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Africa :: Madagascar
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  • Introduction :: MADAGASCAR

  • Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1896 but regained independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA achieved a second term following a landslide victory in the generally free and fair presidential elections of 2006. In early 2009, protests over increasing restrictions on opposition press and activities resulted in RAVALOMANANA handing over power to the military, which then conferred the presidency on the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA, in what amounted to a coup d'etat. Following a lengthy mediation process led by the Southern African Development Community, Madagascar held UN-supported presidential and parliamentary elections in 2013. Former de facto finance minister Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA won runoff elections in December 2013 and was inaugurated in January 2014.
  • Geography :: MADAGASCAR

  • Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
    20 00 S, 47 00 E
    total: 587,041 sq km
    land: 581,540 sq km
    water: 5,501 sq km
    slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
    0 km
    4,828 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
    tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
    narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
    graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
    agricultural land: 71.1%
    arable land 6%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 64.1%
    forest: 21.5%
    other: 7.4% (2011 est.)
    10,860 sq km (2003)
    337 cu km (2011)
    total: 16.5 cu km/yr (2%/1%/97%)
    per capita: 1,010 cu m/yr (2005)
    periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation
    volcanism: Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical times
    soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
  • People and Society :: MADAGASCAR

  • noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
    adjective: Malagasy
    Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
    French (official), Malagasy (official), English
    indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
    23,201,926 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 40.7% (male 4,765,523/female 4,685,298)
    15-24 years: 20.6% (male 2,394,146/female 2,384,564)
    25-54 years: 31.3% (male 3,635,506/female 3,629,204)
    55-64 years: 4.2% (male 466,263/female 503,375)
    65 years and over: 3.2% (male 334,533/female 403,514) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 81.4%
    youth dependency ratio: 76.3%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.1%
    potential support ratio: 19.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 19.2 years
    male: 19 years
    female: 19.4 years (2014 est.)
    2.62% (2014 est.)
    33.12 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    6.95 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 34.5% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 4.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ANTANANARIVO (capital) 2.487 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2008/09 est.)
    440 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 44.88 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 48.86 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 40.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 65.2 years
    male: 63.77 years
    female: 66.67 years (2014 est.)
    4.28 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    39.9% (2008/09)
    4.2% of GDP (2013)
    0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
    0.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    urban: 78.2% of population
    rural: 35.4% of population
    total: 49.6% of population
    urban: 21.8% of population
    rural: 64.6% of population
    total: 50.4% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 19.2% of population
    rural: 11.3% of population
    total: 13.9% of population
    urban: 80.8% of population
    rural: 88.7% of population
    total: 86.1% of population (2012 est.)
    0.4% (2013 est.)
    54,200 (2013 est.)
    5,500 (2013 est.)
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    4.6% (2014)
    2.7% of GDP (2012)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 64.7%
    male: 66.7%
    female: 62.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 10 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 10 years (2012)
    total number: 1,827,423
    percentage: 28%
    note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
    total: 2.3%
    male: 1.7%
    female: 2.8% (2005 est.)
  • Government :: MADAGASCAR

  • conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
    conventional short form: Madagascar
    local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
    local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara
    former: Malagasy Republic
    name: Antananarivo
    geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
    26 June 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
    previous 1992; latest passed by referendum 17 November 2010, promulgated 11 December 2010 (2012)
    civil law system based on the old French civil code and customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligation
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA Rakotoarimanana (since 25 January 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Jean RAVELONARIVO (since 17 January 2015); Roger Laurent Christophe KOLO, M.D. resigned 12 January 2015
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election held in two rounds on 25 October and 20 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president
    election results: Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA 53.5%, Jean Louis ROBINSON 46.5%
    note: on 17 March 2009, democratically elected President Marc RAVALOMANANA stepped down handing the government over to the military, which in turn conferred the presidency on opposition leader and Antananarivo mayor Andry RAJOELINA; a power-sharing agreement established a 15-month transition period to conclude with a general election in 2010, which failed to occur; a subsequent agreement aimed for an early 2013 election - the first round was held on 25 October 2013 and the second on 20 December 2013
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Antenimierampirenena (151 seats; 87 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 64 directly elected in two-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 20 December 2013 (next to be held in 2017); note - a power-sharing agreement in the summer of 2009 established a 15-month transition, concluding in general elections held in 2013 after repeated delays
    election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - MPAR 17.3%, MR 10.8%, VPM MMM 8.2%, independent and other 63.7%; seats by party - MPAR 49, MR 20, VPM MMM 13, PHI 5, other 35, independent 25, seats with delayed elections 4
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 11 members; addresses judicial administration issues only); High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 9 members); note - the judiciary includes a High Court of Justice responsible for adjudicating crimes and misdemeanors by government officials including the president
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court heads elected by the president and judiciary officials to serve single-renewable, 3-year terms; High Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 each by the president, by both legislative bodies, and by the Council of Magistrates; members serve single, 6-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; provincial and city tribunals
    AVANA Party [Jean-Louis ROBINSON]
    Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery/LEADER Fanilo or LF [Manasse ESOAVELOMANDROSO]
    Green Party/Parti Vert or AMHM [Sarah Georget RABEHARISOA]
    National Unity, Freedom, and Development or FFF [Andriamparany Benjamin RADAVIDSON]
    New Force for Madagascar or FIDIO [Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA]
    Parti Hiaraka Isika or PHI [Albert Camille VITAL]
    Party of Andry Rajoelina or MPAR [Andry RAJOELINA]
    Pillar of Madagascar or AIM [Andry RAKOTOVAO]
    Ravlomanana Movement or MR [Marc RAVALOMANANA]
    Sambo Fiaran'i Noe or SFN
    Union Party or Tambatra [Pety RAKOTONIAINA]
    Vondrona Politika Miara dia Malagasy Miara Miainga or VPM MMM [Milavonjy ANDRIASY]
    Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR
    Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert ZAFY]
    National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Velotiana Rakotoanosy RAOBELINA (since 20 June 2011)
    chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525 through 5526
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert TIYAMATE (since 13 January 2015); note - also accredited to Comoros
    embassy: Lot 207A, Point Liberty, Andranoro, Antehiroka, 105 Antananarivo
    mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
    telephone: [261] (23) 480 00/01
    FAX: [261] (23) 480 35
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side; by tradition, red stands for sovereignty, green for hope, white for purity
    traveller's palm, zebu; national colors: red, green, white
    name: "Ry Tanindraza nay malala o" (Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Pasteur RAHAJASON/Norbert RAHARISOA
    note: adopted 1959
  • Economy :: MADAGASCAR

  • After discarding socialist economic policies in the mid-1990s, Madagascar followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization until the onset of a political crisis , which lasted from 2009-2013 . The free market strategy had previously placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low starting point. Exports of apparel boomed after gaining duty-free access to the US in 2000; however, Madagascar's failure to comply with the requirements of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) led to the termination of the country's duty-free access in January 2010, a sharp fall in textile production, and a loss of more than 100,000 jobs; Madagascar regained AGOA access in January 2015 following the democratic election of a new President the previous year. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing roughly 80% of the population. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns. Many investors remain wary of investing for fear of a return to political instability in the country and because of weaknesses in the business environment. Expansion in mining and agricultural sectors contributed to growth in 2014. International organizations and foreign donors resumed development aid to Madagascar after RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA appointed a new government in mid-2014, however full-scale assistance will require further policy reforms, particularly on addressing rampant corruption.
    $33.64 billion (2014 est.)
    $32.65 billion (2013 est.)
    $31.89 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $11.19 billion (2014 est.)
    3% (2014 est.)
    2.4% (2013 est.)
    2.5% (2012 est.)
    $1,400 (2014 est.)
    $1,400 (2013 est.)
    $1,400 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 219
    11.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    12.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    10.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 84.1%
    government consumption: 13.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 15.9%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 30.1%
    imports of goods and services: -43.3%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 28.1%
    industry: 17.4%
    services: 54.5% (2014 est.)
    coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
    meat processing, seafood, soap, beer, leather, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism, mining
    6.5% (2014 est.)
    12.15 million (2014 est.)
    3.6% (2012 est.)
    50% (2004 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.2%
    highest 10%: 34.7% (2010 est.)
    47.5 (2001)
    38.1 (1999)
    revenues: $2.375 billion
    expenditures: $2.741 billion (2014 est.)
    21.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -3.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    calendar year
    6.4% (2014 est.)
    5.8% (2013 est.)
    5% (31 December 2010)
    61% (31 December 2014 est.)
    58.98% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $1.611 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.588 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $2.787 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.494 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $1.822 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.638 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $-1.625 billion (2014 est.)
    $-1.714 billion (2013 est.)
    $864.8 million (2014 est.)
    $721.2 million (2013 est.)
    coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, clothing, chromite, petroleum products
    France 21.6%, US 8.6%, China 8.2%, Netherlands 5.3%, Germany 5.1%, Canada 4.9%, Belgium 4.5%, Japan 4.4%, South Africa 4.2% (2013)
    $2.742 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.681 billion (2013 est.)
    capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
    China 19.4%, France 11.9%, India 6.4%, South Africa 5.6%, Bahrain 4.6%, Kuwait 4.3%, Mauritius 4.3% (2013)
    $1.005 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $905.1 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    $3.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.282 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    Malagasy ariary (MGA) per US dollar -
    2,393.5 (2014 est.)
    2,206.9 (2013 est.)
    2,195 (2012 est.)
    2,025.1 (2011 est.)
    2,090 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: MADAGASCAR

