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Europe :: North Macedonia Print
Page last updated on November 24, 2020
  • Introduction :: North Macedonia
  • Background field listing

    North Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991 under the name of "Macedonia." Greek objection to the new country’s name, insisting it implied territorial pretensions to the northern Greek province of Macedonia, and democratic backsliding for several years stalled the country’s movement toward Euro-Atlantic integration. Immediately after Macedonia declared independence, Greece sought to block Macedonian efforts to gain UN membership if the name "Macedonia" was used. The country was eventually admitted to the UN in 1993 as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," and at the same time it agreed to UN-sponsored negotiations on the name dispute. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution continued. Over time, the US and over 130 other nations recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into a conflict in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. In January 2018, the government adopted a new law on languages, which elevated the Albanian language to an official language at the national level, with the Macedonian language remaining the sole official language in international relations. Relations between ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians remain complicated, however.

    North Macedonia's pro-Western government has used its time in office since 2017 to sign a historic deal with Greece in June 2018 to end the name dispute and revive Skopje's NATO and EU membership prospects. This followed a nearly three-year political crisis that engulfed the country but ended in June 2017 following a six-month-long government formation period after a closely contested election in December 2016. The crisis began after the 2014 legislative and presidential election, and escalated in 2015 when the opposition party began releasing wiretapped material that revealed alleged widespread government corruption and abuse. Although an EU candidate since 2005, North Macedonia has yet to open EU accession negotiations. The country still faces challenges, including fully implementing reforms to overcome years of democratic backsliding and stimulating economic growth and development. In June 2018, Macedonia and Greece signed the Prespa Accord whereby the Republic of Macedonia agreed to change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia. Following ratification by both countries, the agreement went in to force on 12 February 2019. North Macedonia signed an accession protocol to become a NATO member state in February 2019.

  • Geography :: North Macedonia
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    41 50 N, 22 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 25,713 sq km
    land: 25,433 sq km
    water: 280 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly larger than Vermont; almost four times the size of Delaware
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 838 km
    border countries (5): Albania 181 km, Bulgaria 162 km, Greece 234 km, Kosovo 160 km, Serbia 101 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
    Terrain field listing
    mountainous with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 741 m
    lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
    highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
    Natural resources field listing
    low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 44.3% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 16.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 26.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 39.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 15.9% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    1,280 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
    Natural hazards field listing
    high seismic risks
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution from metallurgical plants; Skopje has severe air pollution problems every winter as a result of industrial emissions, smoke from wood-buring stoves, and exhaust fumes from old cars
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
  • People and Society :: North Macedonia
  • Population field listing
    2,125,971 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Macedonian(s)
    adjective: Macedonian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 est.)

    note: North Macedonia has not conducted a census since 2002; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 6.5–13% of North Macedonia’s population

    Languages field listing
    Macedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Romani 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other (includes Aromanian (Vlach) and Bosnian) 1.8% (2002 est.)

    note: minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities where they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Krusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo

    Religions field listing
    Macedonian Orthodox 64.8%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.4%, other and unspecified 1.5% (2002 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 16.16% (male 177,553/female 165,992)
    15-24 years: 12.65% (male 139,250/female 129,770)
    25-54 years: 44.47% (male 480,191/female 465,145)
    55-64 years: 12.55% (male 131,380/female 135,407)
    65 years and over: 14.17% (male 131,674/female 169,609) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 44.5
    youth dependency ratio: 23.6
    elderly dependency ratio: 20.9
    potential support ratio: 4.8 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 39 years
    male: 38 years
    female: 40 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.15% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Birth rate field listing
    10.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Death rate field listing
    9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Net migration rate field listing
    0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 58.5% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.45% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    595,000 SKOPJE (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    27.2 years (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 76.3 years
    male: 74.2 years
    female: 78.6 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.5 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    40.2% (2011)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 99.8% of population
    rural: 98.9% of population
    total: 99.4% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population
    rural: 1.1% of population
    total: 0.6% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    6.1% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    2.87 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    4.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 97.9% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population
    rural: 17.4% of population
    total: 9.1% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    <.1% (2018 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    <500 (2018 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    300 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    22.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    1.3% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Education expenditures field listing
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.8%
    male: 98.8%
    female: 96.8% (2015)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 14 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 14 years (2018)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 45.4%
    male: 46.6%
    female: 43.2% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
  • Government :: North Macedonia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of North Macedonia
    conventional short form: North Macedonia
    local long form: Republika Severna Makedonija
    local short form: Severna Makedonija
    former: Democratic Federal Macedonia, People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Macedonia
    etymology: the country name derives from the ancient kingdom of Macedon (7th to 2nd centuries B.C.)
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Skopje
    geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: Skopje derives from its ancient name Scupi, the Latin designation of a classical era Greco-Roman frontier fortress town; the name may go back even further to a pre-Greek, Illyrian name
    Administrative divisions field listing
    70 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina) and 1 city* (grad); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Skopje*, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
    Independence field listing
    8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 8 September (1991), also known as National Day
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by at least 30 members of the Assembly, or by petition of at least 150,000 citizens; final approval requires a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2019
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of North Macedonia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Stevo PENDAROVSKI (since 12 May 2019)
    head of government: Prime Minister Zoran ZAEV (since 31 August 2020); note - Prime Minister ZAEV resigned on 3 January 2019 but was reelected by the Assembly on 31 August 2020 (62-51) following the delayed Assembly general election on 15 July 2020
    cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote
    elections/appointments: president directly elected using a modified 2-round system; a candidate can only be elected in the first round with an absolute majority from all registered voters; in the second round, voter turnout must be at least 40% for the result to be deemed valid; president elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 April and 5 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly; Zoran ZAEV reelected prime minister by the Assembly on 31 August 2020; Assembly vote - 62 for, 51 against
    election results: Stevo PENDAROVSKI elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 44.8%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (VMRO-DPMNE) 44.2%, Blenim REKA (independent) 11.1%; percent of vote in second round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI 53.6%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA 46.4%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Assembly - Sobraine in Macedonian, Kuvend in Albanian (between 120 and 140 seats, currently 120; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; possibility of 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies by simple majority vote provided there is sufficient voter turnout; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last election was to be held on 12 April 2020 but was postponed until 15 July 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic (next to be held in 2024)
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - We Can 35.9%, Renewal 34.6%, BDI 11.5%, AfA-Alternative 9%, The Left 4.1%, PDSh 1.5%, other 3.4%; seats by party/coalition - We Can 46, Renewal 44, BDI 15, AfA-Alternative 12, The Left 2, PDSh 1
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 22 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Assembly for nonrenewable, 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Alliance for Albanians or AfA [Ziadin SELA]
    Alternative (Alternativa) [Afrim GASHI]
    Besa Movement [Bilal KASAMI]
    Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI]
    Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]
    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Hristijan MICKOSKI]
    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - People's Party or VMRO-NP [Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Goran MILEVSKI]
    Renewal (VMRO-DPMNE coalition)
    Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Zoran ZAEV]
    The Left (Levica) [Dimitar APASIEV]
    Turkish Democratic Party of DPT [Beycan ILYAS]
    We Can (coalition includes SDSM/Besa/VMRO-NP, DPT, LDP)
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Vasko NAUMOVSKI (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Detroit, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kate Marie BYRNES (since 12 July 2019)
    telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000
    embassy: Str. Samoilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
    mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
    FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499
    Flag description field listing
    a yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia
    National symbol(s) field listing
    eight-rayed sun; national colors: red, yellow
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Denes nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia)
    lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI

    note: written in 1943 and adopted in 1991, the song previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia

  • Economy :: North Macedonia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Since its independence in 1991, Macedonia has made progress in liberalizing its economy and improving its business environment. Its low tax rates and free economic zones have helped to attract foreign investment, which is still low relative to the rest of Europe. Corruption and weak rule of law remain significant problems. Some businesses complain of opaque regulations and unequal enforcement of the law.


    Macedonia’s economy is closely linked to Europe as a customer for exports and source of investment, and has suffered as a result of prolonged weakness in the euro zone. Unemployment has remained consistently high at about 23% but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, which is not captured by official statistics.


    Macedonia is working to build a country-wide natural gas pipeline and distribution network. Currently, Macedonia receives its small natural gas supplies from Russia via Bulgaria. In 2016, Macedonia signed a memorandum of understanding with Greece to build an interconnector that could connect to the Trans Adriatic Pipeline that will traverse the region once complete, or to an LNG import terminal in Greece.


    Macedonia maintained macroeconomic stability through the global financial crisis by conducting prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged to the euro, and inflation at a low level. However, in the last two years, the internal political crisis has hampered economic performance, with GDP growth slowing in 2016 and 2017, and both domestic private and public investments declining. Fiscal policies were lax, with unproductive public expenditures, including subsidies and pension increases, and rising guarantees for the debt of state owned enterprises, and fiscal targets were consistently missed. In 2017, public debt stabilized at about 47% of GDP, still relatively low compared to its Western Balkan neighbors and the rest of Europe.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $31.03 billion (2017 est.)
    $31.02 billion (2016 est.)
    $30.15 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data

    country comparison to the world: 131
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $11.37 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    0% (2017 est.)
    2.9% (2016 est.)
    3.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $14,900 (2017 est.)
    $15,000 (2016 est.)
    $14,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 113
    Gross national saving field listing
    30.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    29.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    28.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 65.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 13.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 20.2% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 54% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -69% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 10.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 26.6% (2017 est.)
    services: 62.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    grapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
    Industries field listing
    food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    -7.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Labor force field listing
    793,000 (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 16.2%
    industry: 29.2%
    services: 54.5% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    17.29% (2019 est.)
    20.7% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Population below poverty line field listing
    21.5% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 1.7%
    highest 10%: 25% (2015 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 3.295 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 3.605 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    29% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Public debt field listing
    39.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    39.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds

    country comparison to the world: 134
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    -0.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Current account balance field listing
    -$151 million (2017 est.)
    -$293 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Exports field listing
    $4.601 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.75 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 46.7%, Bulgaria 6.1%, Serbia 4.4%, Belgium 4.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron, steel; automotive parts
    Imports field listing
    $6.63 billion (2017 est.)
    $5.805 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
    Imports - partners field listing
    Germany 11.9%, UK 10%, Greece 8%, Serbia 7.1%, China 5.9%, Italy 5.5%, Turkey 4.5%, Bulgaria 4.3% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $2.802 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.755 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Debt - external field listing
    $8.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.685 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Exchange rates field listing
    Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -
    55.8 (2017 est.)
    55.733 (2016 est.)
    55.733 (2015 est.)
    55.537 (2014 est.)
    46.437 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: North Macedonia
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
    Electricity - production field listing
    5.396 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    6.42 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Electricity - exports field listing
    58.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Electricity - imports field listing
    2.191 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    1.828 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    60% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    37% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    142 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    21,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    3,065 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    23,560 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    198.2 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    198.2 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    7.459 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
  • Communications :: North Macedonia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 402,250
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18.95 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 2,094,037
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 98.65 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: being part of the EU pre-accession process has led to stronger teledensity with a closer regulatory framework and independent regulators; administrative ties with the European Union have led to progress; broadband services are widely available; more customers moving to fiber networks; 2 mobile network operators; end of roaming tariffs (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 19 per 100 and mobile-cellular 99 per 100 subscriptions (2019)
    international: country code - 389
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    public service TV broadcaster Macedonian Radio and Television operates 3 national terrestrial TV channels and 2 satellite TV channels; additionally, there are 10 regional TV stations that broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters, 54 TV channels with concession for cable TV, 9 regional TV stations with concessions for cable TV; 4 satellite TV channels broadcasting on a national level, 21 local commercial TV channels, and a large number of cable operators that offer domestic and international programming; the public radio broadcaster operates over 3 stations; there are 4 privately owned radio stations that broadcast nationally; 17 regional radio stations, and 49 local commercial radio stations (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 1,677,569
    percent of population: 79.17% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 427,964
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
  • Transportation :: North Macedonia
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    Z3 (2016)
    Airports field listing
    10 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 8 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    under 914 m: 6 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 2 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    262 km gas, 120 km oil (2017)
    Railways field listing
    total: 925 km (2017)
    standard gauge: 925 km 1.435-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Roadways field listing
    total: 14,182 km (includes 290 km of expressways) (2017)
    paved: 9,633 km (2017)
    unpaved: 4,549 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 128
  • Military and Security :: North Macedonia
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Army of the Republic of North Macedonia (ARSM; includes a General Staff and subordinate Operations Command, Logistic Support Command, Training and Doctrine Command, and Center for Electronic Reconnaissance) (2020)
    note: the Operations Command includes air, ground, special operations, support, and reserve forces
    Military expenditures field listing
    1.2% of GDP (2019)
    0.9% of GDP (2018)
    0.9% of GDP (2017)
    1% of GDP (2016)
    1% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Army of the Republic of North Macedonia (ARSM) has approximately 8,000 active duty personnel (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the inventory of North Macedonia's Army consists mostly of Soviet-era equipment; since 2010, it has received small amounts of equipment from Ireland and Turkey (2019 est.)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: North Macedonia
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Kosovo and North Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 567 (2019)

    note: 506,774 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2020); North Macedonia is predominantly a transit country and hosts fewer than 50 refugees and asylum seekers as of October 2017; 3,132 migrant arrivals in 2018

    Illicit drugs field listing
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement