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Africa :: NIGERIA
Page last updated on August 15, 2016
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  • Introduction :: NIGERIA

  • British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election is considered the most well run in Nigeria since the return to civilian rule, with the umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeating the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999.
  • Geography :: NIGERIA

  • Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
    10 00 N, 8 00 E
    Africa
    total: 923,768 sq km
    land: 910,768 sq km
    water: 13,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 32
    about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
    Area comparison map:
    total: 4,477 km
    border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1,608 km
    853 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
    southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
    mean elevation: 380 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
    natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
    agricultural land: 78%
    arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%
    forest: 9.5%
    other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
    2,930 sq km (2012)
    286.2 cu km (2011)
    total: 13.11 cu km/yr (31%/15%/54%)
    per capita: 89.21 cu m/yr (2005)
    periodic droughts; flooding
    soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
  • People and Society :: NIGERIA

  • noun: Nigerian(s)
    adjective: Nigerian
    Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
    English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
    Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
    181,562,056
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    0-14 years: 43.01% (male 39,960,275/female 38,123,266)
    15-24 years: 19.38% (male 17,978,154/female 17,210,308)
    25-54 years: 30.56% (male 28,470,583/female 27,018,101)
    55-64 years: 3.94% (male 3,491,784/female 3,669,348)
    65 years and over: 3.11% (male 2,687,373/female 2,952,864) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 87.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 82.6%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.1%
    potential support ratio: 19.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 18.2 years
    male: 18.2 years
    female: 18.3 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    2.45% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    37.64 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    12.9 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    -0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    urban population: 47.8% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 4.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Lagos 13.123 million; Kano 3.587 million; Ibadan 3.16 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.44 million; Port Harcourt 2.343 million; Benin City 1.496 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    20.3
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
    814 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    total: 72.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 77.55 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 67.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    total population: 53.02 years
    male: 52 years
    female: 54.1 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    5.19 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    15.1% (2013)
    3.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    0.41 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    improved:
    urban: 80.8% of population
    rural: 57.3% of population
    total: 68.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 19.2% of population
    rural: 42.7% of population
    total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 32.8% of population
    rural: 25.4% of population
    total: 29% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 67.2% of population
    rural: 74.6% of population
    total: 71% of population (2015 est.)
    3.17% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    3,391,600 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    174,300 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
    water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    9.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    19.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 59.6%
    male: 69.2%
    female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
    total number: 11,396,823
    percentage: 29% (2007 est.)
  • Government :: NIGERIA

  • conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
    conventional short form: Nigeria
    etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"
    federal presidential republic
    name: Abuja
    geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
    1 October 1960 (from the UK)
    Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
    several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
    mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
    cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by 'qualified' majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019)
    election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (CPC) 53%, Goodluck JONATHAN (PDP) 46%, other 1%
    description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 60, PDP 49; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 225, PDP 125, other 10
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
    Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
    All Progressives Congress or APC [John Odigie OYEGUN]
    All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
    Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
    Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]
    Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Uche SECONDUS, acting]
    Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
    Campaign for Democracy or CD
    Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
    Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
    Constitutional Right Project or CRP
    Human Right Africa
    National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
    National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
    Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
    Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
    Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
    Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
    other: the press
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Hakeem Toyin BALOGUN (since 27 August 2015)
    chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador James F. ENTWISTLE (since 26 November 2013)
    embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
    mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
    telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
    FAX: [234] (9) 461-4171
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
    eagle; national colors: green, white
    name: "Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"
    lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
    note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest
  • Economy :: NIGERIA

  • Following an April 2014 statistical "rebasing" exercise, Nigeria has emerged as Africa's largest economy, with 2015 GDP estimated at $1.1 trillion. Oil has been a dominant source of income and government revenues since the 1970s. Following the 2008-9 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Nigeria’s economic growth over the last five years has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels, however - over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people still live in extreme poverty.
    Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production has contracted every year since 2012.
    Because of lower oil prices, GDP growth in 2015 fell to around 3%, and government revenues declined, while the nonoil sector also contracted due to economic policy uncertainty. President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management. The government is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power. The medium-term outlook for Nigeria is positive, assuming oil output stabilizes and oil prices recover.
    $1.092 trillion (2015 est.)
    $1.063 trillion (2014 est.)
    $1 trillion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 23
    $490.2 billion (2015 est.)
    2.7% (2015 est.)
    6.3% (2014 est.)
    5.4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    $6,100 (2015 est.)
    $6,100 (2014 est.)
    $5,900 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 159
    12% of GDP (2015 est.)
    16% of GDP (2014 est.)
    18.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    household consumption: 74.1%
    government consumption: 7.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 16.8%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 13%
    imports of goods and services: -11.6% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 20.3%
    industry: 23.6%
    services: 56.1% (2015 est.)
    cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
    crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
    -2.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    57.46 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    agriculture: 70%
    industry: 10%
    services: 20% (1999 est.)
    23.9% (2011 est.)
    4.9% (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    70% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.8%
    highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
    43.7 (2003)
    50.6 (1997)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    revenues: $14.37 billion
    expenditures: $21.29 billion (2015 est.)
    2.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    -1.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    11.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    10.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    calendar year
    9% (2015 est.)
    8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    4.25% (31 December 2010)
    6% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    17.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
    16.55% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    $29.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $40.69 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    $89.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $111.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    $95.79 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $115 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    $56.39 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $39.27 billion (31 December 2011)
    $50.88 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    -$11.92 billion (2015 est.)
    $1.279 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    $50.74 billion (2015 est.)
    $82.59 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
    India 18.2%, Netherlands 8.5%, Spain 8.2%, Brazil 8.2%, South Africa 7.8%, France 5.2%, Japan 4.5%, Cote dIvoire 4.2%, Ghana 4% (2015)
    $48.41 billion (2015 est.)
    $61.59 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
    China 25.7%, US 6.4%, Netherlands 6.1%, India 4.3% (2015)
    $28.76 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $36.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $20.93 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $18.67 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    $95.57 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $92.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    $12.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $10.98 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    nairas (NGN) per US dollar -
    196.9 (2015 est.)
    158.55 (2014 est.)
    158.55 (2013 est.)
    156.81 (2012 est.)
    154.7 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: NIGERIA

  • 27.27 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    24.78 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    6.09 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    65% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    2.423 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    2.411 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    37.07 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    101,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    280,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    16,120 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    180,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    38.41 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    15.69 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    22.12 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    5.118 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    86.4 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
  • Communications :: NIGERIA

  • total subscriptions: 187,155
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    total: 150.83 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
    domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 80 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
    nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)
    AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
    3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2001)
    .ng
    1,234 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    total: 86.138 million
    percent of population: 47.4% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
  • Transportation :: NIGERIA

  • 54 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    total: 40
    over 3,047 m: 10
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 14
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    5 (2013)
    condensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)
    total: 3,798 km
    standard gauge: 293 km 1.435-m gauge
    narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    total: 193,200 km
    paved: 28,980 km
    unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    total: 89
    by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 28, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 56, specialized tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 3 (India 1, UK 2)
    registered in other countries: 33 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Comoros 1, Italy 1, Liberia 4, North Korea 1, Panama 6, Seychelles 1, unknown 6) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Niger Delta and Gulf of Guinea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery of ships; in 2014, 18 commercial vessels were boarded or attacked compared with 31 attacks in 2013; crews were robbed and stores or cargoes stolen; Nigerian pirates have extended the range of their attacks to as far away as Cote d'Ivoire
  • Military and Security :: NIGERIA

  • Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
    0.89% of GDP (2012)
    0.98% of GDP (2011)
    0.89% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 108
  • Transnational Issues :: NIGERIA

  • Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
    IDPs: 2,241,484 (Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2016)
    a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF