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East & Southeast Asia :: Malaysia
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Malaysia
  • Introduction :: MALAYSIA

  • During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula except Singapore formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore, as well as Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo, joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's independence were marred by a communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's withdrawal in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to the development of manufacturing, services, and tourism. Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (in office since April 2009) has continued these pro-business policies and has introduced some civil reforms. Malaysia assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.
  • Geography :: MALAYSIA

  • Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
    2 30 N, 112 30 E
    Southeast Asia
    total: 329,847 sq km
    land: 328,657 sq km
    water: 1,190 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 67
    slightly larger than New Mexico
    total: 2,742 km
    border countries: Brunei 266 km, Indonesia 1,881 km, Thailand 595 km
    4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
    tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
    coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m
    tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
    arable land: 2.94%
    permanent crops: 19.78%
    other: 77.28% (2012 est.)
    3,800 sq km (2009)
    580 cu km (2011)
    total: 11.2 cu km/yr (35%/43%/22%)
    per capita: 414 cu m/yr (2005)
    flooding; landslides; forest fires
    air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
  • People and Society :: MALAYSIA

  • noun: Malaysian(s)
    adjective: Malaysian
    Malay 50.1%, Chinese 22.6%, indigenous 11.8%, Indian 6.7%, other 0.7%, non-citizens 8.2% (2010 est.)
    Bahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
    note: in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
    Muslim (official) 61.3%, Buddhist 19.8%, Christian 9.2%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 1.3%, other 0.4%, none 0.8%, unspecified 1% (2010 est.)
    30,073,353 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    0-14 years: 28.8% (male 4,456,033/female 4,206,727)
    15-24 years: 16.9% (male 2,580,486/female 2,511,579)
    25-54 years: 41.2% (male 6,277,694/female 6,114,312)
    55-64 years: 7.6% (male 1,163,861/female 1,122,746)
    65 years and over: 5.5% (male 777,338/female 862,577) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 45.5%
    youth dependency ratio: 37.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.1%
    potential support ratio: 12.4% (2014 est.)
    total: 27.7 years
    male: 27.4 years
    female: 27.9 years (2014 est.)
    1.47% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    20.06 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    5 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population
    note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    urban population: 74% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 2.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    KUALA LUMPUR (capital) 6.629 million; Johor Bahru 891,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    29 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    total: 13.69 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 15.82 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 11.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    total population: 74.52 years
    male: 71.74 years
    female: 77.48 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    2.58 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    4% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    1.2 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    1.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 98.5% of population
    total: 99.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 1.5% of population
    total: 0.4% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 96.1% of population
    rural: 94.6% of population
    total: 95.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3.9% of population
    rural: 5.4% of population
    total: 4.3% of population (2012 est.)
    0.44% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    86,300 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    5,900 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever
    water contact disease: leptospirosis
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    14% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    12.9% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    5.9% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 93.1%
    male: 95.4%
    female: 90.7% (2010 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2005)
    total: 10.3%
    male: 9.8%
    female: 11% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
  • Government :: MALAYSIA

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Malaysia
    local long form: none
    local short form: Malaysia
    former: Federation of Malaya
    constitutional monarchy
    note: nominally headed by paramount ruler (commonly referred to as the king) and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
    name: Kuala Lumpur; note - Putrajaya is referred to as an administrative center not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
    geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
    31 August 1957 (from the UK)
    Independence Day 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
    previous 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957; amended many times, last in 2007 (2010)
    mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    21 years of age; universal
    chief of state: King Tuanku ABDUL HALIM Mu'adzam Shah (selected on 13 December 2011; installed on 11 April 2012); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial
    head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (since 3 April 2009); Deputy Prime Minister MUHYIDDIN bin Mohamed Yassin (since 9 April 2009)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the king
    elections: kings are elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; selection is based on the principle of rotation among rulers of states; elections were last held on 14 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime ministers are designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands the support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister (since independence this has been the leader of the UMNO party)
    election results: Tuanku ABDUL HALIM Mu'adzam Shah elected king by fellow hereditary rulers of nine states; Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak was sworn in as prime minister the day after his National Front (BN) coalition won a majority of seats during the 5 May 2013 national election; NAJIB was re-elected uncontested as UMNO president on 19 October 2013
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king and 26 indirectly elected by 13 state legislatures; members serve 3-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 May 2013 (next to be held by May 2018)
    election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition/party - BN coalition 47.4%, opposition parties 50.9%, other 1.7%; seats by coalition/party - BN coalition 133, opposition parties 89
    highest court(s): Federal Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges); note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts
    judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve till age 65
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
    National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN (ruling coalition) consists of the following parties:
    Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or GERAKAN [KOH Tsu Koon]
    Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [LIEW Vui Keong]
    Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [CHUA Soi Lek]
    Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [Govindasamy PALANIVEL]
    Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]
    Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]
    Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Abdul TAIB Mahmud]
    Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]
    Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [Tan Sri William MAKAN Ikom]
    Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [Peter CHIN Fah Kui]
    United Malays National Organization or UMNO [NAJIB bin Abdul Razak]
    United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Bernard DOMPOK]
    People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP [M.Kayveas]
    People's Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat) or PR (opposition coalition) consists of the following parties:
    Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KARPAL Singh]
    Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang
    People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail]
    Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Edwin DUNDANG]
    notable independent parties:
    Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]
    State Reform Pary (Parti Reformasi Negeri) or STAR [Jeffery KITINGAN]
    Bar Council
    BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
    PEMBELA (Muslim NGO coalition)
    PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)
    other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
    ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador AWANG ADEK Bin Hussin (since 21 May 2015)
    chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700
    FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph Y. YUN (since 2 October 2013)
    embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
    mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
    telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000
    FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207
    14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the flag is often referred to as Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory); the 14 stripes stand for the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal government; the 14 points on the star represent the unity between these entities; the crescent is a traditional symbol of Islam; blue symbolizes the unity of the Malay people and yellow is the royal color of Malay rulers
    note: the design is based on the flag of the US
    tiger, hibiscus; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow
    name: "Negaraku" (My Country)
    lyrics/music: collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER
    note: adopted 1957; full version only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie," was originally the anthem of Perak, one of Malaysia's 13 states
  • Economy :: MALAYSIA

  • Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in Islamic finance, high technology industries, biotechnology, and services. NAJIB's Economic Transformation Program (ETP) is a series of projects and policy measures intended to accelerate the country's economic growth. The government has also taken steps to liberalize some services sub-sectors. The NAJIB administration also is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy's dependence on exports. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, palm oil and rubber - remain a significant driver of the economy. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel, combined with sustained budget deficits, has forced Kuala Lumpur to begin to address fiscal shortfalls, through initial reductions in energy and sugar subsidies and the announcement of the 2015 implementation of a 6% goods and services tax. Falling global oil prices in the second half of 2014 have shrunk Malaysia’s current account surplus and put downward pressure on the ringgit. The government is also trying to lessen its dependence on state oil producer Petronas. The oil and gas sector supplies about 32% of government revenue in 2013. Bank Negara Malaysia (central bank) maintains healthy foreign exchange reserves, and a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia's exposure to riskier financial instruments and the global financial crisis. Nevertheless, Malaysia could be vulnerable to a fall in commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity because exports are a major component of GDP. In order to attract increased investment, NAJIB earlier raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but retreated in 2013 after he encountered significant opposition from Malay nationalists and other vested interests. In September 2013 NAJIB launched the new Bumiputra Economic Empowerment Program (BEEP), policies that favor and advance the economic condition of ethnic Malays. Malaysia is a member of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement negotiations and, with the nine other ASEAN members, will form the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015.
    $746.8 billion (2014 est.)
    $705.2 billion (2013 est.)
    $673.3 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 29
    $336.9 billion (2014 est.)
    5.9% (2014 est.)
    4.7% (2013 est.)
    5.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    $24,500 (2014 est.)
    $23,500 (2013 est.)
    $22,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 71
    31.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    30% of GDP (2013 est.)
    31.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    household consumption: 51.5%
    government consumption: 13.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 25.5%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 83%
    imports of goods and services: -73.7%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 9.3%
    industry: 34.7%
    services: 56% (2014 est.)
    Peninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber; Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper
    Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semi-conductors, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging
    5.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    14.01 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    agriculture: 11%
    industry: 36%
    services: 53% (2012 est.)
    2.9% (2014 est.)
    3.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    3.8% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.8%
    highest 10%: 34.7% (2009 est.)
    46.2 (2009)
    49.2 (1997)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    revenues: $68.09 billion
    expenditures: $79.63 billion (2014 est.)
    20.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    -3.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    54.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    54.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: this figure is based on the amount of federal government debt, RM501.6 billion ($167.2 billion) in 2012; this includes Malaysian Treasury bills and other government securities, as well as loans raised externally and bonds and notes issued overseas; this figure excludes debt issued by non-financial public enterprises and guaranteed by the federal government, which was an additional $47.7 billion in 2012
    country comparison to the world: 63
    calendar year
    3.1% (2014 est.)
    2.1% (2013 est.)
    note: approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled
    3% (31 December 2011)
    2.83% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    4.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    4.56% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    $51.51 billion (31 December 2008)
    $49.41 billion (31 December 2007)
    $200.9 billion (31 December 2008)
    $187.6 billion (31 December 2007)
    $113.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $99.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    $478.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $440.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    $460.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $428.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    $476.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $395.1 billion (31 December 2011)
    $410.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    $18.9 billion (2014 est.)
    $11.73 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $231.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $219.2 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    semiconductors and electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals, solar panels
    China 14.1%, Singapore 13.9%, Japan 10.9%, US 8.2%, Thailand 5.4%, Indonesia 4.5%, Hong Kong 4.2% (2013)
    $193.6 billion (2014 est.)
    $186.7 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
    China 17%, Singapore 13.2%, Japan 8.5%, US 7.6%, Thailand 5.9%, South Korea 4.6%, Indonesia 4.3% (2013)
    $133.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $134.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    $109.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $106.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $144 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $132.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    $146.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $133.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    ringgits (MYR) per US dollar -
    3.24 (2014 est.)
    3.15 (2013 est.)
    3.09 (2012 est.)
    3.06 (2011 est.)
    3.22 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: MALAYSIA

  • 118 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    112 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    12 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    372 million kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    28.4 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    89.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    10.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    647,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    4 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    568,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    623,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    176,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    175,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    61.62 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    31.25 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    32.54 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    2.165 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    2.35 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    198.8 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: MALAYSIA

  • 4.589 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    41.325 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    general assessment: modern system featuring good intercity service on Peninsular Malaysia provided mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent
    domestic: domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 140 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
    state-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 TV networks with relays throughout the country, and the leading private commercial media group operates 4 TV stations with numerous relays throughout the country; satellite TV subscription service is available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates multiple national networks as well as regional and local stations; many private commercial radio broadcasters and some subscription satellite radio services are available; about 55 radio stations overall (2012)
    AM 35, FM 391, shortwave 15 (2001)
    88 (mainland Malaysia 51, Sabah 16, and Sarawak 21) (2006)
    .my
    422,470 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    15.355 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 25
  • Transportation :: MALAYSIA

  • 114 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    total: 39
    over 3,047 m: 8
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 8
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    total: 75
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m:
    69 (2013)
    4 (2013)
    condensate 354 km; gas 6,439 km; liquid petroleum gas 155 km; oil 1,937 km; oil/gas/water 43 km; refined products 114 km; water 26 km (2013)
    total: 1,849 km
    standard gauge: 57 km 1.435-m gauge (57 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 1,792 km 1.000-m gauge (150 km electrified) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    total: 144,403 km (does not include local roads)
    paved: 116,169 km (includes 1,821 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 28,234 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    7,200 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    total: 315
    by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 83, carrier 2, chemical tanker 47, container 41, liquefied gas 34, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 86, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 5
    foreign-owned: 26 (Denmark 1, Hong Kong 8, Japan 2, Russia 2, Singapore 13)
    registered in other countries: 82 (Bahamas 13, India 1, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 6, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 11, Panama 12, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Singapore 27, Thailand 3, US 2, unknown 2) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    major seaport(s): Bintulu, Johor Bahru, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang (Port Klang), Tanjung Pelepas
    container port(s) (TEUs): George Town (Penang)(1,202,180), Port Kelang (Port Klang)(9,435,403), Tanjung Pelepas (7,302,461)
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Bintulu
    the International Maritime Bureau reports that the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea remain high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; in the past, commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift; increased naval patrols since 2005 in the Strait of Malacca resulted in no reported incidents in 2010
  • Military :: MALAYSIA

  • Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM) (2013)
    17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent and proof of age); mandatory retirement age 60; women serve in the Malaysian Armed Forces; no conscription (2013)
    males age 16-49: 7,501,518
    females age 16-49: 7,315,999 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 6,247,306
    females age 16-49: 6,175,274 (2010 est.)
    male: 265,008
    female: 254,812 (2010 est.)
    1.55% of GDP (2012)
    1.67% of GDP (2011)
    1.55% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 58
  • Transnational Issues :: MALAYSIA

  • while the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
    refugees (country of origin): 92,939 (Burma) (2014)
    stateless persons: 40,000 (2013); note - Malaysia's stateless population consists of Rohingya refugees from Burma, ethnic Indians, and the children of Filipino and Indonesian illegal migrants; Burma stripped the Rohingya of their nationality in 1982; Filipino and Indonesian children who have not have been registered for birth certificates by their parents or who received birth certificates stamped "foreigner" are not eligible to go to government schools; these children are vulnerable to statelessness should they not be able to apply to their parents' country of origin for a passport
    current situation: Malaysia is a destination and, to a lesser extent, a source and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; Malaysia is mainly a destination country for foreign workers who migrate willingly from countries including Indonesia, Nepal, India, Thailand, the Philippines, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Bangladesh, and Vietnam but subsequently encounter forced labor or debt bondage at the hands of their employers in the domestic, agricultural, construction, plantation, and industrial sectors; a small number of Malaysian citizens were reportedly trafficked internally and abroad for commercial sexual exploitation in 2013; refugees are also vulnerable to trafficking; some officials are reportedly complicit in facilitating trafficking
    tier rating: Tier 3 - Malaysia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2013, authorities continued to detain trafficking victims in government facilities as part of a court-ordered protection measure, the government identified significantly fewer trafficking victims and reported fewer investigations and convictions compared to the previous year; many front-line officials continued to lack the ability to recognize indicators of human trafficking and instead treated these cases as immigration violations; NGOs provided the majority of victim rehabilitation and counseling services with no financial support from the government (2014)
    drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties; heroin still primary drug of abuse, but synthetic drug demand remains strong; continued ecstasy and methamphetamine producer for domestic users and, to a lesser extent, the regional drug market
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