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Europe :: Montenegro
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Montenegro
  • Introduction :: MONTENEGRO

  • The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.
  • Geography :: MONTENEGRO

  • Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
    42 30 N, 19 18 E
    Europe
    total: 13,812 sq km
    land: 13,452 sq km
    water: 360 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 162
    slightly smaller than Connecticut
    total: 680 km
    border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km
    293.5 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: defined by treaty
    Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
    highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
    bauxite, hydroelectricity
    arable land: 12.79%
    permanent crops: 1.26%
    other: 85.95% (2012 est.)
    24.12 sq km (2010)
    destructive earthquakes
    pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location along the Adriatic coast
  • People and Society :: MONTENEGRO

  • noun: Montenegrin(s)
    adjective: Montenegrin
    Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Roma 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)
    Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)
    Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)
    650,036 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    0-14 years: 15.2% (male 48,231/female 50,659)
    15-24 years: 10.8% (male 33,085/female 37,029)
    25-54 years: 47.1% (male 164,644/female 141,380)
    55-64 years: 12.9% (male 41,765/female 42,075)
    65 years and over: 14% (male 36,081/female 55,087) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 46.8%
    youth dependency ratio: 27.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 19.7%
    potential support ratio: 5.1% (2014 est.)
    total: 39.2 years
    male: 38.2 years
    female: 40.5 years (2014 est.)
    -0.49% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    10.59 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    9.3 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    urban population: 63.8% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    PODGORICA (capital) 165,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    26.3 (2010 est.)
    8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    39.4% (2005/06)
    7.6% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    1.98 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 99.6% of population
    rural: 95.3% of population
    total: 98% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.4% of population
    rural: 4.7% of population
    total: 2% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 91.9% of population
    rural: 86.8% of population
    total: 90% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 8.1% of population
    rural: 13.2% of population
    total: 10% of population (2012 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
    vectorborne disease: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (2013)
    22.5% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    1% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.4%
    male: 99.4%
    female: 97.5% (2011 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 15 years (2010)
    total number: 8,520
    percentage: 10% (2005 est.)
    total: 41.1%
    male: 42.3%
    female: 39.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
  • Government :: MONTENEGRO

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Montenegro
    local long form: none
    local short form: Crna Gora
    former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
    republic
    name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"
    geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    23 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
    3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
    National Day, 13 July (1878)
    several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007; note - in early 2013, Montenegro's parliamentary constitutional committee began debate on proposed amendments (2013)
    civil law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)
    head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 4 December 2012)
    cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet
    elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
    election results: Filip VUJANOVIC re-elected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC 48.8%%
    description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 14 October 2012 (next to be held by 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Coalition for European Montenegro 45.6%, Democratic Front 22.8%, SNP 11.1%, Positive Montenegro 8.2%, Bosniak Party 4.2%, other (including Albanian and Croatian minority parties) 8.1%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 39, Democratic Front 20, SNP 9, Positive Montenegro 7, Bosniak Party 3, Albanian and Croatian minority parties 3
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court proposed jointly by the president of Montenegro, the speaker of the Assembly, and the prime minister; other judges elected by the Judicial Council; court president term is 5 years; term of other judges is 9 years; Constitutional Court judges proposed by the president of Montenegro and elected by the Assembly; court president elected among its members; term of judges is 9 years; court president term is 3 years
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court; Court of Appeal; regional and first instance courts
    Albanian Coalition (includes Democratic League in Montenegro or DSCG [Mehmet BARDHI], Democratic Party [Fatmir DJEKA], and Albanian Alternative or AA [Gjergj CAMAJ])
    Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]
    Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Andrija POPOVIC], and Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC])
    Coalition FORCA for Unity (includes FORCA [Nazif CUNGU] and Civic Initiative [Vaselj SINISTAJ])
    Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]
    Democratic Front or DF (bloc) [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC] and Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC])
    Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
    Positive Montenegro [Darko PAJOVIC]
    Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdan MILIC]
    NA
    CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Srdjan DARMANOVIC (since 30 November 2010)
    chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
    FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Sue K. BROWN (since 27 April 2011)
    embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [382] (0) 20 410 500
    FAX: [382] (0) 20 241 358
    a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
    double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold
    name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
    lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC
    note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song
  • Economy :: MONTENEGRO

  • Montenegro's economy is slowly transitioning to a market system, but the state sector remains large and additional institutional changes are needed. The economy relies heavily on foreign tourism and the export of refined metals. Unprofitable state-owned enterprises, especially the Podgorica Aluminum Kombine, weigh heavily on public finances. During the MILOSEVIC era, Montenegro severed its economy from Serbia, maintained its own central bank, adopted the Deutsche Mark, then shifted to the euro as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The 2006 dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro led to separate memberships in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the World Trade Organization. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EC in June, 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime. Unemployment and disparities in regional development, especially in the north, remain key political and economic problems. The global financial crisis had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to a credit crunch, a decline in the real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports. The Government of Montenegro increased value added tax (VAT) from 17% in 2012 to 19% in 2013 and raised income tax rates from 9% to 15% for those earning over €480 a month. In 2013, the government also retrenched by freezing pensions and limiting salary increases for public enterprises and members of the parliament. In 2014, the government announced a project to build a highway connecting its coast with the north at a cost equal to approximately one-quarter of its GDP, which will significantly increase Montenegro’s debt.
    $9.499 billion (2014 est.)
    $9.289 billion (2013 est.)
    $8.975 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 158
    $4.66 billion (2014 est.)
    2.3% (2014 est.)
    3.5% (2013 est.)
    -2.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    $15,200 (2014 est.)
    $14,900 (2013 est.)
    $14,400 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 100
    1.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    1.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    0.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    household consumption: 84.4%
    government consumption: 22.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
    investment in inventories: 1.1%
    exports of goods and services: 40.2%
    imports of goods and services: -66.2%
    (2011 est.)
    agriculture: 0.8%
    industry: 11.3%
    services: 87.9% (2011)
    tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
    steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
    251,300 (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    agriculture: 6.3%
    industry: 20.9%
    services: 72.8% (2011 est.)
    19.1% (2012 est.)
    11.5% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    6.6% (2010 est.)
    24.3 (2010)
    30 (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    revenues: $1.68 billion
    expenditures: $1.58 billion (2012 est.)
    36.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    2.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    52.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    45% of GDP (2011 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 65
    calendar year
    4% (2012)
    3% (2011)
    9.69% (31 December 2011 est.)
    9.53% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    $749 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $783.3 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    $1.982 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.01 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    $3.29 billion (31 December 2009)
    $3.771 billion (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $3.827 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $3.322 billion (31 December 2011)
    $3.604 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    -$1.938 billion (2012 est.)
    -$1.927 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    $489.2 million (2012 est.)
    $640 million (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Croatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)
    $2.4 billion (2012 est.)
    $2.5 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Serbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)
    $400 million (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    $1.7 billion (2012 est.)
    $1.2 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7489 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: MONTENEGRO

  • 2.557 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    3.468 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    431 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    1.993 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    868,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    24.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    75.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    4,460 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    369 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    3,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    19.72 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: MONTENEGRO

  • 163,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    1.126 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
    domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing
    international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2011)
    state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 public TV stations and some 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 40 private radio stations (2007)
    31 (station frequency types NA) (2004)
    13 (2004)
    .me
    10,088 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    280,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 130
  • Transportation :: MONTENEGRO

  • 5 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    total: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    1 (2012)
    total: 250 km
    standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    total: 7,763 km
    paved: 5,365 km
    unpaved: 2,398 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    total: 2
    by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1
    registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    major seaport(s): Bar
  • Military :: MONTENEGRO

  • Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2011)
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
    males age 16-49: 149,159
    females age 16-49: 131,823 (2010 est.)
    male: 3,120
    female: 3,677 (2010 est.)
    1.81% of GDP (2013)
    1.87% of GDP (2012)
    1.95% of GDP (2011)
    1.87% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 46
  • Transnational Issues :: MONTENEGRO

  • none
    refugees (country of origin): 6,164 (Kosovo) (2014)
    stateless persons: 3,341 (2013)
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