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Europe :: Moldova
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Moldova
  • Introduction :: MOLDOVA

  • Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting the breakaway region of Transnistria, composed of a Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians), but with a sizable ethnic Moldovan minority. Europe's poorest economy, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009. Four Moldovan opposition parties then formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AEI), iterations of which acted as Moldova's governing coalitions over the next several years. In May 2013, two of the original AEI parties and a splinter group from a third re-formed a ruling coalition called the Pro-European Coalition. The Moldovan Government in summer 2014 signed and ratified an Association Agreement with the EU, advancing the Coalition's policy priority of EU integration. Following the country's most recent legislative election in November 2014, the three pro-European parties that entered Parliament won a total of 55 of the body's 101 seats. Infighting among coalition members led to prolonged legislative gridlock and political instability, as well as the collapse of two governments, all ruled by pro-European coalitions centered around the Liberal Democratic Party (PLDM) and the Democratic Party (PDM). A political impasse ended in January 2016 when a new parliamentary majority led by PDM, joined by defectors from the Communists and PLDM, supported Pavel FILIP as prime minister.
  • Geography :: MOLDOVA

  • Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
    47 00 N, 29 00 E
    Europe
    total: 33,851 sq km
    land: 32,891 sq km
    water: 960 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 140
    slightly larger than Maryland
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,885 km
    border countries (2): Romania 683 km, Ukraine 1,202 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    moderate winters, warm summers
    rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
    mean elevation: 139 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m
    highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
    lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land
    agricultural land: 74.9%
    arable land 55.1%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 10.7%
    forest: 11.9%
    other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
    2,283 sq km (2012)
    11.65 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.07 cu km/yr (14%/83%/4%)
    per capita: 290 cu m/yr (2010)
    landslides
    heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
  • People and Society :: MOLDOVA

