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Africa :: MADAGASCAR
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MADAGASCAR
  • Introduction :: MADAGASCAR

  • Madagascar was one of the last major landmasses on earth to be colonized by humans. The earliest settlers from present-day Indonesia arrived between A.D. 350 and 550. The island attracted Arab and Persian traders as early as the 7th century, and migrants from Africa arrived around A.D. 1000. Madagascar was a pirate stronghold during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and served as a slave trading center into the 19th century. From the 16th to the late 19th century, a native Merina Kingdom dominated much of Madagascar. The island was conquered by the French in 1896 who made it a colony; independence was regained in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA won a second term in 2006 but, following protests in 2009, handed over power to the military, which then conferred the presidency on the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA, in what amounted to a coup d'etat. Following a lengthy mediation process led by the Southern African Development Community, Madagascar held UN-supported presidential and parliamentary elections in 2013. Former de facto finance minister Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA won a runoff election in December 2013 and was inaugurated in January 2014.
  • Geography :: MADAGASCAR

  • Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
    20 00 S, 47 00 E
    Africa
    total: 587,041 sq km
    land: 581,540 sq km
    water: 5,501 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 47
    slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
    0 km
    4,828 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
    tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
    narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
    mean elevation: 615 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
    graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
    agricultural land: 71.1%
    arable land 6%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 64.1%
    forest: 21.5%
    other: 7.4% (2011 est.)
    10,860 sq km (2012)
    337 cu km (2011)
    total: 16.5 cu km/yr (2%/1%/97%)
    per capita: 1,010 cu m/yr (2005)
    periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation
    volcanism: Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical times
    soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
  • People and Society :: MADAGASCAR

  • noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
    adjective: Malagasy
    Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
    French (official), Malagasy (official), English
    Christian, indigenous believer, Muslim
    note: population largely practices Christianity or an indigenous religion; small share of population is Muslim
    23,812,681 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    0-14 years: 40.45% (male 4,856,231/female 4,775,025)
    15-24 years: 20.53% (male 2,450,164/female 2,439,035)
    25-54 years: 31.56% (male 3,760,230/female 3,755,775)
    55-64 years: 4.24% (male 488,315/female 521,690)
    65 years and over: 3.22% (male 347,151/female 419,065) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 80.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 75.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.1%
    potential support ratio: 19.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 19.4 years
    male: 19.2 years
    female: 19.5 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    2.58% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    32.61 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    6.81 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    urban population: 35.1% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 4.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ANTANANARIVO (capital) 2.61 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    19.4
    note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2008/09 est.)
    353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    total: 43.67 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 47.59 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 39.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    total population: 65.55 years
    male: 64.09 years
    female: 67.05 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    4.2 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    39.9% (2008/09)
    3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
    0.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 81.6% of population
    rural: 35.3% of population
    total: 51.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 18.4% of population
    rural: 64.7% of population
    total: 48.5% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 18% of population
    rural: 8.7% of population
    total: 12% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 82% of population
    rural: 91.3% of population
    total: 88% of population (2015 est.)
    0.29% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    39,100 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    3,200 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    4.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    2.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 64.7%
    male: 66.7%
    female: 62.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 10 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 10 years (2012)
    total number: 1,827,423
    percentage: 28%
    note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
    total: 2.6%
    male: 2.2%
    female: 3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
  • Government :: MADAGASCAR

  • conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
    conventional short form: Madagascar
    local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
    local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara
    former: Malagasy Republic
    note: the name "Madageiscar" was first used by the 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco POLO, as a corrupted transliteration of Mogadishu, the Somali port with which POLO confused the island
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Antananarivo
    geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
    26 June 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
    previous 1992; latest passed by referendum 17 November 2010, promulgated 11 December 2010 (2016)
    civil law system based on the old French civil code and customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligation
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Madagascar; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA Rakotoarimana (since 25 January 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Olivier Mahafaly SOLONANDRASANA (since 13 April 2016); Prime Minister Jean RAVELONARIVO (since 17 January 2015) resigned 8 April 2016
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly, appointed by the president
    election results: Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA elected president; percent of vote in second round - Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA (FIDO) 53.5%, Jean Louis ROBINSON (AVANA) 46.5%
    note: on 17 March 2009, democratically elected President Marc RAVALOMANANA stepped down, handing the government over to the military, which in turn conferred the presidency on opposition leader and Antananarivo mayor Andry RAJOELINA; a power-sharing agreement established a 15-month transition period to conclude with a general election in 2010, which failed to occur; a subsequent agreement aimed for an early 2013 election - the first round was held on 25 October 2013 and the second on 20 December 2013
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Antenimierampirenena (151 seats; 87 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 64 directly elected in two-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 20 December 2013 (next to be held in 2017); note - a power-sharing agreement in the summer of 2009 established a 15-month transition, concluding in general elections held in 2013 after repeated delays
    election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - MPAR 17.3%, MR 10.8%, VPM MMM 8.2%, PHI 3.8%, AMHM 3.5%, LF 2.8%, FFF 1.6%, AIM 1.0%, SFN 0.3%, independent and other 50.6%; seats by party - MPAR 49, MR 20, VPM MMM 13, PHI 5, AMHM 2, LF 5, FFF 2, AIM 2, SFN 2, other 22, independent 25, seats with delayed elections 4
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 11 members; addresses judicial administration issues only); High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 9 members); note - the judiciary includes a High Court of Justice responsible for adjudicating crimes and misdemeanors by government officials including the president
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court heads elected by the president and judiciary officials to serve single-renewable, 3-year terms; High Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 each by the president, by both legislative bodies, and by the Council of Magistrates; members serve single, 6-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; provincial and city tribunals
    AVANA Party [Jean-Louis ROBINSON]
    Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery/LEADER Fanilo or LF [Manasse ESOAVELOMANDROSO]
    Green Party/Parti Vert or AMHM [Sarah Georget RABEHARISOA]
    National Unity, Freedom, and Development or FFF [Benjamin RADAVIDSON Andriamparany]
    New Force for Madagascar or FIDIO [Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA]
    Parti Hiaraka Isika or PHI [Albert Camille VITAL]
    Party of Andry Rajoelina or MPAR [Andry RAJOELINA]
    Pillar of Madagascar or AIM [Andry RAKOTOVAO]
    Ravlomanana Movement or MR [Marc RAVALOMANANA]
    Sambo Fiaran'i Noe or SFN
    Union Party or Tambatra [Pety RAKOTONIAINA]
    Vondrona Politika Miara dia Malagasy Miara Miainga or VPM MMM [Milavonjy ANDRIASY]
    Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR
    Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert ZAFY]
    National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Velotiana Rakotoanosy RAOBELINA (since 20 June 2011)
    chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525 through 5526
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert T. YAMATE (since 13 January 2015); note - also accredited to Comoros
    embassy: Lot 207A, Point Liberty, Andranoro, Antehiroka, 105 Antananarivo
    mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
    telephone: [261] (23) 480 00/01
    FAX: [261] (23) 480 35
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side; by tradition, red stands for sovereignty, green for hope, white for purity
    traveller's palm, zebu; national colors: red, green, white
    name: "Ry Tanindraza nay malala o" (Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Pasteur RAHAJASON/Norbert RAHARISOA
    note: adopted 1959
  • Economy :: MADAGASCAR

  • Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing roughly 80% of the population. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns.
    After discarding socialist economic policies in the mid-1990s, Madagascar followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization until the onset of a political crisis, which lasted from 2009 to 2013. The free market strategy had placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low starting point. Exports of apparel boomed after gaining duty-free access to the US in 2000; however, Madagascar's failure to comply with the requirements of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) led to the termination of the country's duty-free access in January 2010, a sharp fall in textile production, and a loss of more than 100,000 jobs.
    Madagascar regained AGOA access in January 2015 following the democratic election of a new president the previous year. In November 2015, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a Rapid Credit Facility to Madagascar worth about $42.1 million to help the government meet its balance of payments needs. The IMF also approved a staff monitoring program to guide policy implementation and indicated that Madagascar must demonstrate the capability to sustain reforms to qualify for future requests for a credit facility.
    $35.44 billion (2015 est.)
    $34.39 billion (2014 est.)
    $33.29 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 121
    $9.737 billion (2015 est.)
    3% (2015 est.)
    3.3% (2014 est.)
    2.3% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    $1,500 (2015 est.)
    $1,500 (2014 est.)
    $1,500 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 217
    14.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    15.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    10% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    household consumption: 77.6%
    government consumption: 15.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 15.8%
    investment in inventories: -0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 22.7%
    imports of goods and services: -31.3% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 26.5%
    industry: 16.9%
    services: 56.6% (2015 est.)
    coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
    meat processing, seafood, soap, beer, leather, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism, mining
    3.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    12.57 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    NA% (2015 est.)
    3.6% (2014 est.)
    75.3% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.2%
    highest 10%: 34.7% (2010 est.)
    47.5 (2001)
    38.1 (1999)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    revenues: $2.533 billion
    expenditures: $2.854 billion (2015 est.)
    26.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    -3.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    calendar year
    7.4% (2015 est.)
    6.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    5% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    62% (31 December 2015 est.)
    60% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    $1.535 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.506 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    $2.745 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.399 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    $1.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.658 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $NA
    -$211 million (2015 est.)
    -$34 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    $2.447 billion (2015 est.)
    $2.187 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, clothing, chromite, petroleum products
    France 15.2%, US 12.7%, China 7.1%, South Africa 5.9%, Japan 5.5%, Netherlands 5.4%, Germany 5.1%, Belgium 5%, India 4.4% (2015)
    $3.041 billion (2015 est.)
    $2.927 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
    China 24.8%, France 10.3%, Bahrain 5.6%, India 5.5%, Kuwait 4.5%, Mauritius 4.5%, South Africa 4.3% (2015)
    $962.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $773.8 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    $3.444 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.849 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $NA
    $NA
    Malagasy ariary (MGA) per US dollar -
    2,872.7 (2015 est.)
    2,414.8 (2014 est.)
    2,414.8 (2013 est.)
    2,195 (2012 est.)
    2,025.1 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: MADAGASCAR

  • 2.025 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    1.883 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    m 544,200 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    69.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    30.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    12,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    12,120 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    2.01 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    2.886 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
  • Communications :: MADAGASCAR

  • total subscriptions: 253,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    total: 11.152 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    general assessment: system is above average for the region; competition among the three mobile service providers has spurred recent growth in the mobile market
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 45 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 261; landing point for the EASSy, SEACOM, and LION fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2015)
    state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2007)
    AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
    1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
    .mg
    38,392 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    total: 994,000
    percent of population: 4.2% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
  • Transportation :: MADAGASCAR

  • 83 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    total: 26
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 16
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 57
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 38
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    total: 836 km
    narrow gauge: 836 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    total: 37,476 km
    paved: 6,103 km
    unpaved: 31,373 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    600 km (432 km navigable) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    total: 1
    by type: cargo 1
    registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    major seaport(s): Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear)
  • Military and Security :: MADAGASCAR

  • People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval Force (navy and air); National Gendarmerie
    18-25 years of age for male-only voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation is 18 months for military or equivalent civil service; 20-30 years of age for National Gendarmerie recruits and 35 years of age for those with military experience (2012)
    0.69% of GDP (2012)
    0.73% of GDP (2011)
    0.69% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 119
  • Transnational Issues :: MADAGASCAR

  • claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands)
    IDPs: 21,475 (floods in 2015) (2015)
    illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin