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Europe :: Montenegro Print
Page last updated on October 14, 2020
  • Introduction :: Montenegro
  • Background field listing
    The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. At the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro joined with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the two-state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006. In 2017, Montenegro joined NATO and is currently completing its EU accession process, having officially applied to join the EU in December 2008.
  • Geography :: Montenegro
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    42 30 N, 19 18 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 13,812 sq km
    land: 13,452 sq km
    water: 360 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than Connecticut; slightly larger than twice the size of Delaware
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 680 km
    border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km
    Coastline field listing
    293.5 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: defined by treaty
    Climate field listing
    Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
    Terrain field listing
    highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 1,086 m
    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
    Natural resources field listing
    bauxite, hydroelectricity
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 38.2% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 12.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 24.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 40.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    24 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    highest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area
    Natural hazards field listing
    destructive earthquakes
    Environment - current issues field listing
    pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; serious air pollution in Podgorica, Pljevlja and Niksie; air pollution in Pljevlja is caused by the nearby lignite power plant and the domestic use of coal and wood for household heating
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    strategic location along the Adriatic coast
  • People and Society :: Montenegro
  • Population field listing
    609,859 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Montenegrin(s)
    adjective: Montenegrin
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Romani 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)
    Religions field listing
    Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 18.14% (male 57,402/female 53,217)
    15-24 years: 12.78% (male 40,220/female 37,720)
    25-54 years: 39.65% (male 120,374/female 121,461)
    55-64 years: 13.41% (male 40,099/female 41,670)
    65 years and over: 16.02% (male 42,345/female 55,351) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 51.1
    youth dependency ratio: 27.3
    elderly dependency ratio: 23.8
    potential support ratio: 4.2 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 39.6 years
    male: 38.1 years
    female: 41.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Population growth rate field listing
    -0.37% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    Birth rate field listing
    11.5 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Death rate field listing
    10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Net migration rate field listing
    -4.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Population distribution field listing
    highest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 67.5% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    177,000 PODGORICA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    26.3 years (2010 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    6 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 77.3 years
    male: 74.8 years
    female: 79.8 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.82 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    23.3% (2013)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 99.8% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0.2% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    7.6% (2016)
    Physicians density field listing
    2.38 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    3.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 93.9% of population
    total: 97.8% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 6.1% of population
    total: 2.2% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.1% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    <500 (2018 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: intermediate (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
    vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    23.3% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    1% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Education expenditures field listing
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.8%
    male: 99.5%
    female: 98.3% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 15 years (2017)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 29.4%
    male: 33.3%
    female: 23.6% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
  • Government :: Montenegro
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Montenegro
    local long form: none
    local short form: Crna Gora
    former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
    etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means "black mountain" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"
    geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: the name translates as "beneath Gorica"; the meaning of Gorica is "hillock"; the reference is to the small hill named Gorica that the city is built around
    Administrative divisions field listing
    24 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Tuzi, Ulcinj, Zabljak
    Independence field listing
    3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro); notable earlier dates: 13 March 1852 (Principality of Montenegro established); 13 July 1878 (Congress of Berlin recognizes Montenegrin independence); 28 August 1910 (Kingdom of Montenegro established)
    National holiday field listing
    National Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against fascist occupiers and sided with the partisan communist movement)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007
    amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles, such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures, require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013, 2014
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 20 May 2018)
    head of government: Prime Minister Dusko MARKOVIC (since 28 November 2016)
    cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 April 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly
    election results: Milo DJUKANOVIC elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Milo DJUKANOVIC (DPS) 53.9%, Mladen BOJANIC (independent) 33.4%, Draginja VUKSANOVIC (SDP) 8.2%, Marko MILACIC (PRAVA) 2.8%, other 1.7%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 30 August 2020 (next to be held in 2024)
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - DPS 35.1%, ZBCG 32.6%, MNIM 12.5%, URA 5.5%, SD 4.1%, BS 3.9%, SDP 3.1%, AL 1.6%, AK 1.1%, other 0.4%; seats by party/coalition - DPS 30, ZBCG 27, MNIM 10, URA 4, BS 3, SD 3, SDP 2, AL 1, AK 1.; composition - men 57, women 24, percent of women 29.6%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for a 3-year term, other judges serve 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DJELOSAJ]
    Albanian Coalition (includes DP, DSCG, DUA)
    Albanian Coalition Perspective or AKP
    Albanian List (coalition includes AA, Forca, AKP, DSA)
    Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]
    Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]
    Croatian Reform Party [Marija VUCINOVIC]
    Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]
    Democratic Front or DF [collective leadership] (coalition includes NOVA, PZP, DNP, RP)
    Democratic League in Montenegro or DSCG [Mehmet BARDHI]
    Democratic League of Albanians or DSA
    Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Alexsa BECIC]
    Democratic Party or DP [Fatmir GJEKA]
    Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]
    Democratic Party of Unity or DSJ [Nebojsa JUSKOVIC]
    Democratic People's Party or DNP [Milan KNEZEVIC]
    Democratic Serb Party or DSS [Dragica PEROVIC]
    Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
    For the Future of Montenegro or ZBCG [Zdravko KRIVOKAPIC] (electoral coalition includes SNP and 2 alliances - DF, NP)
    Liberal Party or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]
    Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]
    New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]
    New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]
    Party of Pensioners, Disabled, and Restitution or PUPI [Momir JOKSIMOVIC]
    Peace is Our Nation or MNIM [Alexa BECIC] (coalition includes Democrats, DEMOS, New Left, PUPI)
    Popular Movement or NP [Miodrag DAVIDOVIC] (coalition includes DEMOS, RP, UCG, and several minor parties)
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]
    Social Democrats or SD [Ivan BRAJOVIC]
    Socialist People's Party or SNP [Vladimir JOKOVIC]
    True Montenegro or PRAVA [Marko MILACIC]
    United Montenegro or UCG [Goran DANILOVIC] (split from DEMOS)
    United Reform Action or URA [Dritan ABAZOVIC]
    Workers' Party or RP [Janko VUCINIC]
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Nebojsa KALUDEROVIC (since 18 January 2017)
    chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
    FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Judy Rising REINKE (since 20 December 2018)
    telephone: [382]  20-410-500
    embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    FAX: [382]  20-241-358
    Flag description field listing
    a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is a symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries when Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
    National symbol(s) field listing
    double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
    lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

    note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song

  • Economy :: Montenegro
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. Around 90% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. Tourism, which accounts for more than 20% of Montenegro’s GDP, brings in three times as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various stages of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. In addition to tourism, energy and agriculture are considered two distinct pillars of the economy. Only 20% of Montenegro’s hydropower potential is utilized. Montenegro plans to become a net energy exporter, and the construction of an underwater cable to Italy, which will be completed by the end of 2018, will help meet its goal.

    Montenegro uses the euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the euro zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the WTO. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EU in 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime.

    The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. Net foreign direct investment in 2017 reached $848 million and investment per capita is one of the highest in Europe, due to a low corporate tax rate. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro in 2017 were Norway, Russia, Italy, Azerbaijan and Hungary.

    Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road and rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country’s highway system, which will become part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Cheaper borrowing costs have stimulated Montenegro’s growing debt, which currently sits at 65.9% of GDP, with a forecast, absent fiscal consolidation, to increase to 80% once the repayment to China’s Ex/Im Bank of a €800 million highway loan begins in 2019. Montenegro first instituted a value-added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and introduced differentiated VAT rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism) in January 2006. The Montenegrin Government increased the non-tourism Value Added Tax (VAT) rate to 21% as of January 2018, with the goal of reducing its public debt.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $11.08 billion (2017 est.)
    $10.63 billion (2016 est.)
    $10.32 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 160
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $4.784 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    4.3% (2017 est.)
    2.9% (2016 est.)
    3.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $17,800 (2017 est.)
    $17,100 (2016 est.)
    $16,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 100
    Gross national saving field listing
    13.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    9.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    9.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 76.8% (2016 est.)
    government consumption: 19.6% (2016 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 23.2% (2016 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.9% (2016 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 40.5% (2016 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -63% (2016 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 7.5% (2016 est.)
    industry: 15.9% (2016 est.)
    services: 76.6% (2016 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives and related products, grapes; sheep, wine
    Industries field listing
    steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    -4.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Labor force field listing
    273,200 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 7.9%
    industry: 17.1%
    services: 75% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    16.1% (2017 est.)
    17.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Population below poverty line field listing
    8.6% (2013 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 3.5%
    highest 10%: 25.7% (2014 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 1.78 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.05 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    37.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -5.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Public debt field listing
    67.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    66.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 55
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    2.4% (2017 est.)
    -0.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Current account balance field listing
    -$780 million (2017 est.)
    -$710 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Exports field listing
    $422.2 million (2017 est.)
    $362 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Imports field listing
    $2.618 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.29 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $1.077 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $846.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Debt - external field listing
    $2.516 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.224 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Exchange rates field listing
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Montenegro
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    3.045 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    2.808 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Electricity - exports field listing
    914 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Electricity - imports field listing
    1.21 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    890,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    23% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    69% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    6,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    357 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    6,448 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    2.287 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
  • Communications :: Montenegro
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 172,880
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 1,134,412
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 185 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites; telecom sector in-line with EU norms which means competition, access and tariff structures; DSL, cable, leased line, fiber and wireless available; seasonal tourist have boosted mobile penetration; wide availability of LTE technologies has made mobile broadband a viable alternative to fixed-line broadband in rural areas; 5G services anticipated in the future (2020)
    domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage growing; fixed-line 28 per 100 and mobile-cellular 185 per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 local public TV stations and 14 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations, 35 private radio stations, and several on-line media (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 439,311
    percent of population: 71.52% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 159,029
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 26 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
  • Military and Security :: Montenegro
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Ground Troops (Kopnena Vojska), Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2019)
    Military expenditures field listing
    1.66% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.39% of GDP (2018)
    1.35% of GDP (2017)
    1.42% of GDP (2016)
    1.4% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro have approximately 2,400 total active duty troops (1,400 Army; 400 Navy; 200 Air Force; 400 other) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the inventory of the Armed Forces of Montenegro is small and consists mostly of equipment inherited from the former Yugoslavia military, with a limited mix of other imported systems, such as French-made helicopters; since 2010, it has received small quantities of equipment from Austria, Turkey, and the US (2019 est.)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
  • Transportation :: Montenegro
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 565,522 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 130,000 mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    4O (2016)
    Airports field listing
    5 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 5 (2019)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2012)
    Railways field listing
    total: 250 km (2017)
    standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (224 km electrified) (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Roadways field listing
    total: 7,762 km (2010)
    paved: 7,141 km (2010)
    unpaved: 621 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 12
    by type: bulk carrier 4, other 8 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Bar
  • Terrorism :: Montenegro
  • Terrorist groups - foreign based field listing
    Aum Shinrikyo (AUM):
    aim(s): enhance its networks in Montenegro for recruitment and fundraising
    area(s) of operation: maintains a limited presence; membership drastically depleted in March 2016 when authorities expelled 58 foreign members (2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Montenegro
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Kosovo ratified the border demarcation agreement with Montenegro in March 2018, but the actual demarcation has not been completed

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 145 (2018)
    note: 16,649 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-September 2020)