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Europe :: MACEDONIA
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MACEDONIA
  • Introduction :: MACEDONIA

  • Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greek objection to Macedonia’s name, insisting it implies territorial pretensions to the northern Greek province of the same name, and democratic backsliding have stalled the country’s movement toward Euro-Atlantic integration. Immediately after Macedonia declared independence, Greece sought to block Macedonian efforts to gain UN membership if the name “Macedonia” was used. Macedonia was eventually admitted to the UN in 1993 as “The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,” and at the same time it agreed to UN-sponsored negotiations on the name dispute. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the US and over 130 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into an insurgency in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA), which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Relations between Macedonians and ethnic Albanians remain fragile, however.
    Macedonia has been engulfed in a political crisis that began after the 2014 legislative and presidential election, and which escalated in 2015 when the opposition party began releasing wiretap content that it alleged showed widespread government corruption. Although Macedonia became an EU candidate in 2005, the country still faces challenges, including overcoming the political crisis, fully implementing the OFA, resolving the outstanding name dispute with Greece, improving relations with Bulgaria, halting democratic backsliding, and stimulating economic growth and development. At the 2008 NATO Summit in Bucharest, Romania, the Allies agreed that Macedonia would be invited to join the Alliance as soon as a mutually acceptable resolution to the name dispute was reached with Greece.
  • Geography :: MACEDONIA

  • Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
    41 50 N, 22 00 E
    Europe
    total: 25,713 sq km
    land: 25,433 sq km
    water: 280 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 150
    slightly larger than Vermont
    total: 838 km
    border countries (5): Albania 181 km, Bulgaria 162 km, Greece 234 km, Kosovo 160 km, Serbia 101 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
    mountainous with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
    mean elevation: 741 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
    highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
    low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
    agricultural land: 44.3%
    arable land 16.4%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 26.5%
    forest: 39.8%
    other: 15.9% (2011 est.)
    1,280 sq km (2012)
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
    high seismic risks
    air pollution from metallurgical plants
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
  • People and Society :: MACEDONIA

  • 2,100,025 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    noun: Macedonian(s)
    adjective: Macedonian
    Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 est.)
    note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 6.5–13% of Macedonia’s population
    Macedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Romani 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 est.)
    note: minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities whre they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Drusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo
    Macedonian Orthodox 64.8%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.4%, other and unspecified 1.5% (2002 est.)
    0-14 years: 17.27% (male 187,752/female 174,935)
    15-24 years: 13.69% (male 148,340/female 139,195)
    25-54 years: 43.65% (male 465,622/female 451,028)
    55-64 years: 12.3% (male 126,548/female 131,749)
    65 years and over: 13.09% (male 117,787/female 157,069) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 41.4
    youth dependency ratio: 24
    elderly dependency ratio: 17.4
    potential support ratio: 5.7 (2015 est.)
    total: 37.5 years
    male: 36.4 years
    female: 38.6 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    0.18% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    11.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
    urban population: 57.1% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SKOPJE (capital) 503,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    26.6 years (2013 est.)
    8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    total: 7.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    total population: 76.2 years
    male: 73.6 years
    female: 79 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    40.2% (2011)
    6.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    2.8 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    4.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 99.8% of population
    rural: 98.9% of population
    total: 99.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.2% of population
    rural: 1.1% of population
    total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 97.2% of population
    rural: 82.6% of population
    total: 90.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.8% of population
    rural: 17.4% of population
    total: 9.1% of population (2015 est.)
    0.01% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    200 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    fewer than 100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    20.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    1.3% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.8%
    male: 98.8%
    female: 96.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2014)
    total number: 16,782
    percentage: 6% (2005 est.)
    total: 53.1%
    male: 52%
    female: 55% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
  • Government :: MACEDONIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
    conventional short form: Macedonia
    local long form: Republika Makedonija
    local short form: Makedonija
    note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM)
    former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
    etymology: the country name derives from the ancient kingdom of Macedon (7th to 2nd centuries B.C.)
    parliamentary republic
    name: Skopje
    geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    70 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina) and 1 city* (grad); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Skopje*, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
    8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
    Independence Day, 8 September (1991); also known as National Day
    history: several previous; latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by at least 30 members of the Assembly, or by petition of at least 150,000 citizens; draft amendments require approval by majority vote of Assembly members, followed by public debate; final passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Macedonia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Gjorge IVANOV (since 12 May 2009)
    head of government: Prime Minister Zoran ZAEV (since 31 May 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote; note - the 2014 cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, DUI, and several small parties; as a result of an agreement reached in July 2015 between the largest parties to resolve a 16-month opposition boycott of the Assembly, several minister and deputy minister positions were also given to the opposition SDSM from November 2015 though May 2016 in preparation for elections originally scheduled for 24 April 2016, and then pushed back to 5 June 2016, and then again from September through December 2016, when those election were further delayed until December 2016
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 and 27 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coaliton is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly
    election results: Gjorge IVANOV reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Gjorge IVANOV (independent) 55.3%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 41.1%, other 3.6%
    description: unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (123 seats; 120 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies worldwide by simple majority vote, provided candidates meet a specified minimum vote count; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 11 December 2016, with a second round held in one polling station on 25 December 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 38.1%, SDSM coalition 36.7%, BDI 7.3%, Besa Movement 4.9%, Alliance for Albanians 3.1%, PDSh 2.7%, other 7.2%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 51, SDSM coalition 49, BDI 10, Besa Movement 5, Alliance for Albanians 3, PDSh 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 22 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Assembly for nonrenewable, 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts
    Alliance for Albanians [Ziadin SELA]
    Besa Movement [Bilal KASAMI]
    Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI]
    Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]
    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]
    Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Zoran ZAEV]
    note: during the 2016 parliamentary elections VMRO-DPMNE and SDSM each led coalitions
    Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Blagoja RALPOVSKI]
    Federation of Trade Unions of Macedonia or SSM [Zivko MITREVSKI]
    Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture or SONK [Jakim NEDELKOV]
    Student Plenum
    Eco Guerilla [Arianit XHAFERI]
    BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Vasko NAUMOVSKI (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Detroit, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jess L. BAILY (since 12 February 2015)
    embassy: Str. Samolilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
    mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
    telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000
    FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499
    a yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia
    eight-rayed sun; national colors: red, yellow
    name: "Denes nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia)
    lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI
    note: written in 1943 and adopted in 1991 , the song previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia
  • Economy :: MACEDONIA

  • Since its independence in 1991, Macedonia has made progress in liberalizing its economy and improving its business environment. Its low tax rates and free economic zones have helped to attract foreign investment, which is still low relative to the rest of Europe. Corruption and weak rule of law remain significant problems. Some businesses complain of opaque regulations and unequal enforcement of the law.
    Macedonia’s economy is closely linked to Europe as a customer for exports and source of investment, and has suffered as a result of prolonged weakness in the euro zone. Unemployment has remained consistently high at about 23%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, which is not captured by official statistics.
    Macedonia is working to build a country-wide natural gas pipeline and distribution network. Currently, Macedonia receives its small natural gas supplies from Russia via Bulgaria. In 2016, Macedonia signed a memorandum of understanding with Greece to build an interconnector that could connect to the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline that will traverse the region once complete, or to an LNG import terminal in Greece.
    Macedonia maintained macroeconomic stability through the global financial crisis by conducting prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged to the euro, and inflation at a low level. However, in the last two years, the internal political crisis has hampered economic performance, with GDP slowing in 2016, and both domestic private and public investments declining. Fiscal policies were lax, with unproductive public expenditures, including subsidies and pension increases, and rising guarantees for the debt of state owned enterprises, and fiscal targets were consistently missed. In 2016, public debt reached 50.5% of GDP before being revised down to 47.8% of GDP by year’s end, still relatively low compared to its Western Balkan neighbors and the rest of Europe. In 2016, Macedonia issued a Eurobond worth approximately $495 million to finance 2016 and part of 2017 budget needs.
    $29.52 billion (2016 est.)
    $28.82 billion (2015 est.)
    $27.77 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $10.49 billion (2016 est.)
    2.4% (2016 est.)
    3.8% (2015 est.)
    3.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    $14,500 (2016 est.)
    $14,000 (2015 est.)
    $13,400 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 113
    30.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    30.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    29.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    household consumption: 68%
    government consumption: 15.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 18%
    investment in inventories: 12.8%
    exports of goods and services: 49.3%
    imports of goods and services: -63.8% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 8.4%
    industry: 25.2%
    services: 66.5% (2016 est.)
    grapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
    food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts
    3.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    950,300 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    agriculture: 16.6%
    industry: 29.6%
    services: 53.8% (2016 est.)
    23.1% (2016 est.)
    24.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    21.5% (2015 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.2%
    highest 10%: 34.5% (2009 est.)
    33.7 (2015)
    35.2 (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    revenues: $3.041 billion
    expenditures: $3.33 billion (2016 est.)
    29% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    -2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    46.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds
    country comparison to the world: 97
    calendar year
    -0.2% (2016 est.)
    -0.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    3.25% (31 March 2017)
    3.75% (31 December 2016)
    note: series discontinued in January 2010; the discount rate has been replaced by a referent rate for calculating the penalty rate
    country comparison to the world: 103
    4% (31 December 2016 est.)
    4.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    $2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.825 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $6.308 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $5.964 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $5.073 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $5.043 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $2.078 billion (31 December 2016)
    $1.853 billion (31 December 2015)
    $2.269 billion (31 December 2014)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    -$336 million (2016 est.)
    -$207 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    $4.787 billion (2016 est.)
    $4.49 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron, steel; automotive parts
    Germany 33.2%, Kosovo 11.5%, Bulgaria 5.1%, Greece 4.5% (2015)
    $6.757 billion (2016 est.)
    $6.4 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
    Germany 15.9%, UK 13.6%, Greece 10.9%, Serbia 8.7%, Bulgaria 6.7%, Turkey 5.5%, Italy 4.7% (2015)
    $2.732 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $2.471 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    $7.646 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $6.873 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    $5.628 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $5.232 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    $749.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    $599.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -
    56.82 (2016 est.)
    55.537 (2015 est.)
    55.537 (2014 est.)
    46.437 (31 December 2013 est.)
    47.89 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: MACEDONIA

  • electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    5.303 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    6.455 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    58.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    2.191 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    2.057 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    64.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    32.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    2.9% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    2,551 bbl (31 December 2016 )
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    20,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    3,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    23,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    0 cu m (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    213.4 million cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    0 cu m (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    213.4 million cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    0 cu m (31 December 2016 )
    country comparison to the world: 171
    7.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
  • Communications :: MACEDONIA

  • total subscriptions: 372,557
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    total: 2.223 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 120 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 389 (2017)
    public service TV broadcaster Macedonian Radio and Television operates 3 national terrestrial TV channels and 2 satellite TV channels; additionally, there are 5 privately owned TV channels that broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters, 4 TV channels with concession for cable TV, 5 satellite TV channels broadcasting on a national level, 47 local commercial TV channels, and a large number of cable operators that offer domestic and international programming; the public radio broadcaster operates over multiple stations; there are 3 privately owned radio stations that broadcast nationally and about 75 local commercial radio stations (2017)
    .mk
    1.475 million
    70.4% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
  • Transportation :: MACEDONIA

  • Z3 (2016)
    10 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    total: 8
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    under 914 m: 6 (2013)
    total: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    gas 262 km; oil 120 km (2017)
    total: 699 km
    standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    total: 14,182 km (includes 242 km of expressways)
    paved: 9,633 km
    unpaved: 4,549 km (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 126
  • Military and Security :: MACEDONIA

  • 1.07% of GDP (2015)
    1.09% of GDP (2014)
    1.17% of GDP (2013)
    1.23% of GDP (2012)
    1.26% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; includes General Staff and subordinate Joint Operational Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Special Operations Regiment) (2012)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: MACEDONIA

  • Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
    stateless persons: 600 (2016)
    note: 478,090 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - June 2017)
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement