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North America :: Mexico
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  • Introduction :: MEXICO

  • The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved its independence early in the 19th century. The elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. The global financial crisis beginning in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.
  • Geography :: MEXICO

  • North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States
    23 00 N, 102 00 W
    North America
    total: 1,964,375 sq km
    land: 1,943,945 sq km
    water: 20,430 sq km
    slightly less than three times the size of Texas
    Area comparison map:
    total: 4,389 km
    border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3,155 km
    9,330 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    varies from tropical to desert
    high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
    lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
    highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,675 m
    petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
    agricultural land: 54.9%
    arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 41.7%
    forest: 33.3%
    other: 11.8% (2011 est.)
    64,600 sq km (2009)
    457.2 cu km (2011)
    total: 80.4 cu km/yr (14%/9%/77%)
    per capita: 700.4 cu m/yr (2009)
    tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
    volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (elev. 3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (elev. 5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana
    scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
    note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico
  • People and Society :: MEXICO

  • noun: Mexican(s)
    adjective: Mexican
    mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European)
    note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity (2012 est.)
    Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%
    note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)
    Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)
    120,286,655 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 27.9% (male 17,188,577/female 16,423,421)
    15-24 years: 18.1% (male 10,999,445/female 10,741,999)
    25-54 years: 40.4% (male 23,385,321/female 25,200,511)
    55-64 years: 7% (male 3,850,792/female 4,527,074)
    65 years and over: 6.6% (male 3,594,675/female 4,374,840) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 52.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 42.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.1%
    potential support ratio: 9.9% (2014 est.)
    total: 27.3 years
    male: 26.3 years
    female: 28.4 years (2014 est.)
    1.21% (2014 est.)
    19.02 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    5.24 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    -1.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 79% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MEXICO CITY (capital) 20.843 million; Guadalajara 4.766 million; Monterrey 4.435 million; Puebla 2.936 million; Toluca de Lerdo 2.12 million; Tijuana 1.941 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    21.3 (2008 est.)
    49 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 12.58 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 14 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 11.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 75.43 years
    male: 72.67 years
    female: 78.32 years (2014 est.)
    2.29 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    72.5% (2009)
    6.2% of GDP (2013)
    2.1 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    1.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 95.9% of population
    rural: 90.8% of population
    total: 94.9% of population
    urban: 3.9% of population
    rural: 9.2% of population
    total: 5.1% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 87% of population
    rural: 79% of population
    total: 85.3% of population
    urban: 13% of population
    rural: 21% of population
    total: 14.7% of population (2012 est.)
    0.23% (2013 est.)
    175,100 (2013 est.)
    5,600 (2013 est.)
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
    vectorborne disease: dengue fever (2013)
    27.6% (2014)
    2.8% (2012)
    5.1% of GDP (2011)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 95.1%
    male: 96.2%
    female: 94.2% (2012 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2012)
    total number: 1,105,617
    percentage: 5% (2009 est.)
    total: 9.4%
    male: 9.1%
    female: 9.9% (2012 est.)
  • Government :: MEXICO

  • conventional long form: United Mexican States
    conventional short form: Mexico
    local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
    local short form: Mexico
    federal republic
    name: Mexico City (Distrito Federal)
    geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
    time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
    note: Mexico has four time zones
    31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Veracruz), Yucatan, Zacatecas
    16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)
    Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
    several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917; amended many times, last in 2014 (2014)
    civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    chief of state: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in July 2018)
    election results: Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.21%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.59%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.41%, other 4.79%
    description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held for half of the Senate on 7 June 2015); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held on 7 June 2015)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 52, PAN 38, PRD 22, PVEM 9, PT 4, Movimiento Ciudadano 2, PANAL 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 208, PAN 114, PRD 100, PVEM 33, PT 19, Movimiento Ciudadano 16, PANAL 10
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve for life; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a single-renewable 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, single-renewable 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts
    Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) [Dante DELGADO Rannaoro]
    Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Cesar CAMACHO Quiroz]
    Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
    Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Torres]
    Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Marti BATRES]
    National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Gustavo MADERO Munoz]
    New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]
    Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva]
    Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE
    Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX
    Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN
    Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM
    Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO
    Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE
    Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES
    National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA
    National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP
    National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE
    National Peasant Confederation or CNC
    National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE
    National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE
    National Union of Workers or UNT
    Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO
    Roman Catholic Church
    APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Alejandro Ives ESTIVILL (since 1 March 2015)
    chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
    telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
    FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio (TX), San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN)
    consulate(s): Albuquerque (NM), Anchorage (AK), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas (NV), Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia
    chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE (since 2 August 2011)
    embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
    mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
    telephone: [52] (55) 5080-2000
    FAX: [52] (55) 5080-2834
    consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City
    note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of red and green, and does not display anything in its white band
    golden eagle; national colors: green, white, red
    name: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)
    lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA
    note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed
  • Economy :: MEXICO

  • Mexico's $1.3 trillion economy has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing in the 21 years since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Mexico has become the United States' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2014, two-way trade in goods and services exceeded $550 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with 46 countries, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2012, Mexico formally joined the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia and Chile. Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, emphasized economic reforms during its first two years in office, passing and implementing sweeping education, energy, financial, fiscal and telecommunications reform legislation, among others, with the long-term aim to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy. Although the economy is expected to experience stronger growth in 2015 as a result of increased investment and stronger demand for Mexican exports, growth is predicted to remain below potential for reasons of inefficiencies, with a large portion of the economy and workforce in the informal sector, and corruption. Over the medium-term, the economy is vulnerable to global economic pressures, such as lower external demand, rising interest rates, and low oil prices - approximately 30% of government revenue comes from the state-owned oil company, PEMEX. The increasing integration of supply chains, development of the energy sector, and government-to-government focus on trade facilitation will continue to make the North American region increasingly competitive and contribute to Mexican economic development and strength.
    $2.143 trillion (2014 est.)
    $2.093 trillion (2013 est.)
    $2.071 trillion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $1.296 trillion (2014 est.)
    2.4% (2014 est.)
    1.1% (2013 est.)
    4% (2012 est.)
    $17,900 (2014 est.)
    $17,700 (2013 est.)
    $17,700 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 93
    19.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    19.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    21.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 68.5%
    government consumption: 12.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 20.7%
    investment in inventories: -1%
    exports of goods and services: 33.2%
    imports of goods and services: -33.6%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 3.5%
    industry: 36.4%
    services: 60.1% (2014 est.)
    corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
    food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
    3.8% (2014 est.)
    52.9 million (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 13.4%
    industry: 24.1%
    services: 61.9% (2011)
    4.7% (2014 est.)
    4.9% (2013 est.)
    note: underemployment may be as high as 25%
    note: based on food-based definition of poverty; asset-based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2%
    highest 10%: 37.5% (2010)
    48.3 (2008)
    53.1 (1998)
    revenues: $300.8 billion
    expenditures: $348.4 billion (2014 est.)
    23.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -3.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    41% of GDP (2014 est.)
    38% of GDP (2013 est.)
    calendar year
    3.8% (2014 est.)
    3.8% (2013 est.)
    4.5% (31 December 2012)
    4.5% (31 December 2011)
    4% (31 December 2014 est.)
    4.25% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $215.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $192.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $826.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $727 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $502.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $438.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $525.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $408.7 billion (31 December 2011)
    $454.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $-21.92 billion (2014 est.)
    $-26.28 billion (2013 est.)
    $406.4 billion (2014 est.)
    $380.7 billion (2013 est.)
    manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton
    US 78.8% (2013)
    $407.1 billion (2014 est.)
    $381.6 billion (2013 est.)
    metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, automobile parts for assembly and repair, aircraft, aircraft parts
    US 49.1%, China 16.1%, Japan 4.5% (2013)
    $200.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $181 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $438.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $394.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $389.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $361.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $170.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $157.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -
    13.14 (2014 est.)
    12.77 (2013 est.)
    13.17 (2012 est.)
    12.42 (2011 est.)
    12.64 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: MEXICO

  • 277.6 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    232.3 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    1.288 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    607 million kWh (2013 est.)
    61.51 million kW (2011 est.)
    75.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    2.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    18.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    3.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    2.882 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    1.333 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    10.07 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    1.361 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    2.044 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    189,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    653,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    46.43 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    64.58 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    32 million cu m (2013 est.)
    18.53 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    483.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    453.8 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: MEXICO

  • 20.22 million (2012)
    100.786 million (2012)
    general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable
    domestic: despite the opening to competition in January 1997, Telmex remains dominant; Fixed-line teledensity is less than 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 80 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2011)
    many TV stations and more than 1,400 radio stations with most privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available (2012)
    AM 851, FM 726, shortwave 15 (2009)
    729 (2009)
    16.233 million (2012)
    31.02 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: MEXICO

  • 1,714 (2013)
    total: 243
    over 3,047 m: 12
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 80
    914 to 1,523 m: 86
    under 914 m: 33 (2013)
    total: 1,471
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 42
    914 to 1,523 m: 281
    under 914 m:
    1,146 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 18,074 km; liquid petroleum 2,102 km; oil 8,775 km; oil/gas/water 369 km; refined products 7,565 km; water 123 km (2013)
    total: 17,166 km
    standard gauge: 17,166 km 1.435-m gauge (22 km electrified) (2008)
    total: 377,660 km
    paved: 137,544 km (includes 7,176 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 240,116 km (2012)
    2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)
    total: 52
    by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, chemical tanker 11, liquefied gas 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 17, roll on/roll off 3
    foreign-owned: 5 (France 1, Greece 2, South Africa 1, UAE 1)
    registered in other countries: 12 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 5, Portugal 1, Spain 1, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz
    container port(s) (TEUs): Manzanillo (1,992,176), Lazaro Cardenas (1,242,777) (2012)
    oil terminals: Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Altamira, Ensenada
    cruise port(s): Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada
  • Military :: MEXICO

  • Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM); includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2013)
    18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces (2012)
    males age 16-49: 28,815,506
    females age 16-49: 30,363,558 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 23,239,866
    females age 16-49: 25,642,549 (2010 est.)
    male: 1,105,371
    female: 1,067,007 (2010 est.)
    0.59% of GDP (2012)
    0.56% of GDP (2011)
    0.59% of GDP (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: MEXICO

  • abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty
    IDPs: 281,400 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2014)
    stateless persons: 13 (2014)
    major drug-producing and transit nation; world's second largest opium poppy cultivator; opium poppy cultivation in 2009 rose 31% over 2008 to 19,500 hectares yielding a potential production of 50 metric tons of pure heroin, or 125 metric tons of "black tar" heroin, the dominant form of Mexican heroin in the western United States; marijuana cultivation increased 45% to 17,500 hectares in 2009; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market (2007)