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Africa :: Mali
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Mali
  • Introduction :: MALI

  • The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. An international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president.
  • Geography :: MALI

  • interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
    17 00 N, 4 00 W
    Africa
    total: 1,240,192 sq km
    land: 1,220,190 sq km
    water: 20,002 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 24
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    total: 7,908 km
    border countries (7): Algeria 1,359 km, Burkina Faso 1,325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1,062 km, Mauritania 2,236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
    mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
    lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
    highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
    gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
    note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
    agricultural land: 34.1%
    arable land 5.6%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 28.4%
    forest: 10.2%
    other: 55.7% (2011 est.)
    2,358 sq km (2003)
    100 cu km (2011)
    total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
    per capita: 545.4 cu m/yr (2000)
    hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
    deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
  • People and Society :: MALI

  • noun: Malian(s)
    adjective: Malian
    Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
    French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, unspecified 0.6%, other 8.5%
    note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language
    Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 Census)
    16,955,536 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    0-14 years: 47.44% (male 4,038,801/female 4,005,256)
    15-24 years: 19.09% (male 1,543,751/female 1,693,410)
    25-54 years: 26.75% (male 2,106,889/female 2,428,643)
    55-64 years: 3.75% (male 317,513/female 317,957)
    65 years and over: 2.97% (male 251,693/female 251,623) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 100.9%
    youth dependency ratio: 95.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.5%
    potential support ratio: 18.2% (2014 est.)
    total: 16 years
    male: 15.4 years
    female: 16.7 years (2014 est.)
    2.98% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    44.99 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    12.89 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    -2.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    urban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 5.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BAMAKO (capital) 2.386 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 102.23 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 108.88 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 95.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    total population: 55.34 years
    male: 53.48 years
    female: 57.25 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    6.06 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    10.3% (2012/13)
    7.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 90.9% of population
    rural: 54.2% of population
    total: 67.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 9.1% of population
    rural: 45.8% of population
    total: 32.8% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 35.3% of population
    rural: 14.5% of population
    total: 21.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 64.7% of population
    rural: 85.5% of population
    total: 78.1% of population (2012 est.)
    0.86% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    97,000 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    5,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    5.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    27.9% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    4.8% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 38.7%
    male: 48.2%
    female: 29.2% (2015 est.)
    total: 8 years
    male: 9 years
    female: 7 years (2011)
    total number: 1,485,027
    percentage: 36% (2010 est.)
  • Government :: MALI

  • conventional long form: Republic of Mali
    conventional short form: Mali
    local long form: Republique de Mali
    local short form: Mali
    former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
    republic
    name: Bamako
    geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu)
    22 September 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
    several previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992; amended 1999; note - suspended briefly in 2012 (2012)
    civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Modibo KEITA (since 8 January 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); the election scheduled for 29 April 2012 and delayed following the March 2012 coup took place 28 July 2013 and a runoff election was held on 11 August 2013; prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE 22.4%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held in two rounds on 24 November 2013 and on 15 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); note - the scheduled July 2012 election was cancelled due to a coup d'etat and the Tuareg Rebellion
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDR coalition 64 (RPM 61, PARENA 3), ADP coalition 42 (ADEMA 20, URD 18, CNID 4), FARE 5, CODEM 5, SADI 4, ASMA-CFP 4, Yelema 2, independent 16, other 5; note - 13 seats were from voters abroad
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office)
    African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, Secretary General]
    Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Dionconda TRAORE]
    Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
    Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region)
    Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]
    Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE]
    Convergence for the development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni GUINDO]
    Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR]
    Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
    Movement for a Common Destiny or MODEC [Koniba SIDIBE]
    National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]
    Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]
    Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]
    Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA]
    Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]
    Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA] (ruling party)
    Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE]
    Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Tieman Hubert COULIBALY]
    Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]
    Yelema [Moussa MARA]
    other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Tiena COULIBALY (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
    chief of mission: Ambassador Paul A. FOLMSBE (since 2015)
    embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
    mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
    telephone: [223] 2070-2300
    FAX: [223] 2070-2479
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
    Great Mosque of Djenne; national colors: green, yellow, red
    name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
    lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
    note: adopted 1962; also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)
  • Economy :: MALI

  • Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country that depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will largely depend on global price trends. The government is subsidizing the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks. The main threat to Mali’s economy is a return to physical insecurity. Other long term threats to the economy include high population growth, corruption, a weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital. The administration’s purchase of a presidential jet for $40 million and inflated defense contracts damaged it’s credibility and led the IMF to temporarily suspend aid in 2014.
    $27.31 billion (2014 est.)
    $25.56 billion (2013 est.)
    $25.13 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $11.92 billion (2014 est.)
    6.8% (2014 est.)
    1.7% (2013 est.)
    0% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    $1,700 (2014 est.)
    $1,600 (2013 est.)
    $1,600 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 215
    18.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    15.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    15.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    household consumption: 78.4%
    government consumption: 16.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 14.8%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 26.5%
    imports of goods and services: -36.2%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 38%
    industry: 23.3%
    services: 38.7% (2014 est.)
    cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
    food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
    5.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    5.538 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    agriculture: 80%
    industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
    30% (2004 est.)
    8.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    36.1% (2005 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.5%
    highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
    40.1 (2001)
    50.5 (1994)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    revenues: $2.698 billion
    expenditures: $3.265 billion (2014 est.)
    22.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    -4.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    32.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    29.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    calendar year
    0.9% (2014 est.)
    -0.6% (2013 est.)
    16% (31 December 2010)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    9.3% (31 December 2014 est.)
    9.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    $2.833 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.772 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    $3.984 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.817 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    $2.484 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.37 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    $NA
    -$949 million (2014 est.)
    $232.4 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    $2.763 billion (2014 est.)
    $3.081 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    cotton, gold, livestock
    China 30.5%, India 15.1%, Indonesia 8.6%, Bangladesh 6.3%, Thailand 5.6% (2013)
    $2.995 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.964 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
    France 11.1%, Senegal 10.1%, Cote dIvoire 9.2%, China 7.6% (2013)
    $3.737 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.431 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    $2.812 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.412 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    $61.2 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $52.28 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    491.2 (2014 est.)
    494.04 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
    495.28 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: MALI

  • 520 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    483.6 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    304,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    48.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    51.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    5,440 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    4,698 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    773,900 Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
  • Communications :: MALI

  • 112,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    14.613 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
    domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to about 70 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)
    national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    AM 1, FM 230 (27 regional and government stations, and 203 private stations), shortwave 1 (2001)
    2 (plus repeaters) (2007)
    .ml
    437 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    249,800 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 132
  • Transportation :: MALI

  • 25 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    total: 8
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 17
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m:
    5 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    total: 593 km
    narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    total: 22,474 km
    paved: 5,522 km
    unpaved: 16,952 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    river port(s): Koulikoro (Niger)
  • Military :: MALI

  • Malian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2013)
    18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
    males age 16-49: 2,848,412
    females age 16-49: 2,981,106 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,825,779
    females age 16-49: 1,968,563 (2010 est.)
    male: 158,031
    female: 159,733 (2010 est.)
    1.44% of GDP (2012)
    1.51% of GDP (2011)
    1.44% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 68
  • Transnational Issues :: MALI

  • demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
    refugees (country of origin): 12,898 (Mauritania) (2014)
    IDPs: 102,346 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2015)
    current situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are found in conditions of forced labor in agricultural settings, gold mines, and the informal commercial sector, as well as forced begging within Mali and neighboring countries; Malians and other Africans who travel through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya in hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking; men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to the longstanding practice of debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's black Tamachek community are subjected to traditional slavery-related practices, and this involuntary servitude reportedly has extended to their children; there has been a decrease in the recruitment of Malian children as combatants, cooks, porters, guards, spies, and sex slaves by non-governmental armed groups in northern Mali
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Mali does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; although the government enacted a comprehensive anti-trafficking law in 2012, it did not demonstrate evidence of overall increasing efforts to address human trafficking over the previous year; the government failed to prosecute or convict any trafficking offenders because the law had not yet been distributed to judges and a significant lack of awareness of the law within the judiciary remained; authorities did not provide any direct services to victims and did not make any tangible prevention efforts; NGOs provided care to victims without government funding; no awareness-raising campaigns or anti-trafficking training were carried out (2014)
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