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Africa :: Niger Print
Page last updated on October 09, 2020
  • Introduction :: Niger
  • Background field listing
    In the late 19th century, the British and French agreed to partition the middle regions of the Niger River into British Nigeria and French Niger. In subsequent decades French administration spread until in 1922 Niger officially became a colony. Following independence from France in 1960, the country experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base, and is ranked last in the world on the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Index. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. The Nigerien Government continues its attempts to diversify the economy through increased oil production and mining projects. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.
  • Geography :: Niger
  • Location field listing
    Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    16 00 N, 8 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 1.267 million sq km
    land: 1,266,700 sq km
    water: 300 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 5,834 km
    border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1608 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
    Terrain field listing
    predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 474 m
    lowest point: Niger River 200 m
    highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes 2,022 m
    Natural resources field listing
    uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 35.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 12.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 22.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 1% (2011 est.)
    other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    1,000 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    majority of the populace is located in the southernmost extreme of the country along the border with Nigeria and Benin as shown in this population distribution map
    Natural hazards field listing
    recurring droughts
    Environment - current issues field listing
    overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; contaminated water; inadequate potable water; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Geography - note field listing
    landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
  • People and Society :: Niger
  • Population field listing
    22,772,361 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Nigerien(s)
    adjective: Nigerien
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peuhl) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
    Languages field listing
    French (official), Hausa, Djerma
    Religions field listing
    Muslim 99.3%, Christian 0.3%, animist 0.2%, none 0.1% (2012 est.)
    Demographic profile field listing

    Niger has the highest total fertility rate (TFR) of any country in the world, averaging close to 7 children per woman in 2016. A slight decline in fertility over the last few decades has stalled. This leveling off of the high fertility rate is in large part a product of the continued desire for large families. In Niger, the TFR is lower than the desired fertility rate, which makes it unlikely that contraceptive use will increase. The high TFR sustains rapid population growth and a large youth population – almost 70% of the populace is under the age of 25. Gender inequality, including a lack of educational opportunities for women and early marriage and childbirth, also contributes to high population growth.

    Because of large family sizes, children are inheriting smaller and smaller parcels of land. The dependence of most Nigeriens on subsistence farming on increasingly small landholdings, coupled with declining rainfall and the resultant shrinkage of arable land, are all preventing food production from keeping up with population growth.

    For more than half a century, Niger's lack of economic development has led to steady net outmigration. In the 1960s, Nigeriens mainly migrated to coastal West African countries to work on a seasonal basis. Some headed to Libya and Algeria in the 1970s to work in the booming oil industry until its decline in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, the principal destinations for Nigerien labor migrants have been West African countries, especially Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, while emigration to Europe and North America has remained modest. During the same period, Niger’s desert trade route town Agadez became a hub for West African and other Sub-Saharan migrants crossing the Sahara to North Africa and sometimes onward to Europe.

    More than 60,000 Malian refugees have fled to Niger since violence between Malian government troops and armed rebels began in early 2012. Ongoing attacks by the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency, dating to 2013 in northern Nigeria and February 2015 in southeastern Niger, have pushed tens of thousands of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien returnees across the border to Niger and to displace thousands of locals in Niger’s already impoverished Diffa region.

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 50.58% (male 5,805,102/female 5,713,815)
    15-24 years: 19.99% (male 2,246,670/female 2,306,285)
    25-54 years: 23.57% (male 2,582,123/female 2,784,464)
    55-64 years: 3.17% (male 357,832/female 364,774)
    65 years and over: 2.68% (male 293,430/female 317,866) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 109.5
    youth dependency ratio: 104.1
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.4
    potential support ratio: 18.4 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 14.8 years
    male: 14.5 years
    female: 15.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 228
    Population growth rate field listing
    3.66% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Birth rate field listing
    47.5 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Death rate field listing
    10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Net migration rate field listing
    -0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Population distribution field listing
    majority of the populace is located in the southernmost extreme of the country along the border with Nigeria and Benin as shown in this population distribution map
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 16.6% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 4.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    1.292 million NIAMEY (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    18.1 years (2012 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    509 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 67.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 72 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 63.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 59.3 years
    male: 57.8 years
    female: 60.8 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    Total fertility rate field listing
    7 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    11% (2018)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 95.7% of population
    rural: 59.2% of population
    total: 65.2% of population
    unimproved: urban: 4.3% of population
    rural: 40.8% of population
    total: 34.8% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    7.7% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    0.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 76.6% of population
    rural: 12.9% of population
    total: 23.3% of population
    unimproved: urban: 23.4% of population
    rural: 87.1% of population
    total: 76.7% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.3% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    36,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    1,200 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
    animal contact diseases: rabies
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    5.5% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    31.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.5% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 19.1%
    male: 27.3%
    female: 11% (2015)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 6 years
    male: 7 years
    female: 6 years (2017)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 0.7%
    male: 0.9%
    female: 0.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
  • Government :: Niger
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Niger
    conventional short form: Niger
    local long form: Republique du Niger
    local short form: Niger
    etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"

    note: pronounced nee-zher

    Government type field listing
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Niamey
    geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: according to tradition, the site was originally a fishing village named after a prominent local tree referred to as "nia niam"
    Administrative divisions field listing
    7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communaute urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
    Independence field listing
    3 August 1960 (from France)
    National holiday field listing
    Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; consideration of amendments requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires at least four-fifths majority vote; if disapproved, the proposed amendment is dropped or submitted to a referendum; constitutional articles on the form of government, the multiparty system, the separation of state and religion, disqualification of Assembly members, amendment procedures, and amnesty of participants in the 2010 coup cannot be amended; amended 2011
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 with a runoff on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly
    election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election
    elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 1.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8; composition - men 146, women 24 percent of women 14.6%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms
    subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA]
    Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR]
    Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU]
    Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO]
    National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU]
    Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]
    Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU]
    Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE]
    Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]
    Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA]
    Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri
    Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA]
    Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]
    Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR]
    Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE]

    note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties

    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
    FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Eric P. WHITAKER (since 26 January 2018)
    telephone: [227] 20-72-26-61
    embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
    mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
    FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band; the orange band denotes the drier northern regions of the Sahara; white stands for purity and innocence; green symbolizes hope and the fertile and productive southern and western areas, as well as the Niger River; the orange disc represents the sun and the sacrifices made by the people

    note: similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band

    National symbol(s) field listing
    zebu; national colors: orange, white, green
    National anthem field listing
    name: "La Nigerienne" (The Nigerien)
    lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET

    note: adopted 1961

  • Economy :: Niger
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Niger is a landlocked, Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes approximately 40% of GDP and provides livelihood for over 80% of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the second least developed country in the world in 2016 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding.

    Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up public investment, particularly that related to infrastructure, as well as due to increased security spending. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali and in the Diffa region of the country; concerns about security have resulted in increased support from regional and international partners on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances.

    The Government of Niger plans to exploit oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources to sustain future growth. Although Niger has sizable reserves of oil, the prolonged drop in oil prices has reduced profitability. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest more in irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility (ECF) agreement for the years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016. In February 2017, the IMF approved a new 3-year $134 million ECF. In June 2017, The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) granted Niger $1 billion over three years for IDA18, a program to boost the country’s development and alleviate poverty. A $437 million Millennium Challenge Account compact for Niger, commencing in FY18, will focus on large-scale irrigation infrastructure development and community-based, climate-resilient agriculture, while promoting sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and sales.

    Formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness. Although President ISSOUFOU is courting foreign investors, including those from the US, as of April 2017, there were no US firms operating in Niger. In November 2017, the National Assembly passed the 2018 Finance Law that was geared towards raising government revenues and moving away from international support.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $21.86 billion (2017 est.)
    $20.84 billion (2016 est.)
    $19.87 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 146
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $8.224 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    4.9% (2017 est.)
    4.9% (2016 est.)
    4.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $1,200 (2017 est.)
    $1,100 (2016 est.)
    $1,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 224
    Gross national saving field listing
    22.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    20.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    21.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 70.2% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 9.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 38.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 16.4% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -34.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 41.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 19.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 38.7% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
    Industries field listing
    uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Labor force field listing
    6.5 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 79.2%
    industry: 3.3%
    services: 17.5% (2012 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    0.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Population below poverty line field listing
    45.4% (2014 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 3.2%
    highest 10%: 26.8% (2014)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 1.757 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.171 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    21.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Public debt field listing
    45.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    45.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    2.4% (2017 est.)
    0.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Current account balance field listing
    -$1.16 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.181 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Exports field listing
    $4.143 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.101 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Exports - partners field listing
    France 30.2%, Thailand 18.3%, Malaysia 9.9%, Nigeria 8.3%, Mali 5%, Switzerland 4.9% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
    Imports field listing
    $1.829 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.715 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Imports - commodities field listing
    foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
    Imports - partners field listing
    France 28.8%, China 14.4%, Malaysia 5.7%, Nigeria 5.4%, Thailand 5.3%, US 5.1%, India 4.9% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $1.314 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.186 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Debt - external field listing
    $3.728 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.926 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Exchange rates field listing
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    605.3 (2017 est.)
    593.01 (2016 est.)
    593.01 (2015 est.)
    591.45 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Niger
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 19 million (2017)
    electrification - total population: 16.2% (2016)
    electrification - urban areas: 65.4% (2016)
    electrification - rural areas: 4.7% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    494.7 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    1.065 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Electricity - imports field listing
    779 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    184,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    95% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Crude oil - production field listing
    9,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    150 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    15,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    14,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    5,422 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    3,799 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    2.534 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
  • Communications :: Niger
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 114,352
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 8,778,884
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: mobile services stronger than fixed telecoms; broadband penetration inconsequential; adopts free mobile roaming with other G5 Sahel countries; govt. contributes to Trans-Sahara Backbone network; LTE license awarded; govt. tax of telecom sector (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity remains 46 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned (2018)
    international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 1,110,778
    percent of population: 5.25% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 8,650
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
  • Military and Security :: Niger
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger); Ministry of Interior: Niger Gendarmerie (GN), Niger National Guard (GNN) (2019)
    Military expenditures field listing
    1.8% of GDP (2019)
    2.5% of GDP (2018)
    2.5% of GDP (2017)
    2.2% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    size estimates for the Nigerien Armed Forces (FAN) vary; approximately 7,000 active troops (5,500 Army; 200 Air; 1,500 Gendarmerie); est. 2,500 National Guard (2019 )
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the FAN's inventory consists of a wide variety of foreign-supplied weapons, including Chinese, French, German, Russian, and US; since 2015, the FAN has received limited amounts of equipment from China, France, Russia, Sweden, and the US, some of which were donations (2019 est.)
    Military deployments field listing
    870 Mali (MINUSMA) (2020)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2017)
    Military - note field listing
    as of September 2020, the FAN was conducting counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations against Islamic militants on two fronts; in the Diffa region, the Nigeria-based Boko Haram terrorist group has conducted dozens of attacks on security forces, army bases, and civilians; on Niger’s western border with Mali, the Islamic State-West Africa (ISWA) has conducted numerous attacks on security personnel; a series of ISWA attacks on FAN forces near the Malian border in December of 2019 and January of 2020 resulted in the deaths of more than 170 soldiers

    Niger is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Chad; it has committed 1,100 troops and 200 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane

    Niger also has about 1,000 troops committed to the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram; national MNJTF troop contingents are deployed within their own country territories, although cross‐border operations are conducted periodically (2020)
  • Transportation :: Niger
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,242 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    5U (2016)
    Airports field listing
    30 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 10 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 20 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 15 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    464 km oil
    Roadways field listing
    total: 18,949 km (2010)
    paved: 3,912 km (2010)
    unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Waterways field listing
    300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 1
    by type: general cargo 1 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 178
  • Terrorism :: Niger
  • Terrorist groups - home based field listing
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-sham networks in the Greater Sahara (ISGS): aim(s): replace regional governments with an Islamic state
    area(s) of operation:
    mostly concentrated along the Mali-Niger border region; targets primarily security forces (2018)
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)-West Africa: aim(s): implement ISIS's strict interpretation of Sharia; replace the Nigerian Government with an Islamic state
    area(s) of operation:
    based primarily in the southeast along the border with Nigeria, with its largest presence in northeast Nigeria and the Lake Chad region; targets primarily regional military installations, especially in the southeastern Diffa region (2018)
    Terrorist groups - foreign based field listing
    al-Mulathamun Battalion: aim(s): replace several African governments, including Niger's government, with an Islamic state
    area(s) of operation:
    conducts attacks against Nigerien military and security personnel; targets Westerners for kidnappings for ransom
    al-Qa'ida-affiliated Jama'at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM): aim(s): establish an Islamic state centered in Mali
    area(s) of operation:
    primarily based in northern and central Mali; targets Western and local interests in West Africa and Sahel; has claimed responsibility for attacks in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso
    note: pledged allegiance to al-Qa'ida and AQIM; holds Western hostages; wages attacks against security and peacekeeping forces in Mali (2018)
    Boko Haram: aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate across Africa
    area(s) of operation: conducts kidnappings, bombings, and assaults; responsible for displacing thousands of people and contributing to food insecurity
    note: violently opposes any political or social activity associated with Western society, including voting, attending secular schools, and wearing Western dress (2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Niger
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 167,588 (Nigeria), 58,702 (Mali) (2020)
    IDPs: 265,522 (includes the regions of Diffa, Tillaberi, and Tahoua; unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2020)