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Europe :: Macedonia
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Macedonia
  • Introduction :: MACEDONIA

  • Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the US and over 130 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into an insurgency in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Although Macedonia became an EU candidate in 2005, the country still faces challenges, including fully implementing the Framework Agreement, resolving the outstanding name dispute with Greece, improving relations with Bulgaria, halting democratic backsliding, bolstering independence of the judiciary and media freedom, and stimulating economic growth and development. Macedonia's membership in NATO was blocked by Greece at the Alliance's Summit of Bucharest in 2008.
  • Geography :: MACEDONIA

  • Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
    41 50 N, 22 00 E
    Europe
    total: 25,713 sq km
    land: 25,433 sq km
    water: 280 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 150
    slightly larger than Vermont
    total: 838 km
    border countries (5): Albania 181 km, Bulgaria 162 km, Greece 234 km, Kosovo 160 km, Serbia 101 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
    mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
    lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
    highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
    low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
    agricultural land: 44.3%
    arable land 16.4%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 26.5%
    forest: 39.8%
    other: 15.9% (2011 est.)
    1,278 sq km (2004)
    6.4 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.03 cu km/yr (21%/67%/12%)
    per capita: 502 cu m/yr (2007)
    high seismic risks
    air pollution from metallurgical plants
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
  • People and Society :: MACEDONIA

  • noun: Macedonian(s)
    adjective: Macedonian
    Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 est.)
    Macedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian (official) 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 est.)
    Macedonian Orthodox 64.8%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.4%, other and unspecified 1.5% (2002 est.)
    2,091,719 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    0-14 years: 17.7% (male 191,682/female 178,510)
    15-24 years: 14.1% (male 151,901/female 142,679)
    25-54 years: 43.8% (male 464,392/female 451,038)
    55-64 years: 12.1% (male 123,272/female 129,081)
    65 years and over: 12.4% (male 111,090/female 148,074) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 41.2%
    youth dependency ratio: 23.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 17.8%
    potential support ratio: 5.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 36.8 years
    male: 35.7 years
    female: 37.9 years (2014 est.)
    0.21% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    11.64 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    9.04 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    -0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    urban population: 57% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SKOPJE (capital) 501,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    26.2 (2011 est.)
    7 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    total: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 8.16 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 7.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    total population: 75.8 years
    male: 73.23 years
    female: 78.56 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    1.59 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    40.2% (2011)
    6.4% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    2.62 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    4.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 99.8% of population
    rural: 98.8% of population
    total: 99.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.2% of population
    rural: 1.2% of population
    total: 0.6% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 97.2% of population
    rural: 82.8% of population
    total: 91.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.8% of population
    rural: 17.2% of population
    total: 8.6% of population (2012 est.)
    0.01% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    200 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    fewer than 100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    20.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    1.3% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.8%
    male: 98.8%
    female: 96.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 14 years (2012)
    total number: 16,782
    percentage: 6% (2005 est.)
    total: 53.9%
    male: 55.2%
    female: 51.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
  • Government :: MACEDONIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
    conventional short form: Macedonia
    local long form: Republika Makedonija
    local short form: Makedonija
    note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM)
    former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
    parliamentary democracy
    name: Skopje
    geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    70 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina) and 1 city* (grad); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Skopje*, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
    8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
    Independence Day, 8 September (1991); also known as National Day
    several previous; latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended several times, last in 2011 (2011)
    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Gjorge IVANOV (since 12 May 2009)
    head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, DUI, and several small parties
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election: first round held on 13 April 2014, second round held on 27 April 2014; prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections; the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister
    election results: Gjorge IVANOV reelected president in second-round; percent of vote - Gjorge IVANOV 55.3%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI 41.1%; note - 13 April 2014 first round results - Gjorge IVANOV 51.7%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI 37.5%
    description: unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (123 seats; 120 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies worldwide by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 27 April 2014 (next to be held by end of April 2016); note - election was moved up because of political unrest
    election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 43.0%, SDSM 25.3%, DUI 13.7%, DPA 5.9%, GROM 2.8%, NDR 1.6%, other 4.3%, invalid 3.4%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 61, SDSM 34, DUI 19, DPA 7, GROM 1, NDR 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consist of NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the legislature for nonrenewable, 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts
    Citizens Option for Macedonia or GROM [Stevco JAKIMOVSKI]
    Democratic Party of Albanians or DPA [Menduh THACI]
    Democratic Union for Integration or DUI [Ali AHMETI]
    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]
    National Democratic Revival or NDR [Rufi OSMANI]
    Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Zoran ZAEV]
    note: during the 2014 parliamentary elections VMRO-DPMNE, SDSM, and GROM each led coalitions
    Federation of Free Trade Unions [Mirjana ANDREVSKA]
    Federation of Trade Unions [Zivko MITREVSKI]
    Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture or SONK [Jakim NEDELKOV]
    Student Plenum
    Eco Guerilla [Arianit XHAFERI]
    BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Vasko NAUMOVSKI (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Detroit, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jess L. BAILY (since 12 February 2015)
    embassy: Str. Samolilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
    mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
    telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000
    FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499
    a yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia
    eight-rayed sun; national colors: red, yellow
    name: "Denes nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia)
    lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI
    note: adopted 1991; written in 1943, the song previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia
  • Economy :: MACEDONIA

  • Since its independence in 1991, Macedonia has made progress in liberalizing its economy and improving its business environment, but has lagged the Balkan region in attracting foreign investment. Corruption and weak rule of law remain significant problems. Some businesses complain of opaque regulations and unequal enforcement of the law. Unemployment has remained consistently high at more than 30% since 2008, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, which is not captured by official statistics. Macedonia’s economy is closely linked to Europe as a customer for exports and source of investment, and has suffered as a result of prolonged weakness in the euro zone. Macedonia maintained macroeconomic stability through the global financial crisis by conducting prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged against the euro, and by limiting fiscal deficits. The government has been loosening fiscal policy, however, and the budget deficit was 4.2% of GDP in both 2013 and 2014. Public debt at the end of 2014 was 45.8%, which although low by regional comparison, is significant for a small economy.
    $27.49 billion (2014 est.)
    $26.51 billion (2013 est.)
    $25.76 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $10.92 billion (2014 est.)
    3.7% (2014 est.)
    2.7% (2013 est.)
    -0.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    $13,200 (2014 est.)
    $12,600 (2013 est.)
    $12,100 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 112
    21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    22.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    26.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    household consumption: 69.8%
    government consumption: 16.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 29%
    investment in inventories: 1.6%
    exports of goods and services: 47.9%
    imports of goods and services: -65.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 8.8%
    industry: 21.3%
    services: 69.9% (2014 est.)
    grapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
    food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts
    4.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    961,400 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    agriculture: 18.3%
    industry: 29.1%
    services: 52.6% (2014 est.)
    28% (2014 est.)
    29% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    30.4% (2011)
    lowest 10%: 2.2%
    highest 10%: 34.5% (2009 est.)
    43.6 (2013)
    39.2 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    revenues: $2.89 billion
    expenditures: $3.328 billion (2014 est.)
    26.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    -4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    45.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    40.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds
    country comparison to the world: 80
    calendar year
    -0.3% (2014 est.)
    2.8% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    3.25% (31 December 2014)
    3.25% (31 December 2013)
    note: series discontinued in January 2010; the discount rate has been replaced by a referent rate for calculating the penalty rate
    country comparison to the world: 104
    5.2% (31 December 2014 est.)
    5.4% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $1.692 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.569 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    $6.129 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.282 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    $5.055 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.208 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    $2.084 billion (31 December 2014)
    $2.302 billion (31 December 2013)
    $2.423 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    $-163.9 million (2014 est.)
    $-194.1 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    $4.934 billion (2014 est.)
    $4.267 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron, steel; automotive parts
    Germany 41.4%, Bulgaria 6.6%, Italy 6.1%, Serbia 5.2%, Kosovo 4.7%, Greece 4.6% (2014 est.)
    $7.277 billion (2014 est.)
    $6.6 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
    UK 12.3%, Germany 11.1%, Greece 9.2%, Serbia 8.2%, Italy 6.2%, China 5.9%, Bulgaria 5.3%, Turkey 5.1% (2014 est.)
    $2.958 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.747 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $7.241 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.194 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    $5.063 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.714 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    $758 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $744 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -
    50.56 (2014 est.)
    44.63 (2013 est.)
    47.89 (2012 est.)
    44.23 (2011 est.)
    46.49 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: MACEDONIA

  • 4.569 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    6.96 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    112.9 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    3.073 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    2.011 million kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    64.5% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    33% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    2.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    0 bbl/day (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    146 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    0 bbl (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    1 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    15,070 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    2,616 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    17,950 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    0 cu m (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    134.7 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    0 cu m (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    134.7 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    0 cu m (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    8.084 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: MACEDONIA

  • 407,900 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    2.235 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 130 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 389 (2012)
    public TV broadcaster operates 3 national channels and a satellite network; 5 privately owned TV channels broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters and about 15 broadcast on national level via satellite; roughly 75 local commercial TV stations; large number of cable operators offering domestic and international programming; public radio broadcaster operates over multiple stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationally; about 70 local commercial radio stations (2012)
    AM 1, FM 68, shortwave 0 (2009)
    76 (2009)
    .mk
    62,826 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    1.057 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 95
  • Transportation :: MACEDONIA

  • 10 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    total: 8
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    under 914 m: 6 (2013)
    total: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m:
    1 (2013)
    gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2013)
    total: 699 km
    standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (234 km electrified) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    total: 14,038 km (includes 259 km of expressways)
    paved: 9,489 km
    unpaved: 4,549 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 124
  • Military :: MACEDONIA

  • Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; includes General Staff and subordinate Joint Operational Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Special Operations Regiment) (2012)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2013)
    males age 16-49: 532,196
    females age 16-49: 511,964 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 443,843
    females age 16-49: 426,251 (2010 est.)
    male: 16,144
    female: 14,920 (2010 est.)
    1.08% of GDP (2015)
    1.17% of GDP (2014)
    1.14% of GDP (2013)
    1.2% of GDP (2012)
    1.3% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 92
  • Transnational Issues :: MACEDONIA

  • Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
    stateless persons: 741 (2014)
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement
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