Africa :: MOROCCO
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  • Introduction :: MOROCCO

  • In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. The Alaouite Dynasty, to which the current Moroccan royal family belongs, dates from the 17th century. In 1860, Spain occupied northern Morocco and ushered in a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Morocco's sovereignty steadily erode; in 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Sultan MOHAMMED V, the current monarch's grandfather, organized the new state as a constitutional monarchy and in 1957 assumed the title of king. Since Spain's 1976 withdrawal from what is today called Western Sahara, Morocco has extended its de facto administrative control to roughly 80% of this territory; however, the UN does not recognize Morocco as the administering power for Western Sahara. The UN since 1991 has monitored a cease-fire between Morocco and the Polisario Front - Western Sahara's liberation movement - and leads ongoing negotiations over the status of the territory.
    King MOHAMMED VI in early 2011 responded to the spread of pro-democracy protests in the region by implementing a reform program that included a new constitution, passed by popular referendum in July 2011, under which some new powers were extended to parliament and the prime minister but ultimate authority remains in the hands of the monarch. In November 2011, the Justice and Development Party - a moderate Islamist party - won the largest number of seats in parliamentary elections, becoming the first Islamist party to lead the Moroccan Government. In September 2015, Morocco held its first ever direct elections for regional councils, one of the reforms included in the 2011 constitution. Nationwide parliamentary elections are scheduled for October 2016.
  • Geography :: MOROCCO

  • Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
    32 00 N, 5 00 W
    total: 446,550 sq km
    land: 446,300 sq km
    water: 250 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 58
    slightly more than three times the size of New York; slightly larger than California
    Area comparison map:
    total: 2,362.5 km
    border countries (3): Algeria 1,900 km, Western Sahara 444 km, Spain (Ceuta) 8 km, Spain (Melilla) 10.5 km
    note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
    1,835 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
    mountainous northern coast (Rif Mountains) and interior (Atlas Mountains) bordered by large plateaus with intermontane valleys, and fertile coastal plains
    mean elevation: 909 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m
    highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m
    phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
    agricultural land: 67.5%
    arable land 17.5%; permanent crops 2.9%; permanent pasture 47.1%
    forest: 11.5%
    other: 21% (2011 est.)
    14,850 sq km (2012)
    northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
    land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar; the only African nation to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines
  • People and Society :: MOROCCO

  • 33,655,786 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    noun: Moroccan(s)
    adjective: Moroccan
    Arab-Berber 99%, other 1%
    Arabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)
    Muslim 99% (official; virtually all Sunni, <0.1% Shia), other 1% (includes Christian, Jewish, and Baha'i); note - Jewish about 6,000 (2010 est.)
    religious affiliation:
    Morocco is undergoing a demographic transition. Its population is growing but at a declining rate, as people live longer and women have fewer children. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have been reduced through better health care, nutrition, hygiene, and vaccination coverage, although disparities between urban and rural and rich and poor households persist. Morocco’s shrinking child cohort reflects the decline of its total fertility rate from 5 in mid-1980s to 2.2 in 2010, which is a result of increased female educational attainment, higher contraceptive use, delayed marriage, and the desire for smaller families. Young adults (persons aged 15-29) make up almost 26% of the total population and represent a potential economic asset if they can be gainfully employed. Currently, however, many youths are unemployed because Morocco’s job creation rate has not kept pace with the growth of its working-age population. Most youths who have jobs work in the informal sector with little security or benefits.
    During the second half of the 20th century, Morocco became one of the world’s top emigration countries, creating large, widely dispersed migrant communities in Western Europe. The Moroccan Government has encouraged emigration since its independence in 1956, both to secure remittances for funding national development and as an outlet to prevent unrest in rebellious (often Berber) areas. Although Moroccan labor migrants earlier targeted Algeria and France, the flood of Moroccan “guest workers” from the mid-1960s to the early 1970s spread widely across northwestern Europe to fill unskilled jobs in the booming manufacturing, mining, construction, and agriculture industries. Host societies and most Moroccan migrants expected this migration to be temporary, but deteriorating economic conditions in Morocco related to the 1973 oil crisis and tighter European immigration policies resulted in these stays becoming permanent.
    A wave of family migration followed in the 1970s and 1980s, with a growing number of second generation Moroccans opting to become naturalized citizens of their host countries. Spain and Italy emerged as new destination countries in the mid-1980s, but their introduction of visa restrictions in the early 1990s pushed Moroccans increasingly to migrate either legally by marrying Moroccans already in Europe or illegally to work in the underground economy. Women began to make up a growing share of these labor migrants. At the same time, some higher-skilled Moroccans went to the US and Quebec, Canada.
    In the mid-1990s, Morocco developed into a transit country for asylum seekers from sub-Saharan Africa and illegal labor migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia trying to reach Europe via southern Spain, Spain’s Canary Islands, or Spain’s North African enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla. Forcible expulsions by Moroccan and Spanish security forces have not deterred these illegal migrants or calmed Europe’s security concerns. Rabat remains unlikely to adopt an EU agreement to take back third-country nationals who have entered the EU illegally via Morocco. Thousands of other illegal migrants have chosen to stay in Morocco until they earn enough money for further travel or permanently as a “second-best” option. The launching of a regularization program in 2014 legalized the status of some migrants and granted them equal access to education, health care, and work, but xenophobia and racism remain obstacles.
    0-14 years: 26.08% (male 4,459,511/female 4,319,538)
    15-24 years: 17.22% (male 2,882,145/female 2,913,917)
    25-54 years: 42.24% (male 6,874,144/female 7,341,892)
    55-64 years: 7.89% (male 1,318,302/female 1,337,192)
    65 years and over: 6.56% (male 995,620/female 1,213,525) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 50.1%
    youth dependency ratio: 40.9%
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.3%
    potential support ratio: 10.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 28.9 years
    male: 28.3 years
    female: 29.5 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    0.99% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    18 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    4.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    -3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    urban population: 60.2% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Casablanca 3.515 million; RABAT (capital) 1.967 million; Fes 1.172 million; Marrakech 1.134 million; Tangier 982,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.82 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    121 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    total: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    total population: 76.9 years
    male: 73.8 years
    female: 80.1 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    2.12 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    67.4% (2010/11)
    5.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    urban: 98.7% of population
    rural: 65.3% of population
    total: 85.4% of population
    urban: 1.3% of population
    rural: 34.7% of population
    total: 14.6% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 84.1% of population
    rural: 65.5% of population
    total: 76.7% of population
    urban: 15.9% of population
    rural: 34.5% of population
    total: 23.3% of population (2015 est.)
    0.12% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    24,300 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    900 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    21.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    3.1% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    5.3% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 68.5%
    male: 78.6%
    female: 58.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 12 years (2012)
    total number: 500,960
    percentage: 8% (2007 est.)
    total: 20%
    male: 20.3%
    female: 19.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
  • Government :: MOROCCO

  • conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
    conventional short form: Morocco
    local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
    local short form: Al Maghrib
    note: the English name "Morocco" derives from, respectively, the Spanish and Portuguese names "Marruecos" and "Marrocos," which stem from "Marrakesh" the Latin name for the former capital of ancient Morocco; the Arabic name "Al Maghrib" translates as "The West"
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    name: Rabat
    geographic coordinates: 34 01 N, 6 49 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in September
    11 regions (recognized); Beni Mellal-Khenifra, Casablanca-Settat, Draa-Tafilalet, Fes-Meknes, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Laayoune-Sakia al Hamra, Oriental, Marrakech-Safi, Rabat-Sale-Kenitra, Souss-Massa, Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
    note: Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Oued Noun and Laayoune-Sakia al Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco also claims a 12th region, Dakhla-Oued ed Dahab, that falls entirely within Western Sahara
    2 March 1956 (from France)
    Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
    several previous; latest drafted 17 June 2011, approved by referendum 1 July 2011; note - sources disagree on whether the 2011 referendum was for a new constitution or for reforms to the previous constitution (2016)
    mixed legal system of civil law based on French law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts by Constitutional Court
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Morocco; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
    head of government: Prime Minister Abdelillah BENKIRANE (since 29 November 2011)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the prime minister in consultation with Parliament and appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from the majority party following legislative elections
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Chamber of Advisors (120 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college of local councils, professional organizations, and labor unions; members serve 6-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives (395 seats; 305 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 90 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - in the national constituency, 60 seats are reserved for women and 30 reserved for those under age 40
    elections: Chamber of Advisors - last held on 2 October 2015 (next to be held in fall 2021); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 7 October 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021)
    election results: Chamber of Advisors- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - JDP 31.7%, PAM 25.8%, PI 11.7%, RNI 9.4%, MP 6.8%, USFP 5.1%, UC 4.8%, PPS 3.0%, MDS 0.8%, other 1.0%; seats by party - PJD 125, PAM 102, PI 46, RNI 37, MP 27, USFP 20, UC 19, PPS 12, MDS 3, other 4
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of 5-judge panels organized into civil, family matters, commercial, administrative, social, and criminal sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of Judicial Power, a 20-member body presided by the monarch and including the Supreme Court president, the prosecutor general, representatives of the appeals and first instance courts - among them 1 woman magistrate, the president of the National Council of the Rights of Man, and 5 "notable persons" appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court members - 6 designated by the monarch and 6 elected by Parliament; court president appointed by the monarch from among the court members; members serve 9-year non-renewable terms
    subordinate courts: courts of appeal; High Court of Justice; administrative and commercial courts; regional and sadad courts (for religious, civil and administrative, and penal adjudication); first instance courts
    Action Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]
    Amal (hope) Party [Mohamed BANI]
    An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj [Mustapha BRAHMA]
    Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Ilyas EL OMARI]
    Choura et Istiqlal (Consultation and Independence) Party or PCI [Abdelwahed MAACH]
    Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohamed SAJID]
    Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Abdessamad ARCHANE]
    Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Mustapha BENALI]
    Democratic Oath Party or SD [Najib EL OUAZZANI]
    Democratic Socialist Vanguard Party or PADS [Abderrahman BENAMROU]
    Democratic Society Party [Zhour CHAKKAFI]
    Environment and Development Party or PED [Karim HRITAN]
    Green Left Party [Mohamed FARES]
    Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Hamid CHABAT]
    Ittihadi National Congress or CNI [Abdesalam EL AZIZ]
    Labor Party or PT [Abdelkrim BENATIK]
    Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohammed ZIANE]
    Moroccan Union for Democracy or UMD [Jamal MANDRI]
    National Rally of Independents or RNI [Salaheddine MEZOUAR]
    Neo-Democrats Party [Mohamed DARIF]
    Party of Citizen Forces or PFC [Abderrahim LAHJOUJI]
    Party of Development Reform or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOHEN]
    Party of Justice and Development or PJD [Abdelillah BENKIRANE]
    Party of Liberty and Social Justice [Miloud MOUSSAOUI]
    Popular Movement or MP [Mohand LAENSER]
    Progress and Socialism Party or PPS [Nabil BENABDELLAH]
    Renaissance and Virtue Party [Mohamed KHALIDI]
    Renaissance Party [Said EL GHENNIOUI]
    Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHEHABAR]
    Shoura (consultation) and Istiqlal Party [Ahmed BELGHAZI]
    Social Center Party or PCS [Lahcen MADIH]
    Socialist Party [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]
    Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]
    Unified Socialist Party or GSU [Nabila MOUNIB]
    Unity and Democracy Party [Ahmed FITRI]
    Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir EL AMAOUI]
    General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Mohamed KAFI CHERRAT]
    Justice and Charity Organization or JCO [Mohammed ben Abdesslam ABBADI]
    Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Miriem BENSALAH-CHAQROUN]
    National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Mohamed YATIM]
    Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Miloudi EL MOUKHARIK]
    ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mohammed Rachad BOUHLAL (since 22 December 2011)
    chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 462-7980
    FAX: [1] (202) 462-7643
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Dwight L. BUSH, Sr. (since 8 April 2014)
    embassy: Km 5.7 Avenue Mohammed VI, Souissi, Rabat 10170
    mailing address: Unit 9400, Box Front Office, DPO, AE 09718
    telephone: [212] 537 637 200
    FAX: [212] 537 637 201
    consulate(s) general: Casablanca
    red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian Gulf; the pentacle represents the five pillars of Islam and signifies the association between God and the nation; design dates to 1912
    pentacle symbol, lion; national colors: red, green
    name: "Hymne Cherifien" (Hymn of the Sharif)
    lyrics/music: Ali Squalli HOUSSAINI/Leo MORGAN
    note: music adopted 1956, lyrics adopted 1970
  • Economy :: MOROCCO

  • Morocco has capitalized on its proximity to Europe and relatively low labor costs to work towards building a diverse, open, market-oriented economy. Key sectors of the economy include agriculture, tourism, aerospace, automotive, phosphates, textiles, apparel, and subcomponents. Morocco has increased investment in its port, transportation, and industrial infrastructure to position itself as a center and broker for business throughout Africa. Industrial development strategies and infrastructure improvements - most visibly illustrated by a new port and free trade zone near Tangier - are improving Morocco's competitiveness.
    In the 1980s, Morocco was a heavily indebted country before pursuing austerity measures and pro-market reforms, overseen by the IMF. Since taking the throne in 1999, King MOHAMMED VI has presided over a stable economy marked by steady growth, low inflation, and gradually falling unemployment, although poor harvests and economic difficulties in Europe contributed to an economic slowdown. To boost exports, Morocco entered into a bilateral Free Trade Agreement with the US in 2006 and an Advanced Status agreement with the EU in 2008. In late 2014, Morocco eliminated subsidies for gasoline, diesel, and fuel oil, dramatically reducing outlays that weighted on the country’s budget and current account. Subsidies on butane gas and certain food products remain in place. Morocco also seeks to expand its renewable energy capacity with a goal of making renewable more than 50% of installed electricity generation capacity by 2030.
    Despite Morocco's economic progress, the country suffers from high unemployment, poverty, and illiteracy, particularly in rural areas. Key economic challenges for Morocco include reforming the education system and the judiciary.
    $273.5 billion (2015 est.)
    $261.8 billion (2014 est.)
    $255.7 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 58
    $103.1 billion (2015 est.)
    4.5% (2015 est.)
    2.4% (2014 est.)
    4.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    $8,200 (2015 est.)
    $7,900 (2014 est.)
    $7,800 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 147
    28.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    26.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    26.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    household consumption: 58.3%
    government consumption: 19.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 28.7%
    investment in inventories: 1.6%
    exports of goods and services: 34.3%
    imports of goods and services: -42.1% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 14.5%
    industry: 29.2%
    services: 56.3% (2015 est.)
    barley, wheat, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, olives; livestock; wine
    automotive parts, phosphate mining and processing, aerospace, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism
    3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    12.04 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    agriculture: 39.1%
    industry: 20.3%
    services: 40.5% (2014 est.)
    9.7% (2015 est.)
    9.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    15% (2007 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 33.2% (2007)
    40.9 (2007 est.)
    39.5 (1999 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    revenues: $24.01 billion
    expenditures: $28.98 billion (2015 est.)
    23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    -4.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    75.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    75.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    calendar year
    1.6% (2015 est.)
    0.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    6.5% (31 December 2010)
    3.31% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    6% (31 December 2015 est.)
    6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    $71.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $73.27 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    $92.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $92.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $106.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $114.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    $52.63 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $60.09 billion (31 December 2011)
    $69.15 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    -$1.413 billion (2015 est.)
    -$6.226 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    $18.48 billion (2015 est.)
    $20 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    clothing and textiles, automobiles, electric components, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, citrus fruits, vegetables, fish
    Spain 22.1%, France 19.7%, India 4.9%, US 4.3%, Italy 4.3% (2015)
    $32.74 billion (2015 est.)
    $40.68 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics
    Spain 13.9%, France 12.4%, China 8.5%, US 6.5%, Germany 5.8%, Italy 5.5%, Russia 4.4%, Turkey 4.3% (2015)
    $23.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $20.52 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    $42.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $42.77 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $48.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $51.19 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $4.555 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $4.187 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Moroccan dirhams (MAD) per US dollar -
    9.7351 (2015 est.)
    8.3798 (2014 est.)
    8.3798 (2013 est.)
    8.6 (2012 est.)
    8.0899 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: MOROCCO

  • population without electricity: 400,000
    electrification - total population: 98.9 %
    electrification - urban areas: 100 %
    electrification - rural areas: 97.4 % (2013)
    25.35 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    26.7 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    818 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    5.66 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    6.763 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    69% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    19.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    4.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    148,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    680,000 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    155,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    293,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    13,380 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    161,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    79 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    1.181 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    1.102 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    1.444 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    39.35 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
  • Communications :: MOROCCO

  • total subscriptions: 2,222,370
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    total: 43.08 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    general assessment: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensive
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity is below 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 120 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (2015)
    2 TV broadcast networks with state-run Radio-Television Marocaine (RTM) operating one network and the state partially owning the other; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite dish; 3 radio broadcast networks with RTM operating one; the government-owned network includes 10 regional radio channels in addition to its national service (2007)
    total: 19.021 million
    percent of population: 57.1% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
  • Transportation :: MOROCCO

  • 55 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    total: 31
    over 3,047 m: 11
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 24
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 11
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 944 km; oil 270 km; refined products 175 km (2013)
    total: 2,067 km
    standard gauge: 2,067 km 1.435-m gauge (1,022 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    total: 58,395 km
    paved: 41,116 km (includes 1,080 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 17,279 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    total: 26
    by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 3, container 6, passenger/cargo 14, roll on/roll off 2
    foreign-owned: 14 (France 3, Germany 1, Italy 1, Spain 9)
    registered in other countries: 4 (Gibraltar 4) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    major seaport(s): Casablanca, Jorf Lasfar, Mohammedia, Safi, Tangier
    container port(s) (TEUs): Tangier (2,093,408)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Jorf Lasfar
  • Military and Security :: MOROCCO

  • Royal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Royal Moroccan Navy (includes Coast Guard, Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawyiya al Malakiya Marakishiya; Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2010)
    20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation - 18 months (2012)
    3.7% of GDP (2014)
    3.91% of GDP (2013)
    3.55% of GDP (2012)
    3.37% of GDP (2011)
    3.55% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 14
  • Transnational Issues :: MOROCCO

  • claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute
    one of the world's largest producers of illicit hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis