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Australia - Oceania :: Midway Islands Print
Page last updated on October 13, 2020
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  • Introduction :: Midway Islands
  • Background field listing
    The US took formal possession of the islands in 1867. The laying of the trans-Pacific cable, which passed through the islands, brought the first residents in 1903. Between 1935 and 1947, Midway was used as a refueling stop for trans-Pacific flights. The US naval victory over a Japanese fleet off Midway in 1942 was one of the turning points of World War II. The islands continued to serve as a naval station until closed in 1993. Today the islands are a US National Wildlife Refuge. From 1996 to 2002 and 2008 to 2012 the refuge was open to the public, but it is now closed.
  • Geography :: Midway Islands
  • Location field listing
    Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    28 12 N, 177 22 W
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 6 sq km
    land: 6.2 sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    note: includes Eastern Island, Sand Island, and Spit Island

    country comparison to the world: 247
    Area - comparative field listing
    about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    15 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    Climate field listing
    subtropical; moderated by prevailing easterly winds
    Terrain field listing
    low, nearly flat
    Elevation field listing
    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: water tower hill on Sand Island 15 m
    Natural resources field listing
    terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 0% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 0% (2011 est.)
    other: 100% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    0 sq km (2012)
    Natural hazards field listing
    tropical storms
    Environment - current issues field listing
    small plastic ocean debris mistaken for fish or squid by birds is fed to fledglings resulting in starvation; fishing nets that wash ashore entangle wildlife resulting in starvation or strangulation
    Geography - note field listing
    the coral atoll is managed as a national wildlife refuge and was open to the public for ecotourism from 1996 to 2002 and then again from 2008 to 2012; in 2000, the lands and waters of the Midway National Wildlife Refuge were also designated as the Battle of Midway National Monument; Henderson Airfield on Sand Island continues to serve as an emergency landing field for military and civilian aircraft transiting the Pacific Ocean
  • People and Society :: Midway Islands
  • Population field listing
    no indigenous inhabitants; approximately 40 people make up the staff of US Fish and Wildlife Service and their services contractor living at the atoll (July 2014 est.)
    Education expenditures field listing
  • Government :: Midway Islands
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Midway Islands
    etymology: originally named the Middlebrook Islands after the US captain who discovered them in 1859; the name became Midway later in the 19th century and reflects the islands' position in the North Pacific Ocean roughly equidistant between North America and Asia
    Dependency status field listing
    unincorporated unorganized territory of the US; formerly administered from Washington, DC, by the US Navy; on 31 October 1996, through a presidential executive order, the jurisdiction and control of the atoll was transferred to the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System
    Citizenship field listing
    see United States
    Flag description field listing
    the flag of the US is used
  • Military and Security :: Midway Islands
  • Military - note field listing
    defense is the responsibility of the US
  • Transportation :: Midway Islands
  • Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 1 (2019)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Sand Island
    Transportation - note field listing
    Henderson Field on Sand Island serves as an emergency landing site for aircraft crossing the Pacific Ocean
  • Transnational Issues :: Midway Islands
  • Disputes - international field listing