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Europe :: Luxembourg
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Luxembourg
  • Introduction :: LUXEMBOURG

  • Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
  • Geography :: LUXEMBOURG

  • Western Europe, between France and Germany
    49 45 N, 6 10 E
    Europe
    total: 2,586 sq km
    land: 2,586 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 179
    slightly smaller than Rhode Island
    total: 327 km
    border countries (3): Belgium 130 km, France 69 km, Germany 128 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
    mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
    lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
    highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
    iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
    arable land: 24.15%
    permanent crops: 0.61%
    other: 75.24% (2012 est.)
    NA
    3.1 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.06 cu km/yr (65%/33%/1%)
    per capita: 135.9 cu m/yr (2010)
    NA
    air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
  • People and Society :: LUXEMBOURG

  • noun: Luxembourger(s)
    adjective: Luxembourg
    Luxembourger 57%, Portuguese 16.1%, French 6.1%, Italian 3.5%, Belgian 3.3%, German 2.4%, British 1.1%, other 10.5%
    note: represents composition by citizenship (2011 est.)
    Luxembourgish (official administrative language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 88.8%, French (official administrative language) 4.2%, Portuguese 2.3%, German (official administrative language) 1.1%, other 3.5% (2011 est.)
    Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)
    520,672 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    0-14 years: 17.9% (male 47,968/female 45,100)
    15-24 years: 12.7% (male 33,657/female 32,212)
    25-54 years: 42.1% (male 109,528/female 109,662)
    55-64 years: 12% (male 31,076/female 31,212)
    65 years and over: 15.4% (male 33,892/female 46,365) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 46.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 25.6%
    elderly dependency ratio: 21%
    potential support ratio: 4.8% (2014 est.)
    total: 39.6 years
    male: 38.5 years
    female: 40.7 years (2014 est.)
    1.12% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    11.75 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    8.53 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    7.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    urban population: 89.9% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 1.71% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    LUXEMBOURG (capital) 107,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    30.2
    note: data are based on events and not on fertility rates (2012 est.)
    11 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    total: 4.28 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 4.32 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    total population: 80.01 years
    male: 76.77 years
    female: 83.46 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    1.77 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    7.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    2.9 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    5.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    24.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 14 years (2012)
    total: 18.8%
    male: 18.9%
    female: 18.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
  • Government :: LUXEMBOURG

  • conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
    conventional short form: Luxembourg
    local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
    local short form: Luxembourg
    constitutional monarchy
    name: Luxembourg
    geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
    1839 (from the Netherlands)
    National Day (birthday of Grand Duke Henri) 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the festivities were shifted to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
    previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1968; amended many times, last in 2008 (2008)
    civil law system
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
    head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Etienne SCHNEIDER (since 4 December 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; the prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
    note: government coalition - DP, LSAP, and the Green Party (first time since 1979 that the CSV is in opposition)
    description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies
    elections: last held on 20 October 2013 (next to be held by June 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 33.7%, LSAP 20.3%, DP 18.3%, Green Party 10.1%, ADR 6.6%, The Left 4.5%, other 6.1%; seats by party - CSV 23, LSAP 13, DP 13, Green Party 6, ADR 3, The Left 2
    highest court(s): Superior Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life
    subordinate courts: district and local tribunals and courts
    Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Jean SCHOOS]
    Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ]
    Democratic Party or DP [Xavier BETTEL]
    Green Party [Francoise FOLMER and Christian KMIOTEK]
    Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Claude HAAGEN]
    The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [Serge URBANY]
    other minor parties
    ABBL (bankers' association) [Yves MAAS]
    ALEBA (financial sector trade union) [Roberto SCOLATI]
    Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers) [Marc FISCH]
    CSL (Chambre des Salaries) [Jean-Claude REDING]
    CGFP (trade union representing civil service) [Romain WOLFF]
    Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers) [Roland KUHN]
    Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce) [Carlo THELEN]
    FEDIL (federation of industrialists) [Nicolas SOISSON]
    Greenpeace (environment protection) [Kumi NAIDOO]
    LCGP (center-right trade union) [Patrick DURY]
    Mouvement Ecologique (environment protection) [Blanche WEBER]
    OGBL (center-left trade union) [Andre ROELTGEN]
    ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jean-Louis WOLZFELD (since 11 September 2012)
    chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171 through 72
    FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
    consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Alison SHORTER-LAWRENCE
    embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
    mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
    telephone: [352] 46-01-23
    FAX: [352] 46-14-01
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)
    lion; national colors: red, white, light blue
    name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)
    lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown
    note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg
  • Economy :: LUXEMBOURG

  • This small, stable, high-income economy has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, machinery and equipment, rubber, automotive components, and other products. The financial sector, which accounts for about 36% of GDP, is the leading sector in the economy. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 39% of its labor force. Luxembourg experienced uneven economic growth in the aftermath of the global economic crisis that began in late 2008. Luxembourg's GDP contracted 3.6% in 2009, rebounded in 2010-12, fell again in 2013, but recovered in 2014. Unemployment has remained below the EU average despite having increased from a historically-low rate of 4% in the 2000s to 7% in 2014. The country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks among the highest in the world and is the highest in the euro zone. Luxembourg has one of the highest current account surpluses as a share of GDP in the euro zone, and it maintains a healthy budgetary position and the lowest public debt levels in the region. Luxembourg has lost some of its advantage as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure. In 2015 the government’s compliance with EU requirements to implement automatic exchange of tax information on savings accounts - thus ending banking secrecy - has depressed banking activity and dampened GDP growth. Likewise, changes to the way EU members are permitted to collect taxes from e-Commerce has cut Luxembourg’s tax revenues, requiring the government to raise additional levies and to reduce some social benefits.
    $50.65 billion (2014 est.)
    $49.33 billion (2013 est.)
    $48.29 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 108
    $63.93 billion (2014 est.)
    2.7% (2014 est.)
    2.1% (2013 est.)
    -0.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $92,400 (2014 est.)
    $91,900 (2013 est.)
    $90,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 2
    23.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    23.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    27.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    household consumption: 31.3%
    government consumption: 17.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.6%
    investment in inventories: 1.6%
    exports of goods and services: 174.5%
    imports of goods and services: -143.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 0.3%
    industry: 12%
    services: 87.7% (2014 est.)
    grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy and livestock products
    banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology
    1.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    253,600
    note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    agriculture: 1.1%
    industry: 20%
    services: 78.9% (2013 est.)
    7.1% (2014 est.)
    6.9% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    NA%
    lowest 10%: 3.5%
    highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
    30.4 (2013 est.)
    26 (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    revenues: $27.95 billion
    expenditures: $27.82 billion (2014 est.)
    43.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    0.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    23.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    23.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 134
    calendar year
    0.8% (2014 est.)
    1.7% (2013 est.)
    0.75% (31 December 2013)
    1.5% (31 December 2010)
    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $209.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $207.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $265.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $276.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    $99.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $101.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    $70.34 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $67.63 billion (31 December 2011)
    $101.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    $2.7 billion (2014 est.)
    $3.161 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    $18.9 billion (2014 est.)
    $16.98 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
    Germany 22.6%, France 15.9%, Belgium 15.8%, Italy 7.3%, Switzerland 4.5% (2013)
    $27.92 billion (2014 est.)
    $25.34 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    commercial aircraft, minerals, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, luxury consumer goods
    Belgium 31.5%, Germany 24.3%, France 10.9%, US 8.3%, China 6.4%, Netherlands 4.6% (2013)
    $963 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    $963 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    $2.935 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $2.084 trillion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    $NA
    $11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $NA
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7489 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: LUXEMBOURG

  • 2.211 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    6.37 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    1.907 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    6.889 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    1.74 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    76.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    5.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    17.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    59,010 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    52 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    56,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    4 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    1.034 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    1.03 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    11.69 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: LUXEMBOURG

  • 266,700 (2012)
    761,300 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
    domestic: fixed line teledensity over 50 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated
    international: country code - 352 (2010)
    Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services to pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available (2008)
    AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
    5 (1999)
    .lu
    250,900 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    424,500 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 118
  • Transportation :: LUXEMBOURG

  • 2 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    total: 1
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 1
    under 914 m:
    1 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 142 km; refined products 27 km (2013)
    total: 275 km
    standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    total: 2,899 km
    paved: 2,899 km (includes 152 km of expressways) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    37 km (on Moselle River) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    total: 49
    by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 3, chemical tanker 20, container 10, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 12
    foreign-owned: 48 (Belgium 11, Denmark 1, France 15, Germany 9, Japan 3, Netherlands 3, Switzerland 1, UK 5)
    registered in other countries: 18 (Italy 14, Malta 3, Panama 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    river port(s): Mertert (Moselle)
  • Military :: LUXEMBOURG

  • Luxembourg Army (Armee Luxembourgeoise) (2015)
    18-24 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2012)
    males age 16-49: 118,665
    females age 16-49: 117,456 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 97,290
    females age 16-49: 96,361 (2010 est.)
    male: 3,263
    female: 3,084 (2010 est.)
    0.6% of GDP (2012)
    0.61% of GDP (2011)
    0.6% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 123
  • Transnational Issues :: LUXEMBOURG

  • none
    stateless persons: 177 (2013)
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