  • noun: Moldovan(s)
    adjective: Moldovan
    Moldovan 75.8%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.9%, Gagauz 4.4%, Romanian 2.2%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1%, unspecified 0.4%
    note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region (2004 est.)
    Moldovan 58.8% (official; virtually the same as the Romanian language), Romanian 16.4%, Russian 16%, Ukrainian 3.8%, Gagauz 3.1% (a Turkish language), Bulgarian 1.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.4%
    note: represents lanugage usually spoken (2004 est.)
    Orthodox 93.3%, Baptist 1%, other Christian 1.2%, other 0.9%, atheist 0.4%, none 1%, unspecified 2.2% (2004 est.)
    3,546,847 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    0-14 years: 17.86% (male 326,681/female 306,763)
    15-24 years: 13.49% (male 247,183/female 231,389)
    25-54 years: 43.73% (male 777,648/female 773,401)
    55-64 years: 13.24% (male 214,846/female 254,818)
    65 years and over: 11.68% (male 159,145/female 254,973) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 34.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 21.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 13.4%
    potential support ratio: 7.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 36 years
    male: 34.2 years
    female: 38 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    -1.03% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    12 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    12.59 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    -9.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    urban population: 45% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: -0.73% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    CHISINAU (capital) 725,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    23.7 (2011 est.)
    23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    total: 12.59 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 14.44 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 10.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    total population: 70.42 years
    male: 66.55 years
    female: 74.54 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    1.56 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    67.8% (2005)
    11.8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    6.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 96.9% of population
    rural: 81.4% of population
    total: 88.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3.1% of population
    rural: 18.6% of population
    total: 11.6% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 87.8% of population
    rural: 67.1% of population
    total: 76.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 12.2% of population
    rural: 32.9% of population
    total: 23.6% of population (2015 est.)
    0.63% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    17,600 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    800 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    15.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    2.2% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    8.3% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.4%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 99.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 12 years (2013)
    total number: 72,364
    percentage: 16% (2009 est.)
    total: 12.2%
    male: 11.9%
    female: 12.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
  • Government :: MOLDOVA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
    conventional short form: Moldova
    local long form: Republica Moldova
    local short form: Moldova
    former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: named for the Moldova River in neighboring eastern Romania
    parliamentary republic
    name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)
    note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyov)
    geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
    raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
    municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
    autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
    territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
    27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
    previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; amended several times, last in 2010; note – in early 2016, a Moldovan Constitutional Court decision allows for direct presidential elections, reversing a constitutional amendment allowing Parliament to select the president (2016)
    civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Moldova
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Nicolae TIMOFTI (since 23 March 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Pavel FILIP (since 20 January 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament
    elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 March 2012 (under the previous system of indirect election by the Parliament; next to be held in fall 2016); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament
    election results: Nicolae TIMOFTI (independent) elected president; Parliament vote - 62 of 101; Pavel FILIP (Democratic Party) designated prime minister; Parliament vote - 57 of 101
    description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; members directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 30 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PSRM 20.5%, PLDM 20.2%, PCRM 17.5%, PDM 15.8%, PL 9.7%, other 16.3%; seats by party - PSRM 25, PLDM 23, PCRM 21, PDM 19, PL 13
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of a chief judges, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges); note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by Parliament upon the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the Moldovan president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term; other judges appointed for 6-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts
    represented in Parliament:
    Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]
    Democratic Party of Moldova or PDM [Marian LUPU]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova or PLDM [Valeriu STRELET, acting]
    Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]
    Socialist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PSRM [Igor DODON]
    not represented in Parliament:
    Anti-Mafia Movement [Sergiu MOCANU]
    Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Victor CIOBANU]
    Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA]
    Dignity and Truth Party [Andrei NASTASE]
    Ecological Party of Moldova "Green Alliance" or PEMAVE [Vladimir BRAGA]
    European People’s Party of Moldova (EPPM) [Iurie LEANCA]
    Humanist Party of Moldova or PUM [Valeriu PASAT]
    Labor Party or PM [Gheorghe SIMA]
    Liberal Reformers Party or PLR [Ion HADARCA]
    National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]
    Our Home Moldova [Grigore PETRENCO]
    Our Party [Renato USATII]
    Patriots of Moldova Party or PPM [Mihail GARBUZ]
    Republican Party of Moldova or PRM [Andrei STRATAN]
    Revival Party [Vadim MISIN]
    Roma Social Political Movement of the Republic of Moldova or MRRM [Ion BUCUR]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor SELIN]
    Social Political Movement "Equality" or MR [Valeriy KLIMENCO]
    United Moldova Party or PMUEM [Vladimir TURCAN]
    NA
    BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Veaceslav PITUSCAN (since 26 August 2015)
    chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
    chief of mission: Ambassador James D. PETTIT (since 29 January 2015)
    embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
    FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag does not display any coat of arms
    note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia
    aurochs (a type of wild cattle); national colors: blue, yellow, red
    name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)
    lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA
    note: adopted 1994
  • Economy :: MOLDOVA

  • Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.12 billion from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Russia, and other former Soviet Bloc countries.
    With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a more than $5 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the breakaway region of Transnistria. Moldova and Romania inaugurated the Ungheni-Iasi natural gas interconnector project in August 2014. The 43-kilometer pipeline between Moldova and Romania, allows for both the import and export natural gas. Several technical and regulatory delays kept gas from flowing into Moldova until March 2015. Romanian gas exports to Moldova are largely symbolic. Moldova hopes to build a pipeline connecting Ungheni to Chisinau, bringing the gas to Moldovan population centers.
    The government's stated goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2014 due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since 2009, and to the receipt of EU trade preferences. Moldova signed an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU during fall 2014, connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. Still, a $1 billion asset-stripping heist of Moldovan banks in late 2014 delivered a significant shock to the economy in 2015; a subsequent bank bailout increased inflationary pressures and contributed to the depreciation of the leu. Moldova’s growth has also been hampered by endemic corruption and a Russian import ban on Moldova’s agricultural products.
    Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to corruption, political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, higher fuel prices, Russian pressure, and unresolved separatism in Moldova's Transnistria region.
    $17.4 billion (2015 est.)
    $17.72 billion (2014 est.)
    $16.7 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $6.3 billion (2015 est.)
    -1.8% (2015 est.)
    4.8% (2014 est.)
    9.4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    $5,000 (2015 est.)
    $4,800 (2014 est.)
    $4,500 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 171
    15.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    19% of GDP (2014 est.)
    20% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    household consumption: 87.4%
    government consumption: 19.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.3%
    investment in inventories: -0.4%
    exports of goods and services: 42.8%
    imports of goods and services: -73.9% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 16.2%
    industry: 20.7%
    services: 63.2% (2015 est.)
    vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco; beef, milk; wine
    sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
    0.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    1.222 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    agriculture: 30.5%
    industry: 12.2%
    services: 57.3% (2014 est.)
    6% (2015 est.)
    3.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    20.8% (2013 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.3%
    highest 10%: 26% (2010 est.)
    28.5 (2013)
    33.2 (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    revenues: $2.32 billion
    expenditures: $2.466 billion
    note: National Public Budget (2015 est.)
    36.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    -2.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    51.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    calendar year
    9.7% (2015 est.)
    5.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    19.5% (31 December 2015)
    6.5% (31 December 2014)
    note: this is the basic rate on short-term operations
    country comparison to the world: 7
    15.46% (31 December 2015 est.)
    10.95% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    $1.578 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.718 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    $3.402 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $4.685 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    $2.03 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.674 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    $9.723 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $50.47 million (31 December 2014)
    $51.46 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    $434 million (2015 est.)
    -$564.4 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    $1.967 billion (2015 est.)
    $2.34 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
    Romania 22.7%, Russia 12.2%, Italy 10%, UK 7%, Belarus 6.7%, Germany 6% (2015)
    $3.987 billion (2015 est.)
    $5.317 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
    Romania 13.9%, Russia 13.4%, Ukraine 9.3%, China 9.2%, Germany 8.1%, Turkey 7.2%, Italy 7% (2015)
    $1.757 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.157 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $6.57 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.674 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    $3.647 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.615 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    $108.2 million (31 December 2012)
    $88.42 million (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -
    18.816 (2015 est.)
    14.036 (2014 est.)
    14.036 (2013 est.)
    12.11 (2012 est.)
    11.738 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: MOLDOVA

  • 3.574 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    4.305 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    0 kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    731 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    439,900 kW
    note: excludes Transnistria (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    96.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    3.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    354 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    16,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    579.3 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    16,320 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    0 cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    3.28 billion cu m
    note: includes Transnistria; excluding Transnistria, consumption amounted to 2.92 billion cu m in 2015 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    3.28 billion cu m
    note: includes Transnistria; excluding Transnistria, imports amounted to 2.92 billion cu m in 2015 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    9.415 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
  • Communications :: MOLDOVA

  • total subscriptions: 1.22 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    total: 3.7 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 104 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    general assessment: poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
    domestic: multiple private operators of GSM mobile-cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 100 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2011)
    state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 1 TV and 1 radio stations; a total of nearly 70 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2016)
    AM 2, FM 29, shortwave NA (2006)
    40 (2006)
    .md
    711,564 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    total: 1.6 million
    percent of population: 44.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
  • Transportation :: MOLDOVA

  • 7 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    total: 5
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    gas 1,906 km (2013)
    total: 1,171 km
    broad gauge: 1,157 km 1.520-m gauge
    standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    total: 9,352 km
    paved: 8,835 km
    unpaved: 517 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut rivers) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    total: 121
    by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 88, carrier 1, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 11, specialized tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 63 (Bulgaria 1, Denmark 1, Egypt 5, Greece 1, Israel 2, Lebanon 1, Pakistan 1, Romania 2, Russia 5, Syria 5, Turkey 18, UK 3, Ukraine 14, Yemen 4) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 45
  • Military and Security :: MOLDOVA

  • National Army: Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit); Carabinieri Troops: a component of the Ministry of Internal Affairs that also has official status as a service of the Armed Forces (2016)
    18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 1-year service obligation (2016)
    0.3% of GDP (2015 projected)
    0.3% of GDP (2014)
    0.3% of GDP (2012)
    0.3% of GDP (2011)
    0.3% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 128
  • Transnational Issues :: MOLDOVA

  • Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops
    refugees (country of origin): 6,779 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
    stateless persons: 2,036 (2014)
    limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
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