  • 1.34 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    1.246 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    512,200 kW (2011 est.)
    74% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    25.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    20,140 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    365 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    12,120 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    2.01 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
    2.886 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: MADAGASCAR

  • 143,700 (2012)
    8.564 million (2012)
    general assessment: system is above average for the region; Antananarivo's main telephone exchange modernized in the late 1990s, but the rest of the analogue-based telephone system is poorly developed
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 40 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 261; landing point for the EASSy, SEACOM, and LION fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2010)
    state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2007)
    AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
    1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
    38,392 (2012)
    319,900 (2009)
  • Transportation :: MADAGASCAR

  • 83 (2013)
    total: 26
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 16
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 57
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 38
    under 914 m:
    18 (2013)
    total: 854 km
    narrow gauge: 854 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    total: 34,476 km
    paved: 5,613 km
    unpaved: 28,863 km (2010)
    600 km (432 km navigable) (2011)
    total: 1
    by type: cargo 1
    registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear)
  • Military :: MADAGASCAR

  • People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval Force (navy and air); National Gendarmerie
    18-25 years of age for male-only voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation is 18 months for military or equivalent civil service; 20-30 years of age for National Gendarmerie recruits and 35 years of age for those with military experience (2012)
    males age 16-49: 4,900,729
    females age 16-49: 4,909,061 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 3,390,071
    females age 16-49: 3,682,180 (2010 est.)
    male: 248,184
    female: 246,769 (2010 est.)
    0.69% of GDP (2012)
    0.73% of GDP (2011)
    0.69% of GDP (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: MADAGASCAR

  • claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands)
    IDPs: 21,475 (floods in 2015) (2015)
    current situation: Madagascar is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; poor Malagasy women hired as domestic workers in Lebanon, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia are vulnerable to abuse by recruitment agencies and employers; Malagasy men experience forced labor aboard Chinese-flagged fishing vessels in South Africa’s territorial waters; Malagasy children, mostly from rural areas, are subjected to domestic servitude, prostitution, forced begging, and forced labor within the country, often with the complicity of family members; child sex tourism continues to increase, especially in coastal cities, with Malagasy men being the main clients
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Madagascar does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the first seven convictions under the 2007 anti-trafficking law were secured in 2013; no government employees were investigated, despite widespread corruption and the alleged official complicity in human trafficking; authorities lacked formal procedures to identify victims among vulnerable groups and did not systematically provide or refer victims to NGOs for care; the government did not engage with the Lebanese Government regarding the protection of and legal remedies for exploited Malagasy workers but began discussions with Saudi and Kuwaiti officials (2014)
    illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin