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Africa :: MALI
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MALI
  • Introduction :: MALI

  • The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. An international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president. The Malian Government and northern armed groups signed an internationally-mediated peace accord in June 2015.
  • Geography :: MALI

  • interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
    17 00 N, 4 00 W
    Africa
    total: 1,240,192 sq km
    land: 1,220,190 sq km
    water: 20,002 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 24
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    total: 7,908 km
    border countries (7): Algeria 1,359 km, Burkina Faso 1,325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1,062 km, Mauritania 2,236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
    mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
    mean elevation: 343 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
    highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
    gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
    note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
    agricultural land: 34.1%
    arable land 5.6%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 28.4%
    forest: 10.2%
    other: 55.7% (2011 est.)
    3,780 sq km (2012)
    100 cu km (2011)
    total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
    per capita: 545.4 cu m/yr (2000)
    hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
    deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
  • People and Society :: MALI

  • 17,467,108 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    noun: Malian(s)
    adjective: Malian
    Bambara 34.1%, Fulani (Peul) 14.7%, Sarakole 10.8%, Senufo 10.5%, Dogon 8.9%, Malinke 8.7%, Bobo 2.9%, Songhai 1.6%, Tuareg 0.9%, other Malian 6.1%, from member of Economic Community of West African States 0.3%, other 0.4% (2012-13 est.)
    French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3%
    note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language (2009 est.)
    Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 est.)
    0-14 years: 47.27% (male 4,145,290/female 4,110,642)
    15-24 years: 19.19% (male 1,601,474/female 1,751,161)
    25-54 years: 26.82% (male 2,173,415/female 2,511,844)
    55-64 years: 3.76% (male 327,923/female 329,296)
    65 years and over: 2.95% (male 257,519/female 258,544) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 100.2%
    youth dependency ratio: 95.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5%
    potential support ratio: 19.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 16.2 years
    male: 15.5 years
    female: 16.8 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 227
    2.96% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    44.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    urban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 5.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BAMAKO (capital) 2.515 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    18.3
    note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2012/13 est.)
    587 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    total: 100 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 106.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 93.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    total population: 55.8 years
    male: 53.9 years
    female: 57.7 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    5.95 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    10.3% (2012/13)
    6.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 96.5% of population
    rural: 64.1% of population
    total: 77% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3.5% of population
    rural: 35.9% of population
    total: 23% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 37.5% of population
    rural: 16.1% of population
    total: 24.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 62.5% of population
    rural: 83.9% of population
    total: 75.3% of population (2015 est.)
    1.25% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    124,200 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    6,500 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    5.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    27.9% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    4.3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 38.7%
    male: 48.2%
    female: 29.2% (2015 est.)
    total: 8 years
    male: 9 years
    female: 7 years (2011)
    total number: 1,485,027
    percentage: 36% (2010 est.)
    total: 11.1%
    male: NA
    female: NA (2014 est.)
  • Government :: MALI

  • conventional long form: Republic of Mali
    conventional short form: Mali
    local long form: Republique de Mali
    local short form: Mali
    former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
    note: name derives from the West African Mali Empire of the 13th to 16th centuries A.D.
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Bamako
    geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu)
    22 September 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
    several previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992; amended 1999, suspended briefly in 2012 (2016)
    civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mali
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Modibo KEITA (since 8 January 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 July 2013 with a runoff on 11 August 2013 (election delayed from April 2012 due to a coup in March 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held in two rounds on 24 November and 15 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); note - the scheduled July 2012 election was canceled due to a coup d'etat and the Tuareg Rebellion
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDR coalition 69 (RPM 66, PARENA 3), ADP coalition 37 (ADEMA-PASG 16, URD 17, CNID 4), FARE 6, CODEM 5, SADI 5, ASMA-CFP 3, PDES 3, MPR 3, independent 4, other 12; note - 13 seats were from voters abroad
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office)
    African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO]
    Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Dionconda TRAORE]
    Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (coalition including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
    Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]
    Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE]
    Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO]
    Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR]
    Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (coalition including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
    National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]
    Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]
    Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA]
    Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA] (ruling party)
    Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]
    other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Tiena COULIBALY (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
    chief of mission: Ambassador Paul A. FOLMSBEE (since 2015)
    embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
    mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
    telephone: [223] 2070-2300
    FAX: [223] 2070-2479
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
    Great Mosque of Djenne; national colors: green, yellow, red
    name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
    lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
    note: adopted 1962; also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)
  • Economy :: MALI

  • Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country that depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid.
    Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks.
    Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will largely depend on global price trends. Mali’s economic performance has improved since 2013 although physical insecurity, high population growth, corruption, weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital remain hindrances to sustained growth.
    $35.83 billion (2015 est.)
    $33.76 billion (2014 est.)
    $31.41 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 119
    $13.07 billion (2015 est.)
    6.1% (2015 est.)
    7.5% (2014 est.)
    2.3% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    $2,200 (2015 est.)
    $2,100 (2014 est.)
    $2,100 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 200
    21.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    23.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    22.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    household consumption: 83.3%
    government consumption: 18.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 16.7%
    investment in inventories: -0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 30.1%
    imports of goods and services: -48.1% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 38.5%
    industry: 23.3%
    services: 38.2% (2015 est.)
    cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
    food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
    5.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    5.644 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    agriculture: 80%
    industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
    30% (2015 est.)
    8.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    36.1% (2005 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.5%
    highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
    40.1 (2001)
    50.5 (1994)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    revenues: $2.409 billion
    expenditures: $2.756 billion (2015 est.)
    22% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    -3.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    39% of GDP (2015 est.)
    33.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    calendar year
    1.4% (2015 est.)
    0.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    16% (31 December 2010)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    9.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
    9.3% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    $2.213 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.612 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $3.984 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.817 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    $2.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.541 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    $NA
    -$371 million (2015 est.)
    -$664 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    $2.191 billion (2015 est.)
    $2.253 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    cotton, gold, livestock
    Switzerland 48.7%, China 9.4%, India 9.1%, Bangladesh 8%, Thailand 4.5%, Indonesia 4.4% (2015)
    $2.919 billion (2015 est.)
    $3.14 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
    Cote dIvoire 9.9%, France 9.5%, Senegal 7.7%, China 7% (2015)
    $3.633 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.423 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    $3.159 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.624 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    $27.26 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $7.28 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    580.5 (2015 est.)
    494.42 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: MALI

  • population without electricity: 11.4 million
    electrification - total population: 26 %
    electrification - urban areas: 53 %
    electrification - rural areas: 9 % (2013)
    949 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    882.6 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    304,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    48.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    51.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    4,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    4,698 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    773,900 Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
  • Communications :: MALI

  • total subscriptions: 169,006
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    total: 22.699 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    general assessment: domestic system improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
    domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 130 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
    national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    AM 1, FM 230 (27 regional and government stations, and 203 private stations), shortwave 1 (2001)
    2 (plus repeaters) (2007)
    .ml
    437 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    total: 1.753 million
    percent of population: 10.3% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
  • Transportation :: MALI

  • 25 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    total: 8
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 17
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    total: 593 km
    narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    total: 22,474 km
    paved: 5,522 km
    unpaved: 16,952 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    river port(s): Koulikoro (Niger)
  • Military and Security :: MALI

  • Malian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2013)
    18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
    1.44% of GDP (2012)
    1.51% of GDP (2011)
    1.44% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 68
  • Transnational Issues :: MALI

  • demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
    refugees (country of origin): 13,539 (Mauritania) (2015)
    IDPs: 39,182 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2016)
    current situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking, but foreign women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are forced to work in agricultural settings, gold mines, the informal commercial sector and to beg within Mali and neighboring countries; Malians and other Africans who travel through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya in hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking; men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's Tamachek community are subjected to hereditary slavery-related practices; Malian women and girls are victims of sex trafficking in Gabon, Libya, Lebanon, and Tunisia; the recruitment of child soldiers by armed groups in northern Mali decreased
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Mali does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Mali was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; officials failed to distribute the 2012 anti-trafficking law to judicial and law enforcement personnel, perpetuating a lack of understanding and awareness of the legislation; anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts decreased in 2014, with only one case investigated and no prosecutions or convictions; fewer victims were identified, and the government did not support the privately funded NGOs and international organizations it relied upon to provide victims with services; the government did not conduct any awareness-raising campaigns, workshops, or training sessions (2015)