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Africa :: Nigeria Print
Page last updated on November 24, 2020
  • Introduction :: Nigeria
  • Background field listing
    In ancient and pre-colonial times, the area of present-day Nigeria was occupied by a great diversity of ethnic groups with very different languages and traditions. British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through decades of corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history. National and state elections in 2011 and 2015 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election was also heralded for the fact that the then-umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeated the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999, and assumed the presidency, marking the first peaceful transfer of power from one party to another. Presidential and legislative elections were held in early 2019 and deemed broadly free and fair despite voting irregularities, intimidation, and violence.
  • Geography :: Nigeria
  • Location field listing
    Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    10 00 N, 8 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 923,768 sq km
    land: 910,768 sq km
    water: 13,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Area - comparative field listing
    about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 4,477 km
    border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1608 km
    Coastline field listing
    853 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate field listing
    varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
    Terrain field listing
    southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 380 m
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
    Natural resources field listing
    natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 78% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 37.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 7.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 33.3% (2011 est.)
    forest: 9.5% (2011 est.)
    other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    2,930 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest as shown in this population distribution map
    Natural hazards field listing
    periodic droughts; flooding
    Environment - current issues field listing
    serious overpopulation and rapid urbanization have led to numerous environmental problems; urban air and water pollution; rapid deforestation; soil degradation; loss of arable land; oil pollution - water, air, and soil have suffered serious damage from oil spills
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
  • People and Society :: Nigeria
  • Population field listing
    214,028,302 (July 2020 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 6
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Nigerian(s)
    adjective: Nigerian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%, Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%, Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.7% (2018 est.)
    note: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups
    Languages field listing
    English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
    Religions field listing
    Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 35.3%, other .6% (2018 est.)
    Demographic profile field listing

    Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.

    Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 41.7% (male 45,571,738/female 43,674,769)
    15-24 years: 20.27% (male 22,022,660/female 21,358,753)
    25-54 years: 30.6% (male 32,808,913/female 32,686,474)
    55-64 years: 4.13% (male 4,327,847/female 4,514,264)
    65 years and over: 3.3% (male 3,329,083/female 3,733,801) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 86
    youth dependency ratio: 80.9
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
    potential support ratio: 19.6 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 18.6 years
    male: 18.4 years
    female: 18.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Population growth rate field listing
    2.53% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Birth rate field listing
    34.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Death rate field listing
    9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Net migration rate field listing
    -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Population distribution field listing
    largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest as shown in this population distribution map
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 52% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    14.368 million Lagos, 3.999 million Kano, 3.552 million Ibadan, 3.278 million ABUJA (capital), 3.020 million Port Harcourt, 1.727 million Benin City (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    20.3 years (2013 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    917 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 65.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 60.4 years
    male: 58.6 years
    female: 62.3 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    Total fertility rate field listing
    4.72 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    16.6% (2018)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 92.6% of population
    rural: 63.6% of population
    total: 77.9% of population
    unimproved: urban: 7.4% of population
    rural: 36.4% of population
    total: 22.1% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    3.8% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.45 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 80.2% of population
    rural: 39.5% of population
    total: 59.7% of population
    unimproved: urban: 19.8% of population
    rural: 60.5% of population
    total: 40.3% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    1.3% (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    1.8 million (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    45,000 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
    water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
    animal contact diseases: rabies
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
    aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever
    note: on 7 October 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reporting cases of the disease in all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory; the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak
    note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Nigeria; as of 10 November 2020, Nigeria has reported a total of 63,790 cases of COVID-19 or 309 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 6 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; as of 19 March 2020, the Government of Nigeria has restricted entry into Nigeria for travelers from the following high incidence countries: China, Italy, Iran, Norway, South Korea, Spain, Japan, France, Germany, US, UK, Netherlands, and Switzerland
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    8.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    21.8% (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Education expenditures field listing
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 62%
    male: 71.3%
    female: 52.7% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 9 years
    male: 9 years
    female: 8 years (2011)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 13.8%
    male: NA
    female: NA (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
  • Government :: Nigeria
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
    conventional short form: Nigeria
    etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"
    Government type field listing
    federal presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Abuja
    geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: Abuja is a planned capital city, it replaced Lagos in 1991; situated in the center of the country, Abuja takes its name from a nearby town, now renamed Suleja
    Administrative divisions field listing
    36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
    Independence field listing
    1 October 1960 (from the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures requires at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state require at least two-thirds majority vote by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2018
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
    head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
    cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president but constrained constitutionally to include at least one member from each of the 36 states
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by qualified majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2023); note: the election was scheduled for 16 February 2019, but postponed on 16 February 2019
    election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 53%, Atiku ABUBAKER (PDP) 39%, other 8%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
    Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
    House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held on 23 February 2023); note: election was scheduled for 16 February 2019 but was postponed on 15 February 2019
    House of Representatives - last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held on 23 February 2023); note: election was scheduled for 16 February 2019 but was postponed on 15 February 2019
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 65, PDP 39, YPP 1, TBD 3; composition - men 103, women 6, percent of women 5.5%
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 217, PDP 115, other 20, TBD 8; composition - men 346, women 14, percent of women 3.9%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 4.3%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
    All Progressives Congress or APC [Adams OSHIOMHOLE]
    All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor Ike OYE]
    Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
    Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]
    Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Uche SECONDUS]
    Young Progressive Party or YPP [Kingsley MOGHALU]
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvanus Adiewere NSOFOR (since 29 November 2017)
    chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 516-4277
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Beth LEONARD (since 24 December 2019)
    telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
    embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
    mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
    FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036
    consulate(s): Lagos
    Flag description field listing
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
    National symbol(s) field listing
    eagle; national colors: green, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey
    lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B.A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P.O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE

    note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest

  • Economy :: Nigeria
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Nigeria is Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economy and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-09 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels; over 62% of Nigeria's over 180 million people still live in extreme poverty.

    Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production had been contracting every year since 2012 until a slight rebound in 2017.

    President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management, but has taken a primarily protectionist approach that favors domestic producers at the expense of consumers. President BUHARI ran on an anti-corruption platform, and has made some headway in alleviating corruption, such as implementation of a Treasury Single Account that allows the government to better manage its resources and a more transparent government payroll and personnel system that eliminated duplicate and "ghost workers." The government also is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.

    Nigeria entered recession in 2016 as a result of lower oil prices and production, exacerbated by militant attacks on oil and gas infrastructure in the Niger Delta region, coupled with detrimental economic policies, including foreign exchange restrictions. GDP growth turned positive in 2017 as oil prices recovered and output stabilized.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $1.121 trillion (2017 est.)
    $1.112 trillion (2016 est.)
    $1.13 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 24
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $376.4 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    0.8% (2017 est.)
    -1.6% (2016 est.)
    2.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $5,900 (2017 est.)
    $6,100 (2016 est.)
    $6,300 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 166
    Gross national saving field listing
    18.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    16% of GDP (2016 est.)
    12.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 80% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 5.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 11.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -13.2% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 21.1% (2016 est.)
    industry: 22.5% (2016 est.)
    services: 56.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
    Industries field listing
    crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    2.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Labor force field listing
    60.08 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 70%
    industry: 10%
    services: 20% (1999 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    16.5% (2017 est.)
    13.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Population below poverty line field listing
    70% (2010 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 1.8%
    highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 12.92 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 19.54 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Public debt field listing
    21.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    19.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    16.5% (2017 est.)
    15.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Current account balance field listing
    $10.38 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.714 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Exports field listing
    $1.146 billion (2017 est.)
    $34.7 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Exports - partners field listing
    India 30.6%, US 12.1%, Spain 6.6%, China 5.6%, France 5.5%, Netherlands 4.4%, Indonesia 4.4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
    Imports field listing
    $32.67 billion (2017 est.)
    $35.24 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 21.1%, Belgium 8.7%, US 8.4%, South Korea 7.5%, UK 4.4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $38.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $25.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Debt - external field listing
    $40.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $31.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Exchange rates field listing
    nairas (NGN) per US dollar -
    323.5 (2017 est.)
    253 (2016 est.)
    253 (2015 est.)
    192.73 (2014 est.)
    158.55 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Nigeria
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 77 million (2019)
    electrification - total population: 62% (2019)
    electrification - urban areas: 91% (2019)
    electrification - rural areas: 30% (2019)
    Electricity - production field listing
    29.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    24.72 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    10.52 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    80% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Crude oil - production field listing
    1.989 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    2.096 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    37.45 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    35,010 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    325,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    2,332 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    223,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Natural gas - production field listing
    44.48 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    17.24 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    27.21 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    5.475 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    104 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
  • Communications :: Nigeria
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 146,075
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 184,013,243
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 88.18 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: one of the larger telecom markets in Africa; most Internet connections are via mobile networks; foreign investment presence, particularly China; market competition; LTE-A technologies available but GSM technology dominate; mobile penetration rate of 123% and 173 million subscribers; unified licensing regime; government committed to expanding broadband penetration; in Q1 2018, the Nigerian Communications Commission approved seven licenses to telecom companies to deploy fiber optic cable in the six geopolitical zones and Lagos; operators invest in base stations to take care of network congestion (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 88 per 100 persons (2019)
    international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, NCSCS,  MainOne, Glo-1 & 2, ACE, and Equiano fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and South and West Africa; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available; digital broadcasting migration process completed in three states in 2018 (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 85,450,052
    percent of population: 42% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 73,965
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
  • Transportation :: Nigeria
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 13 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 104
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 8,169,192 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 19.42 million mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    5N (2016)
    Airports field listing
    54 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 40 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 10 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
    under 914 m: 3 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 14 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    5 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    124 km condensate, 4045 km gas, 164 km liquid petroleum gas, 4441 km oil, 3940 km refined products (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 3,798 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 293 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
    narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    note: as of the end of 2018, there were only six operational locomotives in Nigeria primarily used for passenger service; the majority of the rail lines are in a severe state of disrepair and need to be replaced
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Roadways field listing
    total: 195,000 km (2017)
    paved: 60,000 km (2017)
    unpaved: 135,000 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Waterways field listing
    8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 677
    by type: general cargo 15, oil tanker 105, other 557 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island
  • Military and Security :: Nigeria
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard), Air Force; Ministry of Interior: Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC, a paramilitary agency commissioned to assist the military in the management of threats to internal security, including attacks and natural disasters) (2020)
    Military expenditures field listing
    0.5% of GDP (2019)
    0.5% of GDP (2018)
    0.4% of GDP (2017)
    0.4% of GDP (2016)
    0.4% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    size estimates for the Nigerian Armed Forces vary; approximately 135,000 active personnel (100,000 Army; 20,000 Navy/Coast Guard; 15,000 Air Force); est. 80,000 Security and Civil Defense Corps (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the Nigerian Armed Forces' inventory consists of a wide variety of imported weapons systems of Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, Russian (including Soviet-era), and US origin; since 2010, the leading suppliers include China, France, Italy, Russia, South Korea, Ukraine, and the US; Nigeria has been the largest arms importer in sub-Saharan Africa since 2014; Nigeria is also developing a defense-industry capacity, including small arms, armored personnel vehicle, and small-scale naval production (2019)
    Military deployments field listing
    200 Ghana (ECOMIG); MNJTF (1 brigade or approximately 3,000 troops committed; note - the national MNJTF troop contingents are deployed within their own country territories, although cross‐border operations are conducted periodically) (2020)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
    Maritime threats field listing
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Niger Delta and Gulf of Guinea as very high risk for piracy and armed robbery of ships; in 2018, 48 commercial vessels were boarded or attacked compared with 33 attacks in 2017; in 2018, 29 ships were boarded eight of which were underway, 12 were fired upon, and 78 crew members were abducted; Nigerian pirates have extended the range of their attacks to as far away as Cote d'Ivoire and as far as 170 nm offshore; the Maritime Administration of the US Department of Transportation has issued a Maritime Advisory (2019-010-Gulf of Guinea-Piracy/Armed Robbery/Kidnapping for Ransom) effective 19 July 2019, which states in part "Piracy, armed robbery, and kidnapping for ransom (KFR) continue to serve as significant threats to U.S. flagged vessels transiting or operating in the Gulf of Guinea (GoG). ...According to the Office of Naval Intelligence’s “Weekly Piracy Reports” 72 reported incidents of piracy and armed robbery at sea occurred in the GoG region this year as of July 9, 2019. Attacks, kidnappings for ransom (KFR), and boardings to steal valuables from the ships and crews are the most common types of incidents with approximately 75 percent of all incidents taking place off Nigeria. During the first six months of 2019, there were 15 kidnapping and 3 hijackings in the GoG."
    Military - note field listing
    the Nigerian Armed Forces are used primarily for internal security operations; in the northeast, the military is conducting counterinsurgency/counter-terrorist operations against the Boko Haram (BH) and Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) terrorist groups, where up to 70,000 troops have been deployed at times; in the northwest, it faces threats from criminal gangs, bandits, and militants associated with ongoing herder-farmer violence, as well as BH and ISWA terrorists; the military also focuses on the Niger Delta region to protect the oil industry against militants and criminal activity, although the levels of violence there have decreased in recent years (2020)
  • Terrorism :: Nigeria
  • Terrorist group(s) field listing
    Boko Haram; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham – West Africa; Jama’atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan (Ansaru) (2020)
    note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T
  • Transnational Issues :: Nigeria
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 61,774 (Cameroon) (2020)
    IDPs: 3,214,506 (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2020)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF