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Africa :: Niger
Page last updated on May 17, 2016
 
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Niger
  • Introduction :: NIGER

  • Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.
  • Geography :: NIGER

  • Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
    16 00 N, 8 00 E
    Africa
    total: 1.267 million sq km
    land: 1,266,700 sq km
    water: 300 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 22
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    total: 5,834 km
    border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1,196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1,608 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
    predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
    mean elevation: 474 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Niger River 200 m
    highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes 2,022 m
    uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
    agricultural land: 35.1%
    arable land 12.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 22.7%
    forest: 1%
    other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
    1,000 sq km (2012)
    33.65 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.98 cu km/yr (30%/3%/67%)
    per capita: 70.53 cu m/yr (2005)
    recurring droughts
    overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
  • People and Society :: NIGER

  • noun: Nigerien(s)
    adjective: Nigerien
    Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peul) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
    French (official), Hausa, Djerma
    Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%
    18,045,729 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    0-14 years: 49.57% (male 4,512,526/female 4,431,944)
    15-24 years: 18.61% (male 1,658,537/female 1,699,924)
    25-54 years: 25.92% (male 2,336,655/female 2,341,599)
    55-64 years: 3.26% (male 305,363/female 283,647)
    65 years and over: 2.64% (male 242,025/female 233,509) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 113%
    youth dependency ratio: 107.5%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.5%
    potential support ratio: 18.2% (2015 est.)
    total: 15.2 years
    male: 15.1 years
    female: 15.3 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    3.25% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    45.45 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    12.42 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    -0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    urban population: 18.7% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 5.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    NIAMEY (capital) 1.09 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    18.1
    note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2012 est.)
    553 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    total: 84.59 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 89.12 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 79.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    total population: 55.13 years
    male: 53.9 years
    female: 56.39 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    6.76 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    13.9% (2012)
    6.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    0.31 beds/1,000 population (2005)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 48.6% of population
    total: 58.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 51.4% of population
    total: 41.8% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 37.9% of population
    rural: 4.6% of population
    total: 10.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 62.1% of population
    rural: 95.4% of population
    total: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
    0.49% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    51,800 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    3,400 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    3.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    37.9% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    4.4% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 19.1%
    male: 27.3%
    female: 11% (2015 est.)
    total: 5 years
    male: 6 years
    female: 5 years (2012)
    total number: 1,557,913
    percentage: 43% (2006 est.)
  • Government :: NIGER

  • conventional long form: Republic of Niger
    conventional short form: Niger
    local long form: Republique du Niger
    local short form: Niger
    etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Niamey
    geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communite urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
    3 August 1960 (from France)
    Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
    several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010 (2016)
    mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 and 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly
    election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 163 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies based on 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election
    elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA-Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 3.0%, other 4.1%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA-Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8
    highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms
    subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
    Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA]
    Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR]
    Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU]
    Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO]
    National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU]
    Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]
    Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU]
    Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE]
    Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]
    Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA]
    Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri
    Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA]
    Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]
    Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR]
    Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE]
    note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
    FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
    chief of mission: Ambassador Eunice S. REDDICK (since 12 September 2014)
    embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
    mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
    telephone: [227] 20-73-31-69 or [227] 20-72-39-41
    FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
    three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band; the orange band denotes the drier northern regions of the Sahara; white stands for purity and innocence; green symbolizes hope and the fertile and productive southern and western areas, as well as the Niger River; the orange disc represents the sun and the sacrifices made by the people
    note: similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
    zebu; national colors: orange, white, green
    name: "La Nigerienne" (The Nigerien)
    lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET
    note: adopted 1961
  • Economy :: NIGER

  • Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes nearly 40% of GDP and provides livelihood for most of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the least developed country in the world in 2014 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding.
    Since 2011 public debt has increased in part from a large loan financing a new uranium mine. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity and kidnappings near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali; concerns about security have boosted fiscal spending on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances.
    Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Niger has sizable reserves of oil and oil production. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest more in the agriculture sector, most notably irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility agreement for years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016, although formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness.
    $18.96 billion (2015 est.)
    $18.18 billion (2014 est.)
    $17.01 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 147
    $7.119 billion (2015 est.)
    4.3% (2015 est.)
    6.9% (2014 est.)
    4.6% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $1,100 (2015 est.)
    $1,100 (2014 est.)
    $1,000 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 223
    24.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    25.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    25.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    household consumption: 72.1%
    government consumption: 7.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 38.1%
    investment in inventories: 2%
    exports of goods and services: 24.2%
    imports of goods and services: -44.1% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 37.3%
    industry: 18.9%
    services: 45.5% (2015 est.)
    cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
    uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
    6.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    6.3 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    agriculture: 90%
    industry: 6%
    services: 4% (1995)
    5.1% (2015 est.)
    5.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    63% (1993 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.7%
    highest 10%: 28.5% (2007)
    34 (2007)
    50.5 (1995)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    revenues: $1.975 billion
    expenditures: $2.181 billion (2015 est.)
    27.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    -2.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    calendar year
    0.7% (2015 est.)
    -0.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    4.75% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    3.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
    3.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    $1.518 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.657 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $2.027 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.047 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    $917.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $922.7 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    $NA
    -$1.358 billion (2015 est.)
    -$1.221 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $1.378 billion (2015 est.)
    $1.469 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
    Nigeria 41.4%, France 30.3%, China 15.7%, Ghana 5.6% (2014)
    $2.168 billion (2015 est.)
    $2.158 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
    China 13.5%, France 12.3%, Nigeria 8.3%, French Polynesia 8.1%, Togo 5.5%, Belgium 5.3%, India 4.7% (2014)
    $2.983 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.656 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    580.5 (2015 est.)
    494.42 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: NIGER

  • 355 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    930.2 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    600 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    134,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    20,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    20,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    150 million bbl (July 7, 1905 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    5,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    5,136 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    1.411 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
  • Communications :: NIGER

  • total subscriptions: 110,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    total: 8.2 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains only about 30 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
    international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)
    state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 4 (2001)
    5 (2007)
    .ne
    454 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    total: 281,200
    percent of population: 1.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
  • Transportation :: NIGER

  • 30 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    total: 10
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 20
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 15
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    total: 18,949 km
    paved: 3,912 km
    unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 93
  • Military and Security :: NIGER

  • Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger) (2012)
    18 is the presumed legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2012)
    1.06% of GDP (2012)
    NA% (2011)
    1.06% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 95
  • Transnational Issues :: NIGER

  • Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
    refugees (country of origin): 97,744 (Nigeria) (2015); 60,329 (Mali) (2016)
    IDPs: 47,023 (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2015)
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