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Africa :: Mozambique
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  • Introduction :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.
  • Geography :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
    18 15 S, 35 00 E
    total: 799,380 sq km
    land: 786,380 sq km
    water: 13,000 sq km
    slightly less than twice the size of California
    total: 4,783 km
    border countries (6): Malawi 1,498 km, South Africa 496 km, Swaziland 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1,402 km
    2,470 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical to subtropical
    mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
    coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
    agricultural land: 56.3%
    arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 49.6%
    forest: 43.7%
    other: 0% (2011 est.)
    1,181 sq km (2003)
    217.1 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.88 cu km/yr (26%/4%/70%)
    per capita: 46.05 cu m/yr (2005)
    severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
    a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
  • People and Society :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • noun: Mozambican(s)
    adjective: Mozambican
    African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
    Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 4% (1997 census)
    Roman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 45.3% (male 5,627,116/female 5,566,260)
    15-24 years: 21.3% (male 2,566,298/female 2,689,695)
    25-54 years: 27% (male 3,113,095/female 3,553,266)
    55-64 years: 3.5% (male 404,988/female 448,814)
    65 years and over: 2.9% (male 332,013/female 390,599) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 94.5%
    youth dependency ratio: 88.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.4%
    potential support ratio: 15.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 16.9 years
    male: 16.3 years
    female: 17.5 years (2014 est.)
    2.45% (2014 est.)
    38.83 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    12.34 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    -2.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 31.9% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 3.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MAPUTO (capital) 1.174 million; Matola 899,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2011 est.)
    480 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 72.42 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 74.53 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 70.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 52.6 years
    male: 51.85 years
    female: 53.37 years (2014 est.)
    5.27 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    11.6% (2011)
    6.8% of GDP (2013)
    0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 80.3% of population
    rural: 35% of population
    total: 49.2% of population
    urban: 19.7% of population
    rural: 65% of population
    total: 50.8% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 43.6% of population
    rural: 10.7% of population
    total: 21% of population
    urban: 56.4% of population
    rural: 89.3% of population
    total: 79% of population (2012 est.)
    10.75% (2013 est.)
    1.567 million (2013 est.)
    82,400 (2013 est.)
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    4.5% (2014)
    15.6% (2011)
    5% of GDP (2006)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 58.8%
    male: 73.3%
    female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
    total: 9 years
    male: 10 years
    female: 9 years (2013)
    total number: 1,369,080
    percentage: 22% (2008 est.)
  • Government :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
    conventional short form: Mozambique
    local long form: Republica de Mocambique
    local short form: Mocambique
    former: Portuguese East Africa
    name: Maputo
    geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
    25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
    Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
    previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004; note - amendments drafted by late 2013, but parliamentary review has been stalled (2014)
    mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015); Alberto Clementino Antonio VAQUINA removed from office 9 January 2015
    cabinet: Cabinet
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for two terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
    description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members - including 2 representing Mozambicans abroad - directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
    Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
    Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]
    Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
    Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Amelia Narciso Matos SUMBANA (since 2 November 2009)
    chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
    FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
    chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas M. GRIFFITHS (since 6 July 2012)
    embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
    mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
    telephone: [258] (21) 492797
    FAX: [258] (21) 490114
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
    national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
    name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
    note: adopted 2002
  • Economy :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP from $4 billion in 1993, following the war, to about $30.9 billion in 2014. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, more than half the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. A substantial trade imbalance persists although aluminum production from the Mozal smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, The Mozambican government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company (HCB), a significant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007, the US government's Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a $506.9 million Compact with Mozambique that ended in 2013. The Compact focused on improving sanitation, roads, agriculture, and the business regulation environment in an effort to spur economic growth in the four northern provinces of the country. Citizens rioted in September 2010 after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on the population, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures. Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade up to 2014, one of Africa's strongest performances. Mozambique's ability to attract large investment projects in natural resources is expected to extend high growth rates in coming years. Revenues from these vast resources, including natural gas, coal, titanium and hydroelectric capacity, could overtake donor assistance within five years.
    $29.76 billion (2014 est.)
    $27.47 billion (2013 est.)
    $25.63 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $16.59 billion (2014 est.)
    8.3% (2014 est.)
    7.1% (2013 est.)
    7.2% (2012 est.)
    $1,100 (2014 est.)
    $1,100 (2013 est.)
    $1,000 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 222
    1.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    10.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    8.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 74.2%
    government consumption: 17.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 50.3%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 31.8%
    imports of goods and services: -74.3%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 28.9%
    industry: 24%
    services: 47.1% (2014 est.)
    cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
    aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
    9% (2014 est.)
    12.25 million (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 81%
    industry: 6%
    services: 13% (1997 est.)
    17% (2007 est.)
    21% (1997 est.)
    52% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.9%
    highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
    45.6 (2008)
    47.3 (2002)
    revenues: $5.324 billion
    expenditures: $6.967 billion (2014 est.)
    32.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -9.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    47.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    41.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    calendar year
    3% (2014 est.)
    4.2% (2013 est.)
    9.5% (17 January 2013)
    3.25% (31 December 2010)
    15.3% (31 December 2014 est.)
    15.33% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $5.267 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.851 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $7.777 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.19 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $4.982 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.573 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $-6.322 billion (2014 est.)
    $-5.892 billion (2013 est.)
    $4.345 billion (2014 est.)
    $4.123 billion (2013 est.)
    aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
    South Africa 30.5%, Italy 9.8%, China 9.4%, Belgium 8%, Spain 6.1%, India 5.1% (2013)
    $8.954 billion (2014 est.)
    $8.48 billion (2013 est.)
    machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
    South Africa 26%, India 13.9%, China 12.6%, Portugal 4.5%, Australia 4.3% (2013)
    $3.334 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.142 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $7.521 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.416 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
    31.2 (2014 est.)
    30.13 (2013 est.)
    28.38 (2012 est.)
    29.08 (2011 est.)
    33.96 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • 14.83 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    10.19 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    9.462 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    8.537 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    2.429 million kW (2011 est.)
    10.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    89.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    20 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    992 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    24,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    953 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    16,140 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    4.355 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    755 million cu m (2012 est.)
    3.6 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    4.789 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • 88,100 (2012)
    8.108 million (2012)
    general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
    domestic: stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala; extremely low fixed-line teledensity; despite significant growth in mobile-cellular services, teledensity remains low at about 35 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2011)
    1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
    4 (2008)
    89,737 (2012)
    613,600 (2009)
  • Transportation :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • 98 (2013)
    total: 21
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 77
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 29
    under 914 m:
    38 (2013)
    gas 972 km; refined products 278 km (2013)
    total: 4,787 km
    narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
    total: 30,331 km
    paved: 6,303 km
    unpaved: 24,028 km (2009)
    460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
    total: 2
    by type: cargo 2
    foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala
  • Military :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
    registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
    males age 16-49: 4,613,367 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 2,677,473
    females age 16-49: 2,941,073 (2010 est.)
    male: 274,602
    female: 280,008 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
    IDPs: 72,517 (2015 floods) (2015)
    southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center