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Africa :: Nigeria
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  • Introduction :: NIGERIA

  • British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. In January 2014, Nigeria assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2014-15 term.
  • Geography :: NIGERIA

  • Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
    10 00 N, 8 00 E
    total: 923,768 sq km
    land: 910,768 sq km
    water: 13,000 sq km
    slightly more than twice the size of California
    total: 4,477 km
    border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1,608 km
    853 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
    southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
    natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
    agricultural land: 78%
    arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%
    forest: 9.5%
    other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
    2,932 sq km (2004)
    286.2 cu km (2011)
    total: 13.11 cu km/yr (31%/15%/54%)
    per capita: 89.21 cu m/yr (2005)
    periodic droughts; flooding
    soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
  • People and Society :: NIGERIA

  • noun: Nigerian(s)
    adjective: Nigerian
    Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
    English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
    Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 43.2% (male 39,151,304/female 37,353,737)
    15-24 years: 19.3% (male 17,486,117/female 16,732,533)
    25-54 years: 30.5% (male 27,697,644/female 26,285,816)
    55-64 years: 3.9% (male 3,393,631/female 3,571,301)
    65 years and over: 3.1% (male 2,621,845/female 2,861,826) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 89.2%
    youth dependency ratio: 84%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.2%
    potential support ratio: 19.3% (2014 est.)
    total: 18.2 years
    male: 18.1 years
    female: 18.3 years (2014 est.)
    2.47% (2014 est.)
    38.03 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    13.16 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    -0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 46.9% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 4.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Lagos 12.614 million; Kano 3.508 million; Ibadan 3.085 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.301 million; Port Harcourt 2.227 million; Benin City 1.453 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
    560 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 74.09 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 79.02 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 68.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 52.62 years
    male: 51.63 years
    female: 53.66 years (2014 est.)
    5.25 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    15.1% (2013)
    3.9% of GDP (2013)
    0.41 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    0.53 beds/1,000 population (2004)
    urban: 78.8% of population
    rural: 49.1% of population
    total: 64% of population
    urban: 21.2% of population
    rural: 50.9% of population
    total: 36% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 30.8% of population
    rural: 24.7% of population
    total: 27.8% of population
    urban: 69.2% of population
    rural: 75.3% of population
    total: 72.2% of population (2012 est.)
    3.17% (2013 est.)
    3,228,600 (2013 est.)
    209,600 (2013 est.)
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
    water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever
    animal contact disease: rabies
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    9.7% (2014)
    31% (2013)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 59.6%
    male: 69.2%
    female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
    total: 9 years
    male: 10 years
    female: 8 years (2005)
    total number: 11,396,823
    percentage: 29% (2007 est.)
  • Government :: NIGERIA

  • conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
    conventional short form: Nigeria
    federal republic
    name: Abuja
    geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
    1 October 1960 (from the UK)
    Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
    several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999; amended 2010 (2010)
    mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
    cabinet: Federal Executive Council
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019)
    election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI 53%, Goodluck JONATHAN 46%
    description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - All Progressive Congress 60, PDP 49; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - All Progressive Congress 225, PDP 125, other 10
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
    Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
    Action Congress of Nigeria or ACN [Adebisi Bamidele AKANDE]
    All Nigeria Peoples Party or ANPP [Ogbonnaya C. ONU]
    All Progressives Congress [Adebisi Bamidele AKANDE, acting]
    All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
    Congress for Progressive Change or CPC [Tony MOMOH]
    Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
    Labor Party or LP [Chief Dan NWANYANWU]
    Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Adamu MU'AZU]
    Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
    Campaign for Democracy or CD
    Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
    Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
    Constitutional Right Project or CRP
    Human Right Africa
    National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
    National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
    Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
    Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
    Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
    Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
    other: the press
    chief of mission: Ambassador Adebowale Ibidapo ADEFUYE (since 26 March 2010)
    chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador James F. ENTWISTLE (since 26 November 2013)
    embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
    mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
    telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
    FAX: [234] (9) 461-4171
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
    eagle; national colors: green, white
    name: "Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"
    lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
    note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest
  • Economy :: NIGERIA

  • Following an April 2014 statistical "rebasing" exercise, Nigeria has emerged as Africa's largest economy, with 2014 GDP estimated at US$ 479 billion. Oil has been a dominant source of government revenues since the 1970s. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production contracted in 2012 and 2013. Nevertheless, the Nigerian economy has continued to grow at a rapid 6-8% per annum (pre-rebasing), driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services, and the medium-term outlook for Nigeria is good, assuming oil output stabilizes and oil prices remain strong. Fiscal authorities pursued countercyclical policies in 2011-2013, significantly reducing the budget deficit. Monetary policy has also been contractionary. Following the 2008-9 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels - over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people live in extreme poverty. President JONATHAN has established an economic team that includes experienced and reputable members and has announced plans to increase transparency, continue to diversify production, and further improve fiscal management. The government is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.
    $1.058 trillion (2014 est.)
    $988.9 billion (2013 est.)
    $938.3 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $594.3 billion (2014 est.)
    7% (2014 est.)
    5.4% (2013 est.)
    4.3% (2012 est.)
    $6,100 (2014 est.)
    $5,800 (2013 est.)
    $5,700 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 159
    18.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    18.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    19.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 72.5%
    government consumption: 8.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 16.4%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 14.9%
    imports of goods and services: -12.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 20.6%
    industry: 25.6%
    services: 53.8% (2014 est.)
    cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
    crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
    4.6% (2014 est.)
    54.97 million (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 70%
    industry: 10%
    services: 20% (1999 est.)
    23.9% (2011 est.)
    4.9% (2011 est.)
    70% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.8%
    highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
    43.7 (2003)
    50.6 (1997)
    revenues: $22.77 billion
    expenditures: $34.62 billion (2014 est.)
    3.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    11.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    10.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    calendar year
    8.3% (2014 est.)
    8.5% (2013 est.)
    4.25% (31 December 2010)
    6% (31 December 2009)
    17% (31 December 2014 est.)
    16.72% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $45.44 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $44.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $108.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $99.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $119.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $109.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $56.39 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $39.27 billion (31 December 2011)
    $50.88 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $18.24 billion (2014 est.)
    $21.85 billion (2013 est.)
    $93.01 billion (2014 est.)
    $96.74 billion (2013 est.)
    petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
    India 12.8%, US 11.1%, Brazil 10%, Spain 7.1%, Netherlands 7.1%, Germany 5.1%, France 4.7%, UK 4.5%, South Africa 4.2% (2013)
    $52.79 billion (2014 est.)
    $51.38 billion (2013 est.)
    machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
    China 20.8%, US 11.2%, India 4.5% (2013)
    $37.44 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $45.66 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $22.01 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $18.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $81.72 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $76.75 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $10.87 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $9.113 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    nairas (NGN) per US dollar -
    157.3 (2014 est.)
    157.31 (2013 est.)
    156.81 (2012 est.)
    154.7 (2011 est.)
    150.3 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: NIGERIA

  • 25.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    23.11 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    5.9 million kW (2011 est.)
    67.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    32.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    2.367 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    2.341 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    37.14 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    101,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    302,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    18,750 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    151,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    33.71 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    6.916 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    26.79 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    5.118 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    86.4 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: NIGERIA

  • 418,200 (2012)
    112.78 million (2012)
    general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
    domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth but subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base approaching 60 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)
    nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)
    AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
    3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2001)
    1,234 (2012)
    43.989 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: NIGERIA

  • 54 (2013)
    total: 40
    over 3,047 m: 10
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 14
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m:
    3 (2013)
    5 (2013)
    condensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)
    total: 3,505 km
    narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
    total: 193,200 km
    paved: 28,980 km
    unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
    8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
    total: 89
    by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 28, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 56, specialized tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 3 (India 1, UK 2)
    registered in other countries: 33 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Comoros 1, Italy 1, Liberia 4, North Korea 1, Panama 6, Seychelles 1, unknown 6) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Niger Delta and Gulf of Guinea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery of ships; in 2012, 27 commercial vessels were boarded or attacked compared with 10 attacks in 2011; crews were robbed and stores or cargoes stolen; Nigerian pirates have extended the range of their attacks to as far away as Cote d'Ivoire
  • Military :: NIGERIA

  • Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
    males age 16-49: 37,087,711
    females age 16-49: 35,232,127 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 20,839,976
    females age 16-49: 19,867,683 (2010 est.)
    male: 1,767,428
    female: 1,687,719 (2010 est.)
    0.89% of GDP (2012)
    0.98% of GDP (2011)
    0.89% of GDP (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: NIGERIA

  • Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
    IDPs: 1,538,982 (Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2015)
    a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF