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Europe :: Macedonia Print
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MACEDONIA
  • Introduction :: Macedonia
  • Background field listing

    Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greek objection to Macedonia’s name, insisting it implies territorial pretensions to the northern Greek province of the same name, and democratic backsliding have stalled the country’s movement toward Euro-Atlantic integration. Immediately after Macedonia declared independence, Greece sought to block Macedonian efforts to gain UN membership if the name “Macedonia” was used. Macedonia was eventually admitted to the UN in 1993 as “The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,” and at the same time it agreed to UN-sponsored negotiations on the name dispute. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the US and over 130 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into a conflict in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Relations between ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians remain complicated, however.

    A nearly three-year political crisis that engulfed Macedonia ended in June 2017 following a six-month-long government formation period that followed a closely contested early legislative election in December 2016. The crisis began after the 2014 legislative and presidential election, and escalated in 2015 when the opposition party began releasing wiretap content that revealed alleged widespread government corruption and abuse. Although Macedonia became an EU candidate in 2005, it has not opened accession negotiations. The country still faces challenges, including fully implementing reforms to overcome a decade of democratic backsliding, resolving the outstanding name dispute with Greece, and stimulating economic growth and development. At the 2008 NATO Summit in Bucharest, Romania, the Allies agreed that Macedonia would be invited to join the Alliance as soon as a mutually acceptable resolution to the name dispute was reached with Greece.

  • Geography :: Macedonia
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    41 50 N, 22 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Europe
    Area field listing
    total: 25,713 sq km
    land: 25,433 sq km
    water: 280 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly larger than Vermont
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 838 km
    border countries (5): Albania 181 km, Bulgaria 162 km, Greece 234 km, Kosovo 160 km, Serbia 101 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
    Terrain field listing
    mountainous with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 741 m
    elevation extremes: 50 m lowest point: Vardar River
    2764 highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit)
    Natural resources field listing
    low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 44.3% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 16.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 26.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 39.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 15.9% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    1,280 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
    Natural hazards field listing
    high seismic risks
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution from metallurgical plants; Skopje has severe air pollution problems every winter as a result of industrial emissions, smoke from wood-buring stoves, and exhaust fumes from old cars
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
  • People and Society :: Macedonia
  • Population field listing
    2,118,945 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Macedonian(s)
    adjective: Macedonian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 est.)

    note: Macedonia has not conducted a census since 2002; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 6.5–13% of Macedonia’s population

    Languages field listing
    Macedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Romani 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 est.)

    note: minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities where they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Krusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo

    Religions field listing
    Macedonian Orthodox 64.8%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.4%, other and unspecified 1.5% (2002 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 16.24% (male 177,719 /female 166,374)
    15-24 years: 13.41% (male 147,292 /female 136,851)
    25-54 years: 44.55% (male 478,851 /female 465,058)
    55-64 years: 12.43% (male 129,731 /female 133,645)
    65 years and over: 13.38% (male 123,101 /female 160,323) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 41.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 23.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 17.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 5.6 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 38.2 years
    male: 37.2 years
    female: 39.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.19% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Birth rate field listing
    10.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Death rate field listing
    9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Net migration rate field listing
    -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 58% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.45% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    584,000 SKOPJE (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    26.8 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 8.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 75.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 73.8 years (2018 est.)
    female: 78.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.49 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    40.2% (2011)
    Health expenditures field listing
    6.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Physicians density field listing
    2.88 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    4.4 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 99.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 98.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 1.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 97.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 82.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 90.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 17.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 9.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    <.1% (201 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    <500 (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2016 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    22.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    1.3% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 97.8% (2015 est.)
    male: 98.8% (2015 est.)
    female: 96.8% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 13 years (2014)
    male: 13 years (2014)
    female: 13 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 48.2% (2016 est.)
    male: 47.9% (2016 est.)
    female: 48.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
  • Government :: Macedonia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
    conventional short form: Macedonia
    local long form: Republika Makedonija
    local short form: Makedonija
    former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
    etymology: the country name derives from the ancient kingdom of Macedon (7th to 2nd centuries B.C.)

    note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM)

    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Skopje
    geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions field listing
    70 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina) and 1 city* (grad); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Skopje*, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
    Independence field listing
    8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 8 September (1991); also known as National Day
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by signed agreement of at least 30 members of the Assembly, or by petition of at least 150,000 citizens; draft amendments require approval by majority vote of Assembly members, followed by public debate; passage of final amendment to include public comments requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2011 (2018)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Macedonia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Gjorge IVANOV (since 12 May 2009)
    head of government: Prime Minister Zoran ZAEV (since 31 May 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote; note - after the December 2016 election, VMRO-DPMNE won a plurality of the seats but failed to gather a majority in the Assembly to establish a government; SDSM, DUI, and the Alliance for Albanians formed an alliance; however, the president refused to give the SDSM leader the mandate to form a new government; VMRO-DPMNE blocked the election of a Speaker of the Assembly until late April 2017, when a majority of Assembly members elected Talat XHAFERI as speaker; in response, demonstrators disrupted the Assembly building, attacking journalists and Assembly members; President Gjorge IVANOV eventually gave the mandate to SDSM’s Zoran ZAEV to form a new coalition government, and the Assembly confirmed the Cabinet on 31 May 2017
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 and 27 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly
    election results: Gjorge IVANOV reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Gjorge IVANOV (independent) 55.3%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 41.1%, other 3.6%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (between 120 and 140 seats; currently 120 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; possibility of 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies by simple majority vote provided there is sufficient voter turnout; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 11 December 2016, with a second round held in one polling station on 25 December 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - VMRO-DPMNE 38.1%, SDSM coalition 36.7%, BDI 7.3%, Besa Movement 4.9%, AfA 3.1%, PDSh 2.7%, other 7.2%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 51, SDSM coalition 49, BDI 10, Besa Movement 5, AfA 3, PDSh 2; note - the 3 seats for diaspora went unfilled because none of the candidates won the 6,500 minimum vote threshold

    note: as of June 2018, seats by party/coalition - ruling coalition 68 (SDSM coalition 49, BDI 10, Besa Movement 3, PDSh 2, other 5), opposition coalition 52 (VMRO-DPMNE coalition 48, Besa Movement 2, AfA 2); composition - men 75, women 45, percent of women 37.5%

    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 22 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Assembly for nonrenewable, 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Alliance for Albanians or AfA [Ziadin SELA]
    Besa Movement [Bilal KASAMI]
    Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI]
    Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]
    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Hristijan MICKOSKI]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Goran MILEVSKI]
    Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Zoran ZAEV]
    Socialist Party of Macedonia or SPM [Ljubislav IVANOV-DZINGO]

    note: during the 2016 parliamentary elections SDSM and VMRO-DPMNE each led coalitions

    International organization participation field listing
    BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Vasko NAUMOVSKI (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Detroit, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jess L. BAILY (since 12 February 2015)
    embassy: Str. Samolilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
    mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
    telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000
    FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499
    Flag description field listing
    a yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia
    National symbol(s) field listing
    eight-rayed sun; national colors: red, yellow
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Denes nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia)
    lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI

    note: written in 1943 and adopted in 1991, the song previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia

  • Economy :: Macedonia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Since its independence in 1991, Macedonia has made progress in liberalizing its economy and improving its business environment. Its low tax rates and free economic zones have helped to attract foreign investment, which is still low relative to the rest of Europe. Corruption and weak rule of law remain significant problems. Some businesses complain of opaque regulations and unequal enforcement of the law.

    Macedonia’s economy is closely linked to Europe as a customer for exports and source of investment, and has suffered as a result of prolonged weakness in the euro zone. Unemployment has remained consistently high at about 23%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, which is not captured by official statistics.

    Macedonia is working to build a country-wide natural gas pipeline and distribution network. Currently, Macedonia receives its small natural gas supplies from Russia via Bulgaria. In 2016, Macedonia signed a memorandum of understanding with Greece to build an interconnector that could connect to the Trans Adriatic Pipeline that will traverse the region once complete, or to an LNG import terminal in Greece.

    Macedonia maintained macroeconomic stability through the global financial crisis by conducting prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged to the euro, and inflation at a low level. However, in the last two years, the internal political crisis has hampered economic performance, with GDP growth slowing in 2016 and 2017, and both domestic private and public investments declining. Fiscal policies were lax, with unproductive public expenditures, including subsidies and pension increases, and rising guarantees for the debt of state owned enterprises, and fiscal targets were consistently missed. In 2017, public debt stabilized at about 47% of GDP, still relatively low compared to its Western Balkan neighbors and the rest of Europe.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $31.03 billion (2017 est.)
    $31.02 billion (2016 est.)
    $30.15 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data

    country comparison to the world: 131
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $11.37 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    0% (2017 est.)
    2.9% (2016 est.)
    3.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $14,900 (2017 est.)
    $15,000 (2016 est.)
    $14,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 113
    Gross national saving field listing
    30.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    29.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    28.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 65.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 13.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 20.2% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 54% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -69% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 10.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 26.6% (2017 est.)
    services: 62.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    grapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
    Industries field listing
    food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    -7.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Labor force field listing
    950,800 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 54.5% (2017 est.)
    industry: 29.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 54.5% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    22.4% (2017 est.)
    23.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Population below poverty line field listing
    21.5% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 25% (2015 est.)
    highest 10%: 25% (2015 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    33.7 (2015)
    35.2 (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 3.295 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 3.605 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    29% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Public debt field listing
    39.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    39.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds

    country comparison to the world: 134
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    -0.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    3.25% (31 March 2017)
    3.75% (31 December 2016)

    note: series discontinued in January 2010; the discount rate has been replaced by a referent rate for calculating the penalty rate

    country comparison to the world: 106
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    6.21% (31 December 2017 est.)
    6.61% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $2.403 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.909 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $2.403 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.909 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $6.243 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $2.078 billion (31 December 2016)
    $1.853 billion (31 December 2015)
    $2.269 billion (31 December 2014)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Current account balance field listing
    -$151 million (2017 est.)
    -$293 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Exports field listing
    $4.601 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.75 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Exports - commodities field listing
    foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron, steel; automotive parts
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 46.7%, Bulgaria 6.1%, Serbia 4.4%, Belgium 4.1% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $6.63 billion (2017 est.)
    $5.805 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $2.802 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.755 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Imports - partners field listing
    Germany 11.9%, UK 10%, Greece 8%, Serbia 7.1%, China 5.9%, Italy 5.5%, Turkey 4.5%, Bulgaria 4.3% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $8.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.685 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $6.937 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $1.169 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $849.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Exchange rates field listing
    Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -
    55.8 (2017 est.)
    55.733 (2016 est.)
    55.733 (2015 est.)
    55.537 (2014 est.)
    46.437 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Macedonia
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    5.303 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    6.455 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Electricity - exports field listing
    58.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Electricity - imports field listing
    2.191 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    2.057 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    64.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    32.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    2.9% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    142 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    20,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    3,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    23,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    60 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    60 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    7.5 million Mt (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
  • Communications :: Macedonia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 361,269 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 2,121,805 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions (2017)
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 120 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 389 (2017)
    Broadcast media field listing
    public service TV broadcaster Macedonian Radio and Television operates 3 national terrestrial TV channels and 2 satellite TV channels; additionally, there are 10 regional TV stations that broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters, 54 TV channels with concession for cable TV, 9 regional TV stations with concessions for cable TV; 4 satellite TV channels broadcasting on a national level, 21 local commercial TV channels, and a large number of cable operators that offer domestic and international programming; the public radio broadcaster operates over 3 stations; there are 4 privately owned radio stations that broadcast nationally; 17 regional radio stations, and 49 local commercial radio stations (2018)
    Internet country code field listing
    .mk
    Internet users field listing
    total: 1.475 million (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 70.4% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 386,718 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
  • Transportation :: Macedonia
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    Z3 (2016)
    Airports field listing
    10 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 8 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    under 914 m: 6 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 2 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    262 km gas, 120 km oil (2017)
    Railways field listing
    total: 925 km (2017)
    standard gauge: 925 km 1.435-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Roadways field listing
    total: 14,182 km (includes 290 km of expressways) (2017)
    paved: 9,633 km (2017)
    unpaved: 4,549 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 127
  • Military and Security :: Macedonia
  • Military expenditures field listing
    0.9% of GDP (2017)
    0.97% of GDP (2016)
    1.05% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Military branches field listing
    Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; includes General Staff and subordinate Joint Operational Command, Logistic Support Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Special Ops Regiment, Electronic Surveillance Center, and Air Surveillance Center) (2017)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: Macedonia
  • Disputes - international field listing
    Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 590 (2017)

    note: 481,547 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015- November 2018); Macedonia is predominantly a transit country and hosts fewer than 50 refugees and asylum seekers as of October 2017; 547 migrant arrivals in 2017

    Illicit drugs field listing
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement