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Africa :: MOZAMBIQUE
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MOZAMBIQUE
  • Introduction :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in 2014. RENAMO’s residual armed forces have continued to engage in a low-level insurgency since 2012.
  • Geography :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
    18 15 S, 35 00 E
    Africa
    total: 799,380 sq km
    land: 786,380 sq km
    water: 13,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 35
    slightly less than twice the size of California
    total: 4,783 km
    border countries (6): Malawi 1,498 km, South Africa 496 km, Swaziland 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1,402 km
    2,470 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical to subtropical
    mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
    mean elevation: 345 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
    coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
    agricultural land: 56.3%
    arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 49.6%
    forest: 43.7%
    other: 0% (2011 est.)
    1,180 sq km (2012)
    severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
    increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
  • People and Society :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • 25,930,150
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    noun: Mozambican(s)
    adjective: Mozambican
    African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
    Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2007 est.)
    Roman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
    Mozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.
    Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.
    0-14 years: 44.92% (male 5,856,623/female 5,791,519)
    15-24 years: 21.51% (male 2,741,474/female 2,835,474)
    25-54 years: 27.24% (male 3,301,883/female 3,762,626)
    55-64 years: 3.42% (male 425,312/female 462,125)
    65 years and over: 2.9% (male 345,408/female 407,706) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 94.8
    youth dependency ratio: 88.2
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.5
    potential support ratio: 15.3 (2015 est.)
    total: 17.1 years
    male: 16.5 years
    female: 17.7 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    2.45% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    urban population: 32.2% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MAPUTO (capital) 1.187 million; Matola 937,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    18.9 years
    median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
    489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    total: 67.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 70 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 65.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    total population: 53.3 years
    male: 52.6 years
    female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    5.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    11.6% (2011)
    7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 80.6% of population
    rural: 37% of population
    total: 51.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 19.4% of population
    rural: 63% of population
    total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 42.4% of population
    rural: 10.1% of population
    total: 20.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 57.6% of population
    rural: 89.9% of population
    total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
    10.55% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    1,505,900 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    39,000 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    4.5% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    15.6% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    6.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 58.8%
    male: 73.3%
    female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
    total: 10 years
    male: 10 years
    female: 9 years (2014)
    total number: 1,369,080
    percentage: 22% (2008 est.)
    total: 39.4%
    male: 40.2%
    female: 38.7% (2012 est.)
  • Government :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
    conventional short form: Mozambique
    local long form: Republica de Mocambique
    local short form: Mocambique
    former: Portuguese East Africa
    etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century
    presidential republic
    name: Maputo
    geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
    25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
    Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
    previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004; amended 2007; note - amendments drafted in late 2013 were rejected by parliament in late 2015 (2016)
    mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)
    head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015); Alberto Clementino Antonio VAQUINA removed from office 9 January 2015
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president elected directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
    description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad who are appointed by the elected party; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
    Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
    Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUS]
    Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
    Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTA, president]
    Youth Parliament (parlamento Juvenil) [Salomao MUCHANGA]
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos dos SANTOS (since 28 January 2016)
    chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
    FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
    chief of mission: Ambassador H. Dean PITTMAN (since 18 February 2016)
    embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
    mailing address: P.O. Box 783, Maputo
    telephone: [258] (21) 49 2797
    FAX: [258] (21) 49 0114
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
    note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Guatemala
    national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
    name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
    note: adopted 2002
  • Economy :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP from $4 billion in 1993, following the war, to about $34 billion in 2015. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities.
    In spite of these gains, more than half the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. Citizens rioted in September 2010 after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on the population, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures.
    A substantial trade imbalance persists, although aluminum production from the Mozal Aluminum Smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, The Mozambican Government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company, a significant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries.
    Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt was reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives. However, in 2013, the Mozambique Tuna Company (EMATUM) issued an $850 million bond fully guaranteed by the Mozambican government primarily for the purpose of purchasing tuna boats. The government is attempting to reschedule this debt, in the expectation that a pending deal with a consortium led by a US company will provide enough revenue to pay off this debt. The pending deal has the potential to transform Mozambique’s economy and dramatically increase GDP.
    Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade up to 2015, one of Africa's strongest performances, but growth slowed in 2016 as low commodity prices reduced exports. Mozambique's ability to attract large investment projects in natural resources is expected to sustain high growth rates in coming years although weaker global demand for commodities is likely to weaken expected revenues from these vast resources, including natural gas, coal, titanium, and hydroelectric capacity.
    $35.31 billion (2016 est.)
    $33.79 billion (2015 est.)
    $31.7 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $12.05 billion (2016 est.)
    4.5% (2016 est.)
    6.6% (2015 est.)
    7.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $1,200 (2016 est.)
    $1,200 (2015 est.)
    $1,200 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 222
    5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    14.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    29.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    household consumption: 67.1%
    government consumption: 23.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 37.4%
    investment in inventories: 4.3%
    exports of goods and services: 31.3%
    imports of goods and services: -63.3% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 25.3%
    industry: 19.8%
    services: 54.9% (2016 est.)
    cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
    aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
    2.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    13.31 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    agriculture: 81%
    industry: 6%
    services: 13% (1997 est.)
    17% (2007 est.)
    21% (1997 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    52% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.9%
    highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
    45.6 (2008)
    47.3 (2002)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    revenues: $2.554 billion
    expenditures: $3.609 billion (2016 est.)
    21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    -8.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    100.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    75.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    calendar year
    17.1% (2016 est.)
    3.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    9.5% (17 January 2013)
    3.25% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    24.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
    14.87% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    $3.961 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $4.758 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    $7.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $7.871 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $4.702 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $5.565 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $NA
    -$4.035 billion (2016 est.)
    -$5.776 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    $3.132 billion (2016 est.)
    $3.413 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
    South Africa 21.2%, China 10.6%, Italy 9.4%, India 8.8%, Belgium 8.2%, Spain 4.6% (2015)
    $5.151 billion (2016 est.)
    $7.577 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
    South Africa 23.6%, China 19.7%, India 14.2%, Portugal 4% (2015)
    $1.541 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $2.582 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $9.554 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $9.743 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
    62.07 (2016 est.)
    39.983 (2015 est.)
    39.983 (2014 est.)
    31.367 (2013 est.)
    28.38 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • population without electricity: 15,700,000
    electrification - total population: 39%
    electrification - urban areas: 66%
    electrification - rural areas: 27% (2013)
    17 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    7.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    2.6 million kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    10.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    89.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    19,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    5.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    1.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
  • Communications :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • total subscriptions: 89,292
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    total: 20.135 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
    domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; 3 mobile-cellular operators provide coverage that now includes all the main cities and key roads; mobile-cellular teledensity now about 80 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2015)
    1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    .mz
    total: 2.277 million
    percent of population: 9% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
  • Transportation :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • number of registered air carriers: 3
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 16
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 686,892
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,138,916 mt-km (2015)
    C9 (2016)
    98 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    total: 21
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 77
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 29
    under 914 m: 38 (2013)
    gas 972 km; refined products 278 km (2013)
    total: 4,787 km
    narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    total: 31,083 km
    paved: 7,365 km
    unpaved: 23,718 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    total: 2
    by type: cargo 2
    foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    major seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala
  • Military and Security :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • 0.99% of GDP (2015)
    1.02% of GDP (2014)
    0.99% of GDP (2013)
    0.91% of GDP (2012)
    0.91% of GDP (2011)
    Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
    registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: MOZAMBIQUE

  • South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
    refugees (country of origin): 9,082 (Congo, Democratic Republic of the) (2015)
    IDPs: 61,102 (2015 floods) (2015)
    southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center