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Africa :: Morocco
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Morocco
  • Introduction :: MOROCCO

  • In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. The Alaouite Dynasty, to which the current Moroccan royal family belongs, dates from the 17th century. In 1860, Spain occupied northern Morocco and ushered in a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Morocco's sovereignty steadily erode; in 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Sultan MOHAMMED V, the current monarch's grandfather, organized the new state as a constitutional monarchy and in 1957 assumed the title of king. Although Morocco is not the UN-recognized Administering Power for the Western Sahara, it exercises de facto administrative control over 80% of the territory. The UN since 1991 has monitored a cease-fire between Morocco and the Polisario Front and leads ongoing negotiations over the status of the territory. King MOHAMMED VI in early 2011 responded to the spread of pro-democracy protests in the region by implementing a reform program that included a new constitution, passed by popular referendum in July 2011, under which some new powers were extended to parliament and the prime minister but ultimate authority remains in the hands of the monarch. In November 2011, the Justice and Development Party - a moderate Islamist party - won the largest number of seats in parliamentary elections, becoming the first Islamist party to lead the Moroccan Government.
  • Geography :: MOROCCO

  • Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
    32 00 N, 5 00 W
    Africa
    total: 446,550 sq km
    land: 446,300 sq km
    water: 250 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 58
    slightly larger than California
    total: 2,362.5 km
    border countries: Algeria 1,900 km, Western Sahara 444 km, Spain (Ceuta) 8 km, Spain (Melilla) 10.5 km
    note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
    1,835 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
    northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains
    lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m
    highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m
    phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
    arable land: 18.03%
    permanent crops: 3.04%
    other: 78.93% (2012 est.)
    14,850 sq km (2004)
    29 cu km (2011)
    total: 12.61 cu km/yr (12%/4%/84%)
    per capita: 428.1 cu m/yr (2005)
    northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
    land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar
  • People and Society :: MOROCCO

  • noun: Moroccan(s)
    adjective: Moroccan
    Arab-Berber 99%, other 1%
    Arabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)
    Muslim 99% (official; virtually all Sunni, <0.1% Shia), other 1% (includes Christian, Jewish, and Baha'i), Jewish about 6,000 (2010 est.)
    32,987,206 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    0-14 years: 26.7% (male 4,479,676/female 4,342,605)
    15-24 years: 17.7% (male 2,899,041/female 2,931,856)
    25-54 years: 42% (male 6,693,877/female 7,146,696)
    55-64 years: 7.3% (male 1,200,733/female 1,203,447)
    65 years and over: 6.3% (male 940,291/female 1,148,984) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 49.1%
    youth dependency ratio: 41.6%
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.5%
    potential support ratio: 13.4% (2014 est.)
    total: 28.1 years
    male: 27.5 years
    female: 28.7 years (2014 est.)
    1.02% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    18.47 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    4.79 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    -3.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    urban population: 59.7% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Casablanca 3.491 million; RABAT (capital) 1.932 million; Fes 1.149 million; Marrakech 1.1 million; Tangier 948,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    total: 24.52 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 28.96 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 19.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    total population: 76.51 years
    male: 73.44 years
    female: 79.74 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    2.15 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    67.4% (2010/11)
    6.4% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 98.5% of population
    rural: 63.6% of population
    total: 83.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1.5% of population
    rural: 36.4% of population
    total: 16.4% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 84.5% of population
    rural: 63.1% of population
    total: 75.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 15.5% of population
    rural: 36.9% of population
    total: 24.6% of population (2012 est.)
    0.16% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    30,600 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    1,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    16.4% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    3.1% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    5.4% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 67.1%
    male: 76.1%
    female: 57.6% (2011 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 11 years (2010)
    total number: 500,960
    percentage: 8% (2007 est.)
    total: 18.6%
    male: 18.4%
    female: 19.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
  • Government :: MOROCCO

  • conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
    conventional short form: Morocco
    local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
    local short form: Al Maghrib
    constitutional monarchy
    name: Rabat
    geographic coordinates: 34 01 N, 6 49 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in September
    15 regions; Grand Casablanca, Chaouia-Ouardigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulemane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tanger-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate
    note: Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Es Smara and Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco also claims Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, another region that falls entirely within Western Sahara
    2 March 1956 (from France)
    Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
    several previous; latest drafted 17 June 2011, approved by referendum 1 July 2011; note - sources disagree on whether the 2011 referendum was for a new constitution or for reforms to the previous constitution (2011)
    mixed legal system of civil law based on French law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts by Supreme Court
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
    head of government: Prime Minister Abdelillah BENKIRANE (since 29 November 2011)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister as well as Minister Delegates to each ministry appoined by the Palace
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from the winning party following legislative elections
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Chamber of Counsillors or Majlis al-Mustacharin (270 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college of local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates; members serve 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the Chamber of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwab (395 seats; 305 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 90 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - in the national constituency, 60 seats are reserved for women and 30 reserved for young people
    elections: Chamber of Councillors - last held on 3 October 2009 (next pending legislation by the 2011 constitution); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 25 November 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: Chamber of Councillors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PJD 107, PI 60, RNI 52, PAM 47, USFP 39, MP 32, UC 23, PPS 18, other 17
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of 5-judge panels organized into civil, family matters, commercial, administrative, social, and criminal sections); Constitutional Council (consists of 12 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of the Judicial Power, a 20-member body presided by the monarch and including the Supreme Court president, the prosecutor general, representatives of the appeals and first instance courts - among them one woman magistrate, the National Council of the Rights of Man president, and 5 "notable persons" appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 6 designated by the monarch and 3 each elected by the Chamber of Councillors and Chamber of Representatives; court president appointed by the monarch from among the court members; members serve 9-year non-renewable terms
    subordinate courts: courts of appeal; High Court of Justice; administrative and commercial courts; regional and sadad courts (for religious, civil and administrative, and penal adjudication); first instance courts
    Action Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]
    Al Ahd (The Covenant) Party [Najib EL OUAZZANI]
    An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]
    Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Mustapha BAKKOURY, Secretary General]
    Choura et Istiqlal (Consultation and Independence) Party or PCI [Abdelwahed MAACH]
    Citizens' Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]
    Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohammed ABIED]
    Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]
    Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Touhami EL KHIARI]
    Democratic Socialist Vanguard Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]
    Democratic Society Party or PSD [Zhor CHEKKAFI]
    Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]
    Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]
    Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Hamid CHABAT]
    Labor Party or LP [Abdelkrim BENATIK]
    Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]
    National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]
    National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]
    National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]
    National Rally of Independents or RNI [Salaheddine MEZOUAR]
    Party of Justice and Development or PJD [Abdelillah BENKIRANE]
    Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]
    Progress and Socialism Party or PPS [Nabil BENABDELLAH]
    Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]
    Renaissance and Virtue Party or PRV [Mohamed KHALIDI]
    Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]
    Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]
    Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]
    Unified Socialist Party or GSU [Nabila MOUNIB]
    Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]
    General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]
    Justice and Charity Organization or JCO
    Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]
    National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]
    Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
    ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mohammed Rachad BOUHLAL (since 22 December 2011)
    chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 462-7980
    FAX: [1] (202) 462-7643
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Dwight L. BUSH, Sr. (since 8 April 2014)
    embassy: Km 5.7 Avenue Mohammed VI, Souissi, Rabat
    mailing address: Unit 9400, Box Front Office, DPO, AE 09718
    telephone: [212] 537 63 7777
    FAX: [212] 537 63 7201
    consulate(s) general: Casablanca
    red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian gulf; the pentacle represents the five pillars of Islam and signifies the association between God and the nation; design dates to 1912
    pentacle symbol, lion; national colors: red, green
    name: "Hymne Cherifien" (Hymn of the Sharif)
    lyrics/music: Ali Squalli HOUSSAINI/Leo MORGAN
    note: music adopted 1956, lyrics adopted 1970
  • Economy :: MOROCCO

  • Morocco has capitalized on its proximity to Europe and relatively low labor costs to build a diverse, open, market-oriented economy. In the 1980s Morocco was a heavily indebted country before pursuing austerity measures and pro-market reforms, overseen by the IMF. Since taking the throne in 1999, King MOHAMMED VI has presided over a stable economy marked by steady growth, low inflation, and gradually falling unemployment, although a poor harvest and economic difficulties in Europe contributed to an economic slowdown in 2012. Industrial development strategies and infrastructure improvements - most visibly illustrated by a new port and free trade zone near Tangier - are improving Morocco's competitiveness. Morocco also seeks to expand its renewable energy capacity with a goal of making renewable 40% of electricity output by 2020. Key sectors of the economy include agriculture, tourism, phosphates, textiles, apparel, and subcomponents. To boost exports, Morocco entered into a bilateral Free Trade Agreement with the United States in 2006 and an Advanced Status agreement with the European Union in 2008. Despite Morocco's economic progress, the country suffers from high unemployment, poverty, and illiteracy, particularly in rural areas. In 2011 and 2012, high prices on fuel - which is subsidized and almost entirely imported - strained the government's budget and widened the country's current account deficit. In the fall of 2013, Morocco capped some of its fuel subsidies in an effort to gradually reduce the country’s large budgetary deficit. Key economic challenges for Morocco include fighting corruption and reforming the education system, the judiciary, and the government's costly subsidy program.
    $254.4 billion (2014 est.)
    $245.7 billion (2013 est.)
    $235.4 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $112.6 billion (2014 est.)
    3.5% (2014 est.)
    4.4% (2013 est.)
    2.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    $7,700 (2014 est.)
    $7,500 (2013 est.)
    $7,200 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 150
    27.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    26.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    25.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    household consumption: 60.6%
    government consumption: 19%
    investment in fixed capital: 30%
    investment in inventories: 4%
    exports of goods and services: 33.7%
    imports of goods and services: -47.3%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 14%
    industry: 24.9%
    services: 61.1% (2014 est.)
    barley, wheat, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, olives; livestock; wine
    phosphate mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism
    2.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    12 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    agriculture: 39.1%
    industry: 20.3%
    services: 40.5% (2014 est.)
    9.6% (2014 est.)
    9.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    15% (2007 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 33.2% (2007)
    40.9 (2007 est.)
    39.5 (1999 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    revenues: $29.4 billion
    expenditures: $34.99 billion (2014 est.)
    26.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    -5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    76.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    73.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    calendar year
    1.1% (2014 est.)
    1.9% (2013 est.)
    6.5% (31 December 2010)
    3.31% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    6.23% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    $69.25 billion (31 December 2008)
    $67.42 billion (31 December 2007)
    $18.98 billion (31 December 2008)
    $16.23 billion (31 December 2007)
    $77.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $77.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    $92.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $92.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $122.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $124.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    $52.63 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $60.09 billion (31 December 2011)
    $69.15 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    -$7.597 billion (2014 est.)
    -$8.692 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    $19.56 billion (2014 est.)
    $18.26 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    clothing and textiles, electric components, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, citrus fruits, vegetables, fish
    France 20.9%, Spain 19.9%, Brazil 5.8%, US 4% (2013)
    $40.04 billion (2014 est.)
    $39.85 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics
    Spain 14%, France 12.7%, China 7.1%, US 6.9%, Saudi Arabia 6.5%, Italy 5.3%, Germany 4.7%, Russia 4.5% (2013)
    $20.97 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $19.26 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $35.54 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $34.93 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    $49.26 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $45.62 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $1.219 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.731 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Moroccan dirhams (MAD) per US dollar -
    8.24 (2014 est.)
    8.3803 (2013 est.)
    8.6 (2012 est.)
    8.0899 (2011 est.)
    8.4172 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: MOROCCO

  • 23.65 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    25.14 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    818 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    5.66 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    6.413 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    73.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    22% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    4.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    5,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    680,000 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    131,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    209,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    20,830 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    143,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    62.03 million cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    1.084 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    1.022 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    1.444 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    39.35 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: MOROCCO

  • 3.28 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    39.016 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    general assessment: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensive
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 100 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (2011)
    2 TV broadcast networks with state-run Radio-Television Marocaine (RTM) operating one network and the state partially owning the other; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite dish; 3 radio broadcast networks with RTM operating one; the government-owned network includes 10 regional radio channels in addition to its national service (2007)
    AM NA, FM 15, shortwave NA (2009)
    8 (2009)
    .ma
    277,338 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    13.213 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 28
  • Transportation :: MOROCCO

  • 55 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    total: 31
    over 3,047 m: 11
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 24
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 11
    under 914 m:
    5 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 944 km; oil 270 km; refined products 175 km (2013)
    total: 2,067 km
    standard gauge: 2,067 km 1.435-m gauge (1,022 km electrified) (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    total: 58,395 km
    paved: 41,116 km (includes 1,080 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 17,279 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    total: 26
    by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 3, container 6, passenger/cargo 14, roll on/roll off 2
    foreign-owned: 14 (France 3, Germany 1, Italy 1, Spain 9)
    registered in other countries: 4 (Gibraltar 4) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    major seaport(s): Casablanca, Jorf Lasfar, Mohammedia, Safi, Tangier
    container port(s) (TEUs): Tangier (2,093,408)
  • Military :: MOROCCO

  • Royal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Royal Moroccan Navy (includes Coast Guard, Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawyiya al Malakiya Marakishiya; Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2010)
    20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation - 18 months (2012)
    males age 16-49: 8,252,682
    females age 16-49: 8,691,419 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 7,026,016
    females age 16-49: 7,377,045 (2010 est.)
    male: 300,327
    female: 298,366 (2010 est.)
    3.55% of GDP (2012)
    3.37% of GDP (2011)
    3.55% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 14
  • Transnational Issues :: MOROCCO

  • claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute
    current situation: Morocco is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Moroccan adults and children are exploited for forced labor and forced prostitution in the Middle East and Europe; some Moroccan girls recruited to work as maids experience conditions of forced labor, while some Moroccan boys experience forced labor when working as apprentices in the artisan and construction industries and in mechanic shops; women and children from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia who voluntarily enter Morocco are subsequently coerced into prostitution or, less frequently, forced domestic service
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Morocco does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; nevertheless, in 2013, the government did not demonstrate progress in investigating, prosecuting, convicting, and adequately punishing trafficking offenders and provided limited law enforcement data; the government did not develop or employ systematic procedures to proactively identify trafficking victims and provided limited to no social or protective services, relying heavily on NGOs to supply care ; Morocco continues to lack a single comprehensive anti-trafficking law (2014)
    one of the world's largest producers of illicit hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis
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