 1
    foreign-owned: 2 (Syria 2)
    registered in other countries: 34 (Barbados 2, Cambodia 5, Comoros 2, Egypt 1, Georgia 1, Honduras 2, Liberia 1, Malta 6, Moldova 1, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Sierra Leone 2, Togo 6, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    major seaport(s): Beirut, Tripoli
    container port(s) (TEUs): Beirut (1,034,249)
  • Military :: LEBANON

  • Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF): Lebanese Army ((Al Jaysh al Lubnani) includes Lebanese Navy (Al Quwwat al Bahiriyya al Lubnaniya), Lebanese Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Lubnaniya)) (2013)
    17-30 years of age for voluntary military service; 18-24 years of age for officer candidates; no conscription (2013)
    males age 16-49: 1,081,016
    females age 16-49: 1,115,349 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 920,825
    females age 16-49: 941,806 (2010 est.)
    male: 36,856
    female: 35,121 (2010 est.)
    4.04% of GDP (2012)
    4.06% of GDP (2011)
    4.04% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 11
  • Transnational Issues :: LEBANON

  • lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms area in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force in Lebanon has been in place since 1978
    refugees (country of origin): 449,957 (Palestinian refugees (UNRWA)) (2014); 1,196,560 (Syria) (2015)
    IDPs: at least 20,000 (2007 Lebanese security forces' destruction of Palestinian refugee camp) (2014)
    stateless persons: undetermined (2014); note - tens of thousands of persons are stateless in Lebanon, including many Palestinian refugees and their descendants, Syrian Kurds denaturilzed in Syria in 1962, children born to Lebanese women maried to foreign or stateless men; most babies born to Syrian refugees, and Lebanese children whose births are unregistered
    current situation: Lebanon is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Eastern European women and children are transported through Lebanon for sexual exploitation in other Middle Eastern countries; women from Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Ethiopia, Kenya, Bangladesh, Nepal, Madagascar, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Togo, Cameroon, and Nigeria are recruited by agencies to work in domestic service but are often subject to conditions indicative of forced labor, including the withholding of passports, nonpayment of wages, restricted movement, threats, and abuse; Lebanon’s artiste visa program enabling women to work as dancers for three months in the adult entertainment industry sustains a significant sex trade; anecdotal information indicates some Lebanese children are victims of forced labor, such as street begging and commercial sexual exploitation; Syrian refugee women and children in Lebanon are at increased risked of sex trafficking
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Lebanon does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute a significant effort toward meeting the minimum standards for eliminating human trafficking; in 2013, authorities conducted an increased number of investigations of human trafficking and prosecuted and convicted some trafficking offenders; the government identified and referred some trafficking victims to NGO-run safe houses but did not directly fund protective services; Lebanon’s sponsorship system and the withholding of passports continued to put domestic workers at risk of exploitation (2014)
    cannabis cultivation dramatically reduced to 2,500 hectares in 2002 despite continued significant cannabis consumption; opium poppy cultivation minimal; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and for Middle Eastern consumption; money laundering of drug proceeds fuels concern that extremists are benefiting from drug trafficking